Lecture 01 2010


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Lecture 01 2010

  1. 1. LECTURE 1INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING Prepared: Masjuri bin musa @ othman Lecturer Department of design & innovation Faculty ofmechanical engineering Universiti teknikal malaysia melaka
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 1/26What is “MANUFACTURING”?“the process of converting raw materials into products”.The word “manufacturing” is derived from the Latin manu factus, meaningmade by hand.“the conversion of stuff into things” – (by DeGarmon, 1998).“processing or making a product from raw materials, especially as a largescale operation using machinery” – (by Collin English Dictionary, 1998). “economic term for making goods and services available to satisfy customer” - (by T.Black, 1991). @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 2/26- “the making of products from raw materials using various processes, equipments, operations and manpower according to a detailed plan”.- During processing, the raw material undergoes changes to allow it tobecome a part of a product(s).- Once processed, it should have worth in the market or a value.- Therefore, it encompasses: - The design of the product. - The selection of raw materials. - The sequence of processes through which the product will be manufactured.- Word production is often interchangeably with word manufacturing. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 3/26Manufacturing can be defined two ways: 1) Technology – manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or products. Manufacturing also includes the assembly of multiple parts to make products. Machinery Tooling Power Labor Product Raw materials Manufacturing Process Profit The processes to accomplish manufacturing involve a combination of machinery, tools, power, and manual labor. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 4/262) As an economic process. Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means one or more processing involve. Therefore, manufacturing is “added value” to the material. Manufacturing Process Value added Starting Material in Processed material processing material - “Added value” – by changing the material’s shape or properties or by combining it with other materials that have been similarly altered. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 5/26 @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 6/26Manufacturing activities must be responsive to several demands and trends: A product must fully meet design requirements and specifications. Manufactured environmental friendly and economical method. Quality is built in each manufacturing stage. Production methods must be flexible to respond to changing market demands, types of products, production rates and delivery time required. New development in technology and managerial activities must constantly evaluated. Manufacturing activities can be modeled to study the effect of factors on product quality and cost. Organization must strive for higher quality and productivity. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 7/26Industries can be classified as: @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 8/261) Primary industry - Those that cultivate and exploit natural resources; eg: agriculture, mining.2) Secondary industry - Take the outputs of the primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods.3) Tertiary industry - Constitute with service sector of the economy. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 9/26 • Aerospace • Banking • Automotive • CommunicationsPRIMARY INDUSTRY TERTIARY INDUSTRY SECONDARY INDUSTRY • Agriculture • Building • Education • Forestry materials • Entertainment • Fishing • Chemicals • Financial • Livestock • Computers services • Quarries • Consumer • Health and • Mining appliances medical • Petroleum • Food processing • Government • Glass, ceramic • Hotel • Pharmaceuticals • Insurance • Plastics • Restaurant (shaping) • Retail trade • Textiles • Tourism • Tire and rubber • Transportation • Wood and • Real estate furniture @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  11. 11. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 10/26 1) Project – 1 to 10 units. [Low production] 2) Job shop – 10 to 100 units. 3) Batch – 100 to 10,000 units. [Medium production] 4) Mass – Above 10,000 units. [High production]Production quantity: number of unit produced annually of a particularproduct type.Product variety: different product designs or types that are produced in the plant. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 11/26Product variety Low Medium High Product quantity @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 12/26 Above 10,000 unitsProduct volume 100 to 10,000 units 10 to 100 units 1 to 10 units Project Product variety @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 13/26 TYPE OF MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS- Product position – remains stationary during the manufacturing process – size, weight, location of the product.- Materials, people, machinery are brought to the product or product site.- Based on customer specifications.- Example: bridge, building construction, aircraft, ships, locomotive. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  15. 15. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 14/262) JOB SHOP PRODUCTION - Low volume and production quantities called lot sizes with high product variety. - Satisfies a market for nonstandard or unique product. - Layout – different machines with similar functional or processing capabilities are grouped together as department. - Require high skill levels labor – to operate a variety of equipments. - A short duration activities to provide custom goods. - Example: space vehicles, reactor vessels, turbines, aircraft components. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 15/26- Batch production produce or process any product in groups which iscalled “batches”.- Can produce a variety of products – opposed to a continuous production process, or a one time production.- Useful for industries that makes seasonal items/products for which it isdifficult to forecast the demand. - Example: Similar standard items made periodically in batches: bakery, paint, hand tools.- Same facilities used to manufacture all the different items.- Layout of machine – functional layout (based on its function to be performed – from section to another section). @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 16/26 Advantages of batch production - Reduce initial capital outlay – due to a single production line can be used to several products – machines can be used more effectively, materials can be bought in bulk, workers can specialize in that task.Disadvantages of batch production- Requires very careful production planning & control – next batches; when, types.- When switching to another batches – takes time (“down time”) – can causeloss of output (low yield).- Resulted “WIP” or create inventory/stock – increases costs such as inventory cost, cost because of damage to stock. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 17/26The example production line (shown below) is that of an engineering company, manufacturing smallsteel products such as hinges and locks. They manufacture batches of five hundred at a time. Theworkers are unskilled and semi skilled. As each task is completed the item being manufactured ispassed down the production line to the next worker, until it is complete. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 18/26- Also known as flow production, repetitive flow production, series production.- Producing goods in large quantities at low cost per unit and produce in a short period of time.- Machinery (eg: robots, machine press) that is needed to set up the mass production line is so expensive.- Involved fewer labor cost and a faster rate of production.- Plant and equipments are arranged in a flow line layout.- Operation is done base on specific product and thus make the production control easily.- Work piece is transfer automatically from one machine to another.- Example: light bulbs, refrigerator, tv. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 19/26 Manufacturing ApproachesLean Production and Agile ManufacturingKANBAN SYSTEM @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  21. 21. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 20/26 Lean Production- A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste in manufacturing process through continuous improvement by following the product at the demand of the customer.- Lean is about doing more with “less” i.e. less time, inventory, space, people, money; to minimize the cost. - It is all about “speed” and getting it right at the first time. - Overhead operating costs reduces by 30%. - Sales ($) per employee 10 times higher. - Profits 4 times. - Lead time cut by 50% to 90%. - Process queues cut by 70%. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  22. 22. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 21/26- Voice of the customer.- Continuous improvement.-Recognize & eliminating waste of: - Over production (production ahead of demand). -Inventory (all components, work-in progress (WIP) and finished product not being processed). -Defects (Non-zero defect rates – the effort involved in inspecting for & fixing defects).- Waiting time (waiting for the next production steps).- People’s talents, & motivations. - Motion (people or equipment moving or walking).- Transportation. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  23. 23. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 22/26- The implementation of the principles of lean production on a broad scale.- Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to response quickly (flexible) to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality.-Flexibility – people, equipment, computer hardware and software, communication @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  24. 24. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 23/26Concurrent engineering (CE) is a philosophy that promotes interactive designand manufacturing efforts to develop product and process simultaneously,thus optimizing the use of company resources and reducing time to marketcycles. It has four general phases which are:  Technology and concept development.  Product and process development and prototype validation  Process validation and product confirmation.  Production and continuous improvement. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  25. 25. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 24/26 -Raw materials, parts & components are delivered to the manufacturer just in time to be used, - parts & components are produced JIT to be made into subassemblies & assemblies, -and products are finished JIT to be delivered to the customer.- JIT is also known as “pull system” in contrast to traditional “push system”.- It tends to simplify and break the whole system into small, autonomous units. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 25/26Benefit s/Advantages of JIT- Low inventory – carrying cost.- Fast detection of defects in the production or the delivery of supplies and, hence, low scrap loss.- Reduced inspection and reworking of parts.- High quality products made at low cost.- Reduction of :  20% to 40% in product cost. Benefit s/Advantages of JIT (cont’)  60% to 80% in inventory. Increases:  Up to 90% in rejection rates. - 30% to 50% in labor productivity.  90% in lead times.  50% in scrap & rework. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1
  27. 27. INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING 26/26 KANBAN SYSTEM (Japanese)- Integrated with the implementation of JIT concept.- Kanban – means “visible record”; it is a system of notification from one process to the other in a manufacturing system.- Originally consisted of two types of cards: i) Production card: authorizes the production of one container or cart of identical, specified parts at a workstation. ii) Conveyance/move card: authorizes the transfer of one container or cart of parts from that particular w/station to the w/station where the parts will be used. The cards contain information on: i) Type of parts. ii) Location where issued. iii) Part number. iv) Number of items in container. @jurie 2009 – Lecture 1