Training & Development
Would you prefer to work
for an organization that
has no training
• Training Vs Development
– Both refer to the learning of job-related behaviour
– Focuses on job performance
– Emphasis is on acquisition of specific KSAs needed for present job
– Focuses on personal growth, longer-term development
– Emphasis is on acquiring KSAs needed for future job or
Trends Affecting Training
• Training and development activities have been increasing
– Tight labour market
• Organizations compete to attract & retain employees, by offering better
– New and changing technology – new KSAs
– Globalization – training for employees with international assignments
– Mergers, acquisitions, restructuring
• Jobs change, employees need new KSAs
Training Process Model
1. Needs assessment
2. Design training objectives
3. Develop program content
4. Implement training program
5. Evaluate effectiveness of training program
Result Based Training Design Model
• Project Management
• Blueprints/ Prototypes
• Quality Control
• Train the trainer
• Classroom Delivery
• Non-classroom Delivery
• Evaluation’s Role
• Transfer of Training
• Business Results
• Needs Analysis
• Needs Assessment
• Performance Analysis
• Job/Task Analysis
• Learner Analysis
• Context Analysis
• Skill-Gap Analysis
Need Assessment Performance Analysis
Context Analysis Job Analysis Learner Analysis Skill Gap Analysis
Need Analysis: investigation into whether training or some other
organizational intervention can solve a problem or enable desired new performance
in the work place.
Need Assessment: is the process of determining what knowledge, skills and
attitudes (KSAs) employee need to perform their job.
If lack of knowledge is not an underlying cause of performance problems, then trainers
should look at other issues, including management systems, tools and technologies,
work processes, job design and performer’s motivation, to find the cause for the
performance problem and recommend solutions.
Performance Assessment: is the broader look at the possible underlying
causes of performance problems.
Learner analysis: learning styles, culture, values, knowledge & skills levels,
attitude, motivation to learn and perform etc.
Job / task analysis: KSA requirements
Skill-Gap analysis: Gaps between employee KSAs and KSAs required by jobs. E.g.,
performance evaluations, self- or supervisor identification
Context analysis: Size of the group to be trained, facilities available for training,
audio visual aids and equipment available, frequency of course delivery, cost of training
delivery and who will bear it, the match between training environment and work
Skill-Gap Analysis Model
• The desired behavior
• The conditions under which it is to occur
• Performance criteria
Develop Training Objectives
Content and Learning Principles
• Issues to consider
• Class size
• Time availability
• Training format
• Learning principles
Organizational Influences on Transfer of Training
• Relates to trainee’s outcome expectancies
– Will the behaviour lead to desired outcomes?
• Rewards, pay, & promotion
– Are there rewards for demonstrating the new behaviour?
• Environmental constraints / obstacles
– Lack of equipment, information, time, etc.
• Supervisory and peer support
– Reinforce training: provide opportunities, reward
– Train coworkers together – reinforce each other
• Organization’s learning climate
– Learning is encouraged, supported, rewarded, etc.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Few Methods
Method Knowledge Skills Attitudes Transfer
Lecture Yes No No Low
Video Yes No Yes Med
Role play No Yes Yes High
Simulation Yes Yes No High
Case study Yes Med Yes Med
Active Learning Passive Learning
Trial & Error
Q & A
Approaches to the Learning Process
Evaluating Training Effectiveness
• 5 Criteria - Kirkpatrick’s 4 levels plus 1
• Are participants satisfied with training?
• How much has been learned?
1. Attitude Change (no. 1 of Kirkpatrick’s 4 criteria)
• Did training result in attitude change?
1. Behaviour change
• Did the learning transfer to the job?
1. Results criteria
• Was the training worth the cost to the company?
Key metrics for evaluating training programs
under the Modified Kirkpatrick Models:
•Amount of knowledge acquired
•Change in employee on-the- job behaviors
•Change in profitability as expressed through productivity
•Quality of work, and sales
• ROI - measure of the monetary benefits obtained by an organization over a
specified amount of time for a given investment in a training program.
• ROI can be used both to justify a planned investment and to evaluate the extent
to which the desired return was
• ROI is calculated by making estimates or obtaining measurements of the costs
and benefits associated with a training initiative.
Business units can utilize this information and effectively allocate resources to
improve performance and ensure organizational success.
Calculating Training Return On Investment (Roi)
Alternate metrics for evaluating training programs
are the following:
• Customer service gains and operational efficiency
• Internal promotions
• Return on expectations
• Does training work fast enough to make a difference?
• Does having a well-trained employee really make a
difference in our industry?
• Does having a well-funded training function help the
organization attract and retain the best people?
• If the training budget was doubled, would productivity
Planning training metrics - keep the following CEO-type
questions in mind: