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1
Human Resource Development
Tejashree Talpade
2
Definition of HRD
 A set of systematic and planned activities designed
by an organization to provide its members with t...
3
Emergence of HRD
 Employee needs extend beyond the training
classroom
 Includes coaching, group work, and problem solv...
4
Relationship Between HRM and HRD
 Human resource management (HRM) encompasses
many functions
 Human resource developme...
5
Primary Functions of HRM
 Human resource planning
 Equal employment opportunity
 Staffing (recruitment and selection)...
6
Secondary HRM Functions
 Organization and job design
 Performance management/ performance appraisal
systems
 Research...
7
HRD Functions
 Training and development (T&D)
 Organizational development
 Career development
8
Training and Development (T&D)
 Training – improving the knowledge, skills and
attitudes of employees for the short-ter...
9
Training and Development (T&D)
 Development – preparing for future responsibilities,
while increasing the capacity to p...
10
Organizational Development
 The process of improving an organization’s
effectiveness and member’s well-being through t...
11
Career Development
 Ongoing process by which individuals progress
through series of changes until they achieve their
p...
12
Learning & Performance
13
Critical HRD Issues
 Strategic management and HRD
 The supervisor’s role in HRD
 Organizational structure of HRD
14
Strategic Management & HRD
 Strategic management aims to ensure
organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable
futur...
15
Supervisor’s Role in HRD
 Implements HRD programs and procedures
 On-the-job training (OJT)
 Coaching/mentoring/coun...
16
Organizational Structure of HRD
Departments
 Depends on company size, industry and maturity
 No single structure used...
17
Sample HRD Jobs/Roles
 Executive/Manager
 HR Strategic Advisor
 HR Systems Designer/Developer
 Organization Change ...
18
HR’s strategic role
 Employees as organisation’s assets
 Driving business strategy
 Spanning organizational function...
19
Strategic HRD
 Integration of HRD with strategy formulation and
implementation
 Long-term view of HR policy
 Horizon...
20
Firm Capitals
 Human Capital
 Knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals
 Social Capital
 Relationships in social ...
21
Multiple Roles for HR (Ulrich, 1997)
Future/Strategic Focus
Day-to-day/Operational Focus
Processes People
Mgmt of SHR M...
22
Definition of HR Roles
Role/Cell Deliverable/
Outcome
Metaphor Core Activity
Mgmt of SHR Executing corp.
strategy
Strat...
23
Importance of Human Resources
 Human resources are an important part of the
value chain
 They can be unique, and thus...
24
Strategic Analysis of HR: Purpose
 People related strategies may be important to new
strategy (for example, a change i...
25
HR and Sustainable Competitive Advantage
 In some industries, people are the most important
factor in success
- advert...
26
Challenges for HRD
 Changing workforce demographics
 Competing in global economy
 Eliminating the skills gap
 Need ...
27
Competing in the Global Economy
 New technologies
 Need for more skilled and educated workers
 Cultural sensitivity ...
28
Need for Lifelong Learning
 Organizations change
 Technologies change
 Products change
 Processes change
 PEOPLE m...
29
Creating a learning organisation
30
Need for Organizational Learning
 Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and
change
 Principles:
 Systems think...
31
 Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in learning:
 Personal Mastery: managers empower employees...
32
A Framework for the HRD Process
HRD efforts should use the following four phases
(or stages):
 Needs assessment
 Desi...
33
Training & HRD Process Model
34
Needs Assessment Phase
 Establishing HRD priorities
 Defining specific training and objectives
 Establishing evaluat...
35
Design Phase
 Selecting who delivers program
 Selecting and developing program content
 Scheduling the training prog...
36
Implementation Phase
 Implementing or delivering the program
37
Evaluation Phase
Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,
 Keep or change providers?
 Offer it again?
 What are the...
38
Motivation, Reward and
Recognition System Management
39
Motivation
The force within us that activates our behavior.
It is a function of three distinct components,
Intensity, D...
40
Motivation - Intensity
Intensity refers to the amount of mental and
physical effort put forth by the person.
Persistenc...
41
Motivation - Direction
The extent to which an individual determines
and chooses efforts focused on a particular
goal.
I...
42
Motivation - Persistence
The extent to which the goal-directed effort is
put forth over time.
Intensity PersistenceDire...
43
Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
 Intrinsic
When doing the job is
inherently motivating
 Extrinsic
When rewards su...
44
Two Basic Categories of Rewards
Compensation Rewards:
Those given in return for acceptable performance
or effort. They ...
45
Types of Rewards
Intrinsic Extrinsic
Motivation
Pay
Promotion
Sense of
Accomplishment
Personal Growth
Opportunities
Rec...
46
Financial Compensation: Straight Salary
Advantages
- Salaries are simple to administer
- Planned earnings are easy to p...
47
Financial Compensation: Pay for Performance
Reward Systems in most cases should be consistent
with other HR systems.
Th...
48
Need for Consistency with Other HR Systems
Culture
Performance
Management
Employment
Training
Labor
Relations
Rewards
O...
49
Financial Compensation: Performance Bonuses
Advantages
- Organization can direct emphasis to what it
considers importan...
50
Non-financial Compensation
Opportunity for Promotion:
 The ability to move up in an organization along
one or more car...
51
Non-financial Compensation
Opportunity for Personal Growth:
 Access to programs that allow for personal
development (e...
52
Understanding Reward & Recognition
Definitions:
 A reward is an item or experience with monetary value that
is provide...
53
Why Reward & Recognise employees
 By valuating and recognizing people, you harness the power
of motivation, which is t...
54
Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift…..
* Gerald Ledford Jr. and Peter LeBlanc, World at Work 9, no.3 (Q3 2000):1-1...
55
What is Recognition?
“Recognition is any thought, word, or deed towards making
someone feel appreciated for who they ar...
56
Why Focus on Recognition?
 Employees identify recognition as one of the most effective
motivators1
 Even small increa...
57
Exercise
 You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation
which has 400 employees at their HO.
 You have been asked to...
59
Diversity @ workplace
60
What is Diversity?
 In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those
human qualities that are different from our ow...
61
Elements of Diversity
 Age
 Gender
 Ethnicity
 Race
 Physical Ability
 Sexual Orientation
 Physical Characterist...
62
Diversity:
The uniqueness of all individuals;
includes everyone.
63
Principles of Diversity Management
 Establish a business strategy for effectively
managing a diverse workforce
 Creat...
64
Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity
 Organizational vision
 Top management commitment
 Auditing and a...
65
Techniques for Managing Diversity
 Managing diversity training programs
 Core groups
 Multicultural teams
 Senior m...
66
Techniques for Managing Diversity
 Compensation and reward programs tied to
achieving diversity goals
 Language train...
67
Managing diversity effectively
 Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and
creativity.
 Better problem definition, gen...
68
Mismanaging diversity
 Disrupts development of trust, constructive
working relationships, arriving at consensus &
agre...
69
Unintended Results of Managing Diversity
 Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups
may create feelings of unf...
71
Implications for Managers
 Managing a diverse workforce is an important
part of an international manager’s job
 Must ...
72
Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity
Management Program
 Improve organizational performance
 Help prevent unl...
73
Making heads count is more important
than counting heads
74
Possible barriers in the organization that
prevent a more balanced workforce?
 Limiting area of consideration
 Lack o...
75
Strategies for Inclusion
76
The Value of Mentoring
 Without regard to race, gender, religion,
national origin ….
 Inconvenience yourself to show ...
77
Professional Development
 Identify training and development needs for all
employees
 Utilize Individual Development P...
78
 Diversity management is about full utilization of
people with different backgrounds and
experiences.
 Effective dive...
79
Human Resource Audit
80
How is Human Resource Analysis Done?
 Human Resource Audit
 Purpose:
 To identify the size, skills and structure sur...
81
The Audit: Principles
 Obtain some basic information on the people and
policies involved in the organization
 Explore...
82
The Audit: Contents
 People in the Organization
 Role and Contribution of HR strategy
83
HR Audit: People in the organization
 Employee numbers and turnover
 Organization structure
 Structures for controll...
84
Role & Contribution of HR Strategy
 Relationship with strategy
 Key characteristics of HR strategy
 Consistency of s...
85
What the Audit Achieves
 Provides information that is useful in deciding how
feasible a strategy is
 Identifies any h...
86
Human Resources as a CSF
 Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one
organization is superior to another
 HR ca...
87
Coaching and Mentoring
88
Coaching and Mentoring
 These definitions indicate some overlap and
some differences between Mentoring and
Coaching. M...
89
Mentoring
 Mentoring is usually concerned with supporting
practitioners whilst they make a significant career
transiti...
90
Coaching
 Coaching is normally used to support the process of
reviewing established or emerging practices. It is
focus...
91
Activities involved in mentoring and coaching and their overlap
92
If writers are more aware of their own writing
processes and what helps and hinders their writing then
they are more li...
93
The learning (the transformational dimension)
In Mentoring and Coaching transformation or change comes about
through th...
94
What Mentoring and Coaching is not
Mentoring and Coaching is not counseling although
some counseling skills may be used...
95
Competency Modeling
96
Competency
 It is derived from the Latin word
‘Competere’, which means to be suitable.
 The concept was originally de...
97
Competencies defined
 A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge
and self-concept, traits, behaviour, mot...
98
Iceberg Model of Competencies
•Self-Image = attitudes and
values
•Traits = why and how we
behave a certain way
•Motives...
100
Competencies in the Corporate World
 Communication – without offending others
 Critical Thinking – Seeing the Big pi...
101
Emotional Competency Framework
Personal Competence Social Competence
Self Awareness:
Knowledge of one’s self-
concept ...
102
Competency Classification
Individual Organisation
Social Behavioural
Leadership
Generic competencies
Organisational
Cu...
103
Why use competencies
 Competencies
 help individuals and organisations to improve
their performance and deliver resu...
104
Benefits of competency-modeling
 Integrates fragmented management and practices
 Links individual or group performan...
105
Benefits of competency-modeling – HR Delivery
 Matching of Individuals and Jobs
 Employee Selection
 Training and D...
106
Who Identifies competencies?
 Competencies can be identified by one of more of the
following category of people:
 Ex...
107
What Methodology is used?
 The following methods are used in combination for
competency mapping:
 Interviews
 Group...
108
How are they Identified?
 The process of identification is not very complex.
One of the methods is given below:
 1. ...
109
What Language to Use?
 Use Technical language for technical
competencies. For example: knowledge of
hydraulics.
 Use...
110
Assessment Centers
111
Assessment Centre
 Assessment centers typically involve the
participants completing a range of exercises which
simula...
112
 The theory behind this is that if one wishes to
predict future job performance then the best way of
doing this is to...
113
AC Vs DC
Assessment centres usually –
 have a pass/fail criteria
 are geared towards filing a job vacancy
 address ...
114
Types of Exercises
Group Discussions
 In these, candidates are brought together as a
committee or project team with o...
115
Types of Exercises
In Tray
 This type of exercise is normally undertaken by candidates
individually. The materials co...
116
Interview Simulations / Role Plays
 In these exercises candidates meet individually with a role player or
resource pe...
117
 In this type of exercise the candidate is presented with the
task of making a decision about a particular business c...
118
 The above is meant as an illustrated list of the types of
exercises that may be encountered in an assessment
centre....
119
Exercise categorisation
 Level 1: Administrative - suitable for a wide range of roles
including: secretarial and cler...
120
Design an Assessment Centre
 Design of an assessment centre should reflect:
 the ethos of the organisation
 the act...
121
Design Criteria
 The essential design criteria should include:
 duration of the centre (one day might be insufficien...
122
Design Criteria
 Essential and desired skills /competencies to be
matched to the techniques and tasks which test
them...
123
Observers
 There should be a number of senior observers/selectors
to ensure greater objectivity through a range of vi...
124
Performance Management
125
 An objective is a simple statement of an end result
to be achieved within a specified time frame.
 It should be sho...
126
 Gives direction to job.
 Helps focus on important job areas.
 Assists review and change in job emphasis.
 Provide...
127
 Are significantly important areas of job.
 When performed well, improves overall results.
 Are maximum payoff job ...
128
 Targets – are specific conditions to be
achieved/indicates how much of what and by when
 Activities – action steps ...
129
 What is the job ?
 What are the end results expected ?
 What policies / procedures / work methods are
impeding per...
130
 Focus on imp. Areas
 Related to job description
 Signposts
 Direction of work
 Optimum number 6
 Measures imp. ...
131
 Observable
 Basis for appraisal
 Jointly evolved
 Extra effort
 Clear/consistent with dept. objective
 Time bou...
132
 S - Specific
 M - Measurable
 A - Attainable
 R - Relevant
 T - Time-bound
Objectives should be
133
 Establishing specific goals to support stated
purpose.
 Determining the importance of these goals.
 Making plans f...
134
 Weighing the resources required to carry out the
planned action.
 Providing for interaction of organization and
ind...
135
HRs role in Performance Management
 Delivering time-lines
 Ensuring timely adherence
 Auditing the objectives joint...
136
Thank you
137
High Performance Organizations
 Traditional
Organizations
 Narrow expertise
 Rugged individuals
 Centralized
 Clo...
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  1. 1. 1 Human Resource Development Tejashree Talpade
  2. 2. 2 Definition of HRD  A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.
  3. 3. 3 Emergence of HRD  Employee needs extend beyond the training classroom  Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving  Need for basic employee development  Need for structured career development
  4. 4. 4 Relationship Between HRM and HRD  Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many functions  Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM
  5. 5. 5 Primary Functions of HRM  Human resource planning  Equal employment opportunity  Staffing (recruitment and selection)  Compensation and benefits  Employee and labor relations  Health, safety, and security  Human resource development
  6. 6. 6 Secondary HRM Functions  Organization and job design  Performance management/ performance appraisal systems  Research and information systems
  7. 7. 7 HRD Functions  Training and development (T&D)  Organizational development  Career development
  8. 8. 8 Training and Development (T&D)  Training – improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,  Employee orientation  Skills & technical training  Coaching  Counseling
  9. 9. 9 Training and Development (T&D)  Development – preparing for future responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job  Management training  Supervisor development
  10. 10. 10 Organizational Development  The process of improving an organization’s effectiveness and member’s well-being through the application of behavioral science concepts  Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels  HRD plays the role of a change agent
  11. 11. 11 Career Development  Ongoing process by which individuals progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.  Career planning  Career management
  12. 12. 12 Learning & Performance
  13. 13. 13 Critical HRD Issues  Strategic management and HRD  The supervisor’s role in HRD  Organizational structure of HRD
  14. 14. 14 Strategic Management & HRD  Strategic management aims to ensure organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years  HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new products, procedures, and materials
  15. 15. 15 Supervisor’s Role in HRD  Implements HRD programs and procedures  On-the-job training (OJT)  Coaching/mentoring/counseling  Career and employee development  A “front-line participant” in HRD
  16. 16. 16 Organizational Structure of HRD Departments  Depends on company size, industry and maturity  No single structure used  Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager becomes an institutional part of the company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user
  17. 17. 17 Sample HRD Jobs/Roles  Executive/Manager  HR Strategic Advisor  HR Systems Designer/Developer  Organization Change Agent  Organization Design Consultant  Learning Program Specialist  Instructor/Facilitator  Individual Development and Career Counselor  Performance Consultant (Coach)  Researcher
  18. 18. 18 HR’s strategic role  Employees as organisation’s assets  Driving business strategy  Spanning organizational functions  HRD Deliverables:  Performance  Capacity Building  Problem solving/consulting  Org. change and development
  19. 19. 19 Strategic HRD  Integration of HRD with strategy formulation and implementation  Long-term view of HR policy  Horizontal integration among HR functions  Vertical integration with corporate strategy  SHR as core competitive advantage
  20. 20. 20 Firm Capitals  Human Capital  Knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals  Social Capital  Relationships in social networks  Structural, cognitive, relational dimensions  Intellectual capital  Knowledge and knowing capability of social collectivities  Procedural/declarative; tacit/explicit; individual/social  Value and Uniqueness of capitals
  21. 21. 21 Multiple Roles for HR (Ulrich, 1997) Future/Strategic Focus Day-to-day/Operational Focus Processes People Mgmt of SHR Mgmt of Trans- Formation/Change Mgmt of Firm Infrastructure Mgmt of Employee Contributions
  22. 22. 22 Definition of HR Roles Role/Cell Deliverable/ Outcome Metaphor Core Activity Mgmt of SHR Executing corp. strategy Strategic Partner Aligning HR and bus. Strategy Mgmt of Firm Infrastructure Building an efficient infrastructure Administrative Expert Reengineering org. Processes Mgmt of Employee Contributions Increasing employee commitment and capability Employee Champion Providing resources to employees Mgmt of Transformation/Cha nge Organizational renewal Change Agent Managing transformation and change,
  23. 23. 23 Importance of Human Resources  Human resources are an important part of the value chain  They can be unique, and thus a source of core competence in an organization  If a core competence is related to HR, then HR can contribute to competitive advantage
  24. 24. 24 Strategic Analysis of HR: Purpose  People related strategies may be important to new strategy (for example, a change in the way the organization does business)  In today’s technologically complex business world, analysis of existing human resources is important in order to determine what options are available  The network of people within an organization and their relationships with people can be an important part of strategy
  25. 25. 25 HR and Sustainable Competitive Advantage  In some industries, people are the most important factor in success - advertising and creative development - leisure and tourism - management consulting - hospitals and medical professions  The adaptability of people to changing environments is an important skill  “The ability to learn faster than your competitors may be the only sustainable advantage” – Arie De Geus, former head of planning at Royal Dutch Shell
  26. 26. 26 Challenges for HRD  Changing workforce demographics  Competing in global economy  Eliminating the skills gap  Need for lifelong learning  Need for organizational learning
  27. 27. 27 Competing in the Global Economy  New technologies  Need for more skilled and educated workers  Cultural sensitivity required  Team involvement  Problem solving  Better communications skills
  28. 28. 28 Need for Lifelong Learning  Organizations change  Technologies change  Products change  Processes change  PEOPLE must change!!
  29. 29. 29 Creating a learning organisation
  30. 30. 30 Need for Organizational Learning  Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and change  Principles:  Systems thinking  Personal mastery  Mental models  Shared visions  Team learning
  31. 31. 31  Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in learning:  Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them to create and explore.  Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods to perform a task.  Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since most decisions are made in groups.  Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of the firm to evaluate opportunities.  Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm impacts all others. Creating a Learning Organization
  32. 32. 32 A Framework for the HRD Process HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages):  Needs assessment  Design  Implementation  Evaluation
  33. 33. 33 Training & HRD Process Model
  34. 34. 34 Needs Assessment Phase  Establishing HRD priorities  Defining specific training and objectives  Establishing evaluation criteria
  35. 35. 35 Design Phase  Selecting who delivers program  Selecting and developing program content  Scheduling the training program
  36. 36. 36 Implementation Phase  Implementing or delivering the program
  37. 37. 37 Evaluation Phase Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,  Keep or change providers?  Offer it again?  What are the true costs?  Can we do it another way?
  38. 38. 38 Motivation, Reward and Recognition System Management
  39. 39. 39 Motivation The force within us that activates our behavior. It is a function of three distinct components, Intensity, Direction, and Persistence. Intensity PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation
  40. 40. 40 Motivation - Intensity Intensity refers to the amount of mental and physical effort put forth by the person. PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation Intensity
  41. 41. 41 Motivation - Direction The extent to which an individual determines and chooses efforts focused on a particular goal. Intensity PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation
  42. 42. 42 Motivation - Persistence The extent to which the goal-directed effort is put forth over time. Intensity PersistenceDirection MotivationMotivation
  43. 43. 43 Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic  Intrinsic When doing the job is inherently motivating  Extrinsic When rewards such as pay and formal recognition act as motivators
  44. 44. 44 Two Basic Categories of Rewards Compensation Rewards: Those given in return for acceptable performance or effort. They can include nonfinancial compensation. Non-Compensation Rewards: Those beneficial factors related to the work situation and well-being of each person.
  45. 45. 45 Types of Rewards Intrinsic Extrinsic Motivation Pay Promotion Sense of Accomplishment Personal Growth Opportunities Recognition Job security
  46. 46. 46 Financial Compensation: Straight Salary Advantages - Salaries are simple to administer - Planned earnings are easy to project. - Salaries are useful when substantial development work is required. Disadvantages - Salaries offer little incentive for better performance. - Salaries represent fixed overhead.
  47. 47. 47 Financial Compensation: Pay for Performance Reward Systems in most cases should be consistent with other HR systems. The Reward System is a key driver of:  HR Strategy  Business Strategy  Organization Culture
  48. 48. 48 Need for Consistency with Other HR Systems Culture Performance Management Employment Training Labor Relations Rewards Overtime pay rules in contract Sign-on Bonus Merit Pay Merit pay reinforces performance culture Skill-based pay
  49. 49. 49 Financial Compensation: Performance Bonuses Advantages - Organization can direct emphasis to what it considers important. - Bonuses are particularly useful for tying rewards to accomplishment of objectives. Disadvantages - It may be difficult to determine a formula for calculating bonus achievement if the objective is expressed in subjective terms.
  50. 50. 50 Non-financial Compensation Opportunity for Promotion:  The ability to move up in an organization along one or more career paths Sense of Accomplishment:  The internal sense of satisfaction from successful performance
  51. 51. 51 Non-financial Compensation Opportunity for Personal Growth:  Access to programs that allow for personal development (e.g., tuition reimbursement, leadership development seminars) Recognition:  The informal or formal acknowledgement of a desired accomplishment Job Security:  A sense of being a desired employee that comes from consistent exceptional performance
  52. 52. 52 Understanding Reward & Recognition Definitions:  A reward is an item or experience with monetary value that is provided for a desired behavior or performance, often with accompanying recognition  Recognition is a positive consequence provided to a person for a behavior or a result in the form of acknowledgement, approval or the expression of gratitude  “Recognition” is more of an activity or an association (a social or interpersonal activity) while a “Reward” is more of a thing (Money, Merchandise, Trophy, Travel etc)
  53. 53. 53 Why Reward & Recognise employees  By valuating and recognizing people, you harness the power of motivation, which is the single most powerful strategy used to promote performance and positive behaviors  Drives Stretch in Performance  Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation  Feeling Valued  Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging  Improves Individual Attitudes
  54. 54. 54 Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift….. * Gerald Ledford Jr. and Peter LeBlanc, World at Work 9, no.3 (Q3 2000):1-11 Rewards at work  Direct Financial (pay)  Indirect Financial (benefits)  Work Content (work)  Careers (development)  Affiliation (feeling of belonging)  Study results: Surprisingly, all 5 types of rewards were considered equally important…. Recognition  Praise  Time  Toys, Trophies & Trinkets  Fun, Freedom & Food  Small Money  Others  Common thread – Genuine, positive, emotion
  55. 55. 55 What is Recognition? “Recognition is any thought, word, or deed towards making someone feel appreciated for who they are and recognized for what they do.” 1 “Recognition can be a strategic tool for shaping behavior and moving an organization in a desired direction.” 2 “Recognition is something a manager should be doing all the time—it’s a running dialogue with people.” 3 1 “Making Recognition a Daily Event” by Roy Saunderson, Recognition Management Institute 2 “A Culture of Recognition; Building a System to Celebrate Great Performance” by Rhonda Sunnarborg, BI Business Improvement Series 3 Ron Zemke, Training magazine
  56. 56. 56 Why Focus on Recognition?  Employees identify recognition as one of the most effective motivators1  Even small increases in supportive practices are associated with decreased turnover and increased sales/profitability2  Employees who feel that their organization values them are more likely to value their customers2  Appreciation and/or praise are among the top three drivers of employee motivation and engagement across a variety of industries and companies3 1 The Conference Board, 1999 HR Executive Review: Employee Recognition Programs 2 Pfeffer 2001 study 3 Hewitt Associates
  57. 57. 57 Exercise  You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation which has 400 employees at their HO.  You have been asked to develop an R&R program for your organisation to keep employees engaged and motivation levels high.  A separate budget would be provided for the R&R activities.  You and you team has to design a program and present it to your leadership team.
  58. 58. 59 Diversity @ workplace
  59. 59. 60 What is Diversity?  In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those human qualities that are different from our own and outside the groups in which we belong. There are various qualities that differentiate one individual from the next.
  60. 60. 61 Elements of Diversity  Age  Gender  Ethnicity  Race  Physical Ability  Sexual Orientation  Physical Characteristics  Income  Education  Marital Status  Religious Beliefs  Geographic Location  Parental Status  Personality Type
  61. 61. 62 Diversity: The uniqueness of all individuals; includes everyone.
  62. 62. 63 Principles of Diversity Management  Establish a business strategy for effectively managing a diverse workforce  Create a positive work environment  Promote personal and professional development  Empower all people to reach their full potential  Remove barriers that hinder progress  Ensure equal opportunities and prevent discrimination
  63. 63. 64 Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity  Organizational vision  Top management commitment  Auditing and assessment of needs  Clarity of objectives  Clear accountability  Effective communication  Coordination of activity  Evaluation
  64. 64. 65 Techniques for Managing Diversity  Managing diversity training programs  Core groups  Multicultural teams  Senior managers of diversity  Targeted recruitment and selection programs
  65. 65. 66 Techniques for Managing Diversity  Compensation and reward programs tied to achieving diversity goals  Language training  Mentoring programs  Cultural advisory groups  Corporate social activities that celebrate diversity
  66. 66. 67 Managing diversity effectively  Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and creativity.  Better problem definition, generation of alternatives, and decisions.  Greater potential of developing a high performance team.  Greater resilience in dealing with escalating demands.
  67. 67. 68 Mismanaging diversity  Disrupts development of trust, constructive working relationships, arriving at consensus & agreement.  Stereotyping of other members and sub grouping along cultural lines.  Misunderstanding and disruptive communication.  Low levels of efficiency, effectiveness & productivity
  68. 68. 69 Unintended Results of Managing Diversity  Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups may create feelings of unfairness or exclusion in others  Giving preferential treatment to certain groups may stigmatize their members  Increasing diversity without recognition and rewards for the new members can create organizational tension
  69. 69. 71 Implications for Managers  Managing a diverse workforce is an important part of an international manager’s job  Must understand the impact of diversity and know how to utilize  Realize different cultures view diversity differently and consider impact on manager
  70. 70. 72 Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity Management Program  Improve organizational performance  Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents  Improve workplace relations  Build more effective work teams  Improve organizational problem solving  Improve customer service  Enhanced recruitment efforts
  71. 71. 73 Making heads count is more important than counting heads
  72. 72. 74 Possible barriers in the organization that prevent a more balanced workforce?  Limiting area of consideration  Lack of diversity at the senior ranks  Categorizing people into certain positions  Always recruiting from same source  Grooming/developing only one person
  73. 73. 75 Strategies for Inclusion
  74. 74. 76 The Value of Mentoring  Without regard to race, gender, religion, national origin ….  Inconvenience yourself to show someone else the way  Unleash someone else’s potential
  75. 75. 77 Professional Development  Identify training and development needs for all employees  Utilize Individual Development Plans  Rotational & Developmental Assignments  Rotate “acting” supervisor
  76. 76. 78  Diversity management is about full utilization of people with different backgrounds and experiences.  Effective diversity management strategy has a positive effect on cost reduction, creativity, problem solving, and organizational flexibility
  77. 77. 79 Human Resource Audit
  78. 78. 80 How is Human Resource Analysis Done?  Human Resource Audit  Purpose:  To identify the size, skills and structure surrounding current employees and  to identify future human resource needs of the organization  Question Answered: Are the human resources a strength or a weakness?
  79. 79. 81 The Audit: Principles  Obtain some basic information on the people and policies involved in the organization  Explore in detail the role and contribution of the human resources management function in the development of strategy
  80. 80. 82 The Audit: Contents  People in the Organization  Role and Contribution of HR strategy
  81. 81. 83 HR Audit: People in the organization  Employee numbers and turnover  Organization structure  Structures for controlling the organization  Use of special teams, e.g. for Innovation  Level of skills and capabilities required  Morale and rewards  Employee and industrial relations  Selection, training and development  Staffing levels  Capital investment/employee  Role of quality and personal service in delivering the products or services  of the organization  Role of professional advice in delivering the product or service
  82. 82. 84 Role & Contribution of HR Strategy  Relationship with strategy  Key characteristics of HR strategy  Consistency of strategy across different levels  Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change in the organization  Role of HR strategy in leading change in the organization  Monitoring and review of HR strategy  Time horizon for operation of HR strategy
  83. 83. 85 What the Audit Achieves  Provides information that is useful in deciding how feasible a strategy is  Identifies any human resource “gaps” (human resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus the current state of human resources)  Allows the organization to “benchmark” their performance against other organizations (benchmark is a process of comparison)
  84. 84. 86 Human Resources as a CSF  Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one organization is superior to another  HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills
  85. 85. 87 Coaching and Mentoring
  86. 86. 88 Coaching and Mentoring  These definitions indicate some overlap and some differences between Mentoring and Coaching. Mentoring is often seen as a longer term process, for example offering support during a career change such as induction or becoming a senior manager.
  87. 87. 89 Mentoring  Mentoring is usually concerned with supporting practitioners whilst they make a significant career transition.  Mentoring in intended to be supportive of the individual and occurs ‘at need’. Here the emphasis is on ready and confidential access to a ‘critical friend’ who can be used as a sounding board and who offers a free form of advice.
  88. 88. 90 Coaching  Coaching is normally used to support the process of reviewing established or emerging practices. It is focused on innovation, change or specific skills.  Coaching is conceived as a more structured learning process aimed at explicit professional development in an agreed area of performance.
  89. 89. 91 Activities involved in mentoring and coaching and their overlap
  90. 90. 92 If writers are more aware of their own writing processes and what helps and hinders their writing then they are more likely both to become more confident writers and are able to support others in their writing too. The same principles apply to leaders and managers. The Mentor/Coach needs to be aware of the ways in which Mentees/Coachees can focus on themselves as learners. The learner (the personal dimension)
  91. 91. 93 The learning (the transformational dimension) In Mentoring and Coaching transformation or change comes about through the learning conversation. The conversation enables the process of Mentoring/Coaching in which there needs to be an explicit focus on learning. Dennison and Kirk’s cycle of learning (1990) is useful for this purpose. This model can be applied to developing leaders and managers ie: understanding themselves before understanding others!
  92. 92. 94 What Mentoring and Coaching is not Mentoring and Coaching is not counseling although some counseling skills may be used by the Mentor/Coach. Learning conversations do not focus on personal problems. Neither is the learning conversation therapy although the outcome of the conversation may leave the person feeling up-lifted and may feel their emotions have changed. But learning is always the focus.
  93. 93. 95 Competency Modeling
  94. 94. 96 Competency  It is derived from the Latin word ‘Competere’, which means to be suitable.  The concept was originally developed in Psychology denoting Individual’s ability to respond to demand placed on them by the environment.  Any underlying characteristic required performing a given task, activity, or role successfully can be considered as competency.
  95. 95. 97 Competencies defined  A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge and self-concept, traits, behaviour, motivation, etc.), that enables us to successfully complete a given task. Self-conceptSelf-concept (Attitude)(Attitude) SkillsSkills KnowledgeKnowledge
  96. 96. 98 Iceberg Model of Competencies •Self-Image = attitudes and values •Traits = why and how we behave a certain way •Motives = what drives us, i.e., the need to seek achievement, power/influence, affliliation •Skills = a learned ability •Knowledge = acquiring information in a particular field
  97. 97. 100 Competencies in the Corporate World  Communication – without offending others  Critical Thinking – Seeing the Big picture  Ethics / Social Responsibility – Ethical behaviour  Information Technology – creativity optimization  Interpersonal Diversity – Being non-judgmental  Leadership  Managing Change  Self-managed Learning – self motivated  Teamwork – collaboration & impact of self  Technical know-how
  98. 98. 101 Emotional Competency Framework Personal Competence Social Competence Self Awareness: Knowledge of one’s self- concept and values Empathy: Awareness of others’ feelings and emotions Self Regulation: Management of one’s impulses and emotions Social Skills: Adeptness at inducing desired responses in others Motivation: Self-guidance and direction * from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by Daniel Goleman
  99. 99. 102 Competency Classification Individual Organisation Social Behavioural Leadership Generic competencies Organisational Cultural Technical Functional / operational knowledge Skill knowledge Threshold competencies Core competencies Corporate competencies Distinctive competencies
  100. 100. 103 Why use competencies  Competencies  help individuals and organisations to improve their performance and deliver results  can be quantified and communicated  can be taught, learned, measured and monitored
  101. 101. 104 Benefits of competency-modeling  Integrates fragmented management and practices  Links individual or group performance to strategic direction  Helps develop high value activities for the organisation  Focusing on what people do, not what they are  Leads to organisational flexibility and stability  Leads to competitive advantage  Is participatory and involving  Is objective; therefore, can be geared to possible change in business future and to ensure relevance
  102. 102. 105 Benefits of competency-modeling – HR Delivery  Matching of Individuals and Jobs  Employee Selection  Training and Development  Professional and Personal Development  Performance Measurement  Succession Planning
  103. 103. 106 Who Identifies competencies?  Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of people:  Experts  HR Specialists  Job analysts  Psychologists  Industrial Engineers etc. in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role (those who have expectations from the role holder and who interact with him/her).
  104. 104. 107 What Methodology is used?  The following methods are used in combination for competency mapping:  Interviews  Group work  Task Forces  Task Analysis workshops  Questionnaire  Use of Job descriptions  Performance Appraisal Formats etc.
  105. 105. 108 How are they Identified?  The process of identification is not very complex. One of the methods is given below:  1. Simply ask each person who is currently performing the role to list the tasks to be performed by him one by one, and identify the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to perform each of these.  Consolidate the list.  Present it to a role set group or a special task force constituted for that role.  Edit and Finalize.
  106. 106. 109 What Language to Use?  Use Technical language for technical competencies. For example: knowledge of hydraulics.  Use business language for business competencies. Example: Knowledge of markets for watch business or Strategic thinking.  Use your own language or standard terms for Behavior competencies. Example: Ability to Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales techniques. Too technical and conceptual knowledge align to the organization and people may create more problems than help
  107. 107. 110 Assessment Centers
  108. 108. 111 Assessment Centre  Assessment centers typically involve the participants completing a range of exercises which simulate the activities carried out in the target job.  Various combinations of these exercises and sometimes other assessment methods like psychometric testing and interviews are used to assess particular competencies in individuals.
  109. 109. 112  The theory behind this is that if one wishes to predict future job performance then the best way of doing this is to get the individual to carry out a set of tasks which accurately sample those required in the job and are as similar to them as possible.  The particular competencies used will depend upon the target job but one will often find competencies such as relating to people; resistance to stress; planning and organising; motivation; adaptability and flexibility; problem solving; leadership; communication; decision making and initiative.
  110. 110. 113 AC Vs DC Assessment centres usually –  have a pass/fail criteria  are geared towards filing a job vacancy  address an immediate organisational need  have fewer assessors and more participants  involve line managers as assessors  have less emphasis placed on self- assessment  focus on what the candidate can do now  are geared to meet the needs of the organisation  assign the role of judge to assessors  place emphasis on selection with little or no developmental feedback and follow up  give feedback at a later date  involve the organisation having control over the information obtained  have very little pre-centre briefing  tend to be used with external candidates Development centres usually –  do not have a pass/fail criteria  are geared towards developing the individual  address a longer term need  have a 1:1 ratio of assessor to participant  do not have line managers as assessors  have a greater emphasis placed on self- assessment  focus on potential  are geared to meet needs of the individual as well as the organisation  assign the role of facilitator to assessors  place emphasis on developmental feedback and follow up with little or no selection function  give feedback immediately  involve the individual having control over the information obtained  have a substantial pre-centre briefing  tend to be used with internal candidates
  111. 111. 114 Types of Exercises Group Discussions  In these, candidates are brought together as a committee or project team with one or a number of items to make a recommendation on. Candidates may be assigned specific roles to play in the group or it may be structured in such a way that all the candidates have the same basic information. With this type of exercise, and in common with other types of exercise, it is of great benefit to ensure that you understand and follow the instructions for the exercise.
  112. 112. 115 Types of Exercises In Tray  This type of exercise is normally undertaken by candidates individually. The materials comprise a bundle of correspondence and the candidate is placed in the role of somebody, generally, who assumed a new position or replaced their predecessor at short notice and have been asked to deal with their accumulated correspondence. Generally the only evidence that the assessors have to work with are the annotations which the candidates have made on the articles of mail. It is important when undertaking such an exercise to make sure that the items are not just dealt with, but that clearly mark on the items any thoughts that you have about them or any other actions that you would wish to put in train.
  113. 113. 116 Interview Simulations / Role Plays  In these exercises candidates meet individually with a role player or resource person.  Their brief is either to gather information to form a view and make a decision, or alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of dispute.  Typically, candidates will be allowed 15 -30 minutes to prepare for such a meeting and will be given a short, general brief on the objective for the meeting.  In undertaking such an exercise you should consider carefully how you want to spend the time in the meeting and plan accordingly. Although the assessment is made mainly on the conduct of the meeting itself, consideration will also be given to preparatory notes, thus it is useful for any meeting plan or objectives that you set yourself for the meeting to be clearly set out in your preparatory notes.
  114. 114. 117  In this type of exercise the candidate is presented with the task of making a decision about a particular business case. They are provided with a large amount of factual information which is generally ambiguous and, in some cases, contradictory.  Candidates generally work independently on such an exercise and their recommendation or decision is usually to be communicated in the form of a brief written report and/or a presentation made to the assessors. As with the other exercises it is important with this kind of exercise to ensure that your thought processes are clearly articulated and available for the scrutiny of the assessors. Of paramount importance, if the brief requires a decision to be made, ensure that a decision is made and articulated. Case Studies / Analysis Exercises
  115. 115. 118  The above is meant as an illustrated list of the types of exercises that may be encountered in an assessment centre. Variations and permutations are almost infinite.  It is, however, worth remembering that there is a large body of academic research which suggests that the assessment centre is probably one of the most valid predictors of performance in a job and, if correctly structured, is probably one of the fairest and most objective means of gathering information upon which a selection decision can be based. From the candidate's perspective it is important to be natural and to be oneself when faced with an assessment centre, remembering always that you can only be assessed on what you have done and what the assessors can observe
  116. 116. 119 Exercise categorisation  Level 1: Administrative - suitable for a wide range of roles including: secretarial and clerical staff, call centre staff, frontline customer service roles  Level 2: Graduate - ideal for roles where there is no requirement for significant organisational experience  Level 3: First line manager - primarily for new or junior managers, or managers with little experience of people management  Level 4: Middle manager - for experienced managers, including familiarity with people management  Level 5: Executive - targeted at senior managers with significant experience
  117. 117. 120 Design an Assessment Centre  Design of an assessment centre should reflect:  the ethos of the organisation  the actual skills required to carry out the job  potential sources of recruits  the extent to which recruitment is devolved to line managers  the HR strategy.
  118. 118. 121 Design Criteria  The essential design criteria should include:  duration of the centre (one day might be insufficient for more senior posts)  location (reality or ideal surroundings and accessibility for candidates with disabilities)  number of candidates brought together (five may be too few for comfort under observation and more than eight gives problems in sharing the assessed time)  candidate background and comparability of past experience  number, mix, and experience of assessors.
  119. 119. 122 Design Criteria  Essential and desired skills /competencies to be matched to the techniques and tasks which test them  Group exercises should be as real as possible  The tasks might need to encourage competitiveness /collaboration
  120. 120. 123 Observers  There should be a number of senior observers/selectors to ensure greater objectivity through a range of views.  Selectors must be trained to observe, record, classify and rate behaviour and seek evidence accurately and objectively against the job description and person specification.  Selectors preferably should also have had some training on interviewing skills and in managing diversity, and have good listening skills.  Assessors might also be used to observe and comment on behaviour although they do not necessarlity take part in final selection decisions
  121. 121. 124 Performance Management
  122. 122. 125  An objective is a simple statement of an end result to be achieved within a specified time frame.  It should be short, clear and specific.  It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not always be possible to quantify the end results. Objective Setting
  123. 123. 126  Gives direction to job.  Helps focus on important job areas.  Assists review and change in job emphasis.  Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and feedback.  Increases mutual job understanding with superior. Why Objective setting ?
  124. 124. 127  Are significantly important areas of job.  When performed well, improves overall results.  Are maximum payoff job areas.  Represent the work which account for 80% of results. Objectives
  125. 125. 128  Targets – are specific conditions to be achieved/indicates how much of what and by when  Activities – action steps which lead to the end results / used when targets are not quantifiable / indicate what by when Objectives
  126. 126. 129  What is the job ?  What are the end results expected ?  What policies / procedures / work methods are impeding performance ?  What changes are needed for better results ?  How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to improve schedule ?  What problems need to be overcome next year ? Process of goal setting
  127. 127. 130  Focus on imp. Areas  Related to job description  Signposts  Direction of work  Optimum number 6  Measures imp. Results  Related to objectives  Milestones/Pathways  Specific condition  One or more for each objective Objectives v/s Targets
  128. 128. 131  Observable  Basis for appraisal  Jointly evolved  Extra effort  Clear/consistent with dept. objective  Time bound  Initiative  Verifiable  End result- emphasis on  Satisfying Criteria for objectives
  129. 129. 132  S - Specific  M - Measurable  A - Attainable  R - Relevant  T - Time-bound Objectives should be
  130. 130. 133  Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose.  Determining the importance of these goals.  Making plans for action.  Arriving at performance standards and measurement criteria.  Stating anticipated problems. Process
  131. 131. 134  Weighing the resources required to carry out the planned action.  Providing for interaction of organization and individual goals.  Following up with actual performance measurement and evaluation. Process..
  132. 132. 135 HRs role in Performance Management  Delivering time-lines  Ensuring timely adherence  Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers  Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational goals  Requesting modification if required
  133. 133. 136 Thank you
  134. 134. 137 High Performance Organizations  Traditional Organizations  Narrow expertise  Rugged individuals  Centralized  Closed  Standardized selection  Routine training  Job-based pay  Narrow, repetitive jobs  Tall rigid hierarchies  Functional departments  Promote compliance  Routine behaviors  High Performance Organizations  Multi-skilled team players  Dispersed  Open  Realistic job interviews  Continuous learning  Performance-based pay  Enriched jobs  Flat, flexible hierarchies  Self-contained businesses  Promote involvement  Innovation and cooperation  Design Components  People  Decision Systems  Human Resources  Structure  Values & Culture

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