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  1. 1. Rose
  2. 2. Rose• The genus Rose consists of a group of known flowering thorn bushes and leading representatives of the family Rosaceae. Pink is called the flower of the members of this genus and rose to the plant. • The number of species around 100, mostly from Asia and a few native to Europe, North America and northwestern Africa. Both species and cultivars and hybrids are grown as ornamentals for the beauty and fragrance of the flower, but also for the extraction of essential oil, used in perfumery and cosmetics, medicinal uses (phytotherapy) and gastronomic. • There is a huge variety of cultivars (over 30 000) from various hybridizations, and each year new ones appear. Progenitor species mostly involved in the cultivars are: Rosa moschata, Rosa gallica, Rosa damascena, Rosa wichuraiana, Rosa rugosa and Rosa californica. The rose growers twentieth century focused on the size and color, producing large, attractive flowers, but with little or no aroma. Many wild roses and "old fashioned", by contrast, have a strong sweet fragrance. • Roses are among the most common flowers sold by florists. The rose is one of the most popular plants in the gardens, including specific grounds are called rose gardens, which displays only the members of the genus, whose range is so extensive miniature roses ranging from 10 to 15 cm high, to large shrubs , climbing up to several meters high and creeping used as ground cover. • Her main producer and exporter is Ecuador. The country's geographical location allows for a luminosity microclimates and providing unique features flowers such as: stems long, thick and completely vertical, large buttons and bright colors. They are marketed in over 110 countries with its main markets: USA, Netherlands (imports flowers and then re-exported to other European Union countries), Italy, Germany, Russia, Canada, Argentina, Spain, France, Switzerland and Ukraine . Also Chile, China and Brazil. The total plantation area is 3300 ha, with an availability of 85 000 tonnes per year. The 99% of production is exported. [Citation needed]
  3. 3. etymology• In Spanish, and other Romance languages​​, too, the term "rose" comes directly and unchanged from Latin rosa, meaning that we know, "the rose" or "rose flower"; become the word prior rodia [Rodja ]-by similar change as in: clausus by Claudius. The latter archaic Latin is, in turn, borrowed through Oscan-Ancient Greek-ρόδον [rhodon] "rose", "rose flower" or better Rhodéa, "the stem of the rose", "bra flower '. • From Ancient Greek refers Rhodon the possible meaning as "odorous effluvia," "what is fragrant" or "what odorless', originated as a compound term: by ροήdon or wrodion but also [bródion] in the ancient dialect wind, roots corresponding old Persian sidewalk or V'ReDa (and its dialects: Avestan warda, Sogdian and delivery WaRD War), as a voice Iranian transferred from southern Armenia to Phrygia and then to Grecia.nota 1 and prior to an origin as old as delarameo wurrdā and even the Assyrian wurtinnu.nota 2 • As for the base, the core derives from Indo-European root vardh-[Wardh] vradh-[wradh], "grow", "erect (is) 'where sánscritowardh-as, meaning" sprouting "and wardhati, "raise (it)", "flourish". • On the other hand, can be derived from a root-grecolatina VRAD, "folded", "be flexible". And also there griegorodanós, rádinos, and bradinós wind, 'soft' or 'flexible'. Color claro.2 • Rosa is also a term coincident with various Germanic names with hrod root with the meaning of "glory."
  4. 4. description• The roses are shrubs or climbers (sometimes hanging) usually thorny, reaching between 2-5 feet tall, sometimes reaching 20 m climbing over other plants. They have semi-ligneous stems, usually erect (sometimes crawling), some rough and flaky texture, with notable epidermal formations of various shapes, persistent and well developed (stingers). • The leaves may be evergreen or deciduous, stalked and imparipinnadas with between 5-9 serrated leaflets and basal stipules. Often the presence of attached glands on margins, fragrant or not. • The flowers, which emerge in racemose inflorescences, forming curds are generally aromatic, complete and hermaphrodites; regular, radially symmetrical (actinomorphic). The perianth is well developed. The prominent floral hypanthium or receptacle urn-shaped (concave thalamus and deep). The calyx is dialisépalo, 5 part green. The sepals may be simple, or sometimes in complex with stylized side lobulations. Dialipétala Corolla, symmetrical, consisting of five regular petals (or multiples of 5), sometimes notched, and various bright colors, also white. The corolla is usually "double" or "full" by transformation of stamens into petals, mostly in the cultivars. Androceo comprises spirally arranged numerous stamens (several whorl), usually in a multiple number of petals (5x). Apocárpico gynoecium (composed of several separate pistils). Nectarios present, which attracts pollinating insects to favor predominantly entomophilous. Perigina (ovary middle), numerous carpels uniovulados (one ovule per carpel) and each carpel produces an achene. • The fruit of the flower is known as cinorrodon infrutescencia or hip, a "fruit" composed of multiple small nuts (poliaquenio) separated and enclosed in a fleshy receptacle (hypanthium) and bright color when ripe.
  5. 5. Phytochemistry • Essential oil Rosa damascena comprises terpenes and fatty acid derivatives such as citronellol (30.31%), geraniol (16.96%), phenethyl alcohol (12.60%), nerol (8.46%), hexacosane (3.70%), nonadecane (2.7%), linalool (2.15%), β-ionone (1.00%), eicosane (1.65%), docosane (1.27%), farnesol (1.36%), neryl acetate (1.41%), citronellyl propionate (1.38%), geranial (1.35%), α- pinene (0.60%), myrcene (0.46%), cis-rose oxide (0.55%), decanal (0.51%), terpinen-4-ol (0.55%), β-caryophyllene (0.81%), isoborneol (0.57%), and heptadecane (0.92%) 3 • The fruit of the rose, the bramble, is high in Vitamin C: between 1700-2000 mg per 100 g of dry product, making it one of the richest plant sources of this vitamin. It also contains vitamins A, D and E, flavonoids and antioxidants. Its high tannin content makes cause constipation.