Persons, groups or organizations that have direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization’s actions, objectives and policies (Business Dictionary, 2007).A sample list of stakeholders may include one or more of the following: employees, communities, shareholders, investors, government, suppliers, labour unions, government regulatory agencies, industry trade group, professional associates, competitors, public communities , local communities. The concept of stakeholder was first used in 1963 during an internal memorandum at th Stanford Research institute. It first defined stakeholders as “those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist”. More recently a quite different meaning has become widely used in management and business contexts: a stakeholder is a person that has a legitimate interest in a project or entity. (2000) Anne M. Smith, Moira Fishbacher, "Stakeholder involvement in the new service design process",in Journal of Financial Services Marketing, Volume 5, Number 1
People involved in the final delivery of the service.The service staff include the operators working in the front stage, where direct interactions with users happen, and the operators working in the back stage producing information and “stuff” needed by the front stage.(1992) M.J. Bitner, Servicescapes: "The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customer and Employees", in Journal of Marketing 55. (2007) Yves Cinotti, Proposition d’une Typologie des Rencontres de Service, in “La relation client dans les activitiés de service”, 2ème Journée du Marketing IRIS, Lyon, 15 marzo 2007
People making use of a thing. Any person, organization or system which uses a service provided by others is a user.(2002) S. Holmlid, Adapting Users: Towards a Theory of Use Quality, Linkoping Studies in Science and Technology Dissertation N° 765, Linkopings Universitet, Sweden. (2006) E.B.-N. Sanders, "Design Serving People" in E. Salmi, L. Anusionwu, Cumulus Working Papers, Univesity of Art and Design, Helsinki.