Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Government Funding


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Government Funding

  2. 2. Question:Should stem cell research be funded by thegovernment or through public and private funding?
  3. 3. Stem Cells Research Embryonic cells have the ability to develop into virtually any in the body, and they have the potential to treat medical conditions such as diabetes and Parkinson’s disease.
  4. 4. Stem Cell Research cont. Some have argued that adult stem cells (from bone marrow or umbilical cord blood) should be pursued instead of embryonic cells because they believe the derivation of stem cells form embryos is ethically unacceptable.
  5. 5. Stem Cell Research cont. Stem cells retain the ability to become some or all of the more than 200 different cell types in the body, and thereby play a critical role in repairing organs and body tissues throughout life.
  6. 6. Stem Cell research cont. Embryonic stem cells may have a greater ability to become different types of body cells than adult stem cells.
  7. 7. Embryonic stem cells fromIVF Embryos or fetal tissue Embryonic stem cells were first isolated from mouse embryos in 1981 and from primate embryos in 1995. Animal embryos were the only source for research on embryonic stem cells until November 1998. The cells were derived from five day old embryos produced via in vitro fertilization. (IVF)
  8. 8. Cont. This work is controversial because the stem cells are located within the embryo and the proce3ss of removing them destroys the embryo. The cells have also been derived from the properties from five-to nine week old embryos or from fetuses obtained through elective abortion .
  9. 9. Embryonic Stem CellsObtained via SCNT (Cloning) Another potential source of embryonic stem cells is somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also referred to as cloning. Stem cells derived from cloned embryos may offer the best hope for understanding and treating disease. The nucleus of the egg is removed and replaced by the nucleus from a mature body cell, such as a skin cell from a patient.
  10. 10. Stem Cells from Adult Tissueor Umbilical Cord Blood A January 2007 report found cells can be found in amniotic fluid.
  11. 11. Potential Applications ofStem Cell Research Stem cells provide the opportunity to study the growth and differentiation of individual cells in tissues. Understanding these processes could provide insights into the causes of birth defects, genetic abnormalities, and other disease states. If normal development were better understood, it might be possible to prevent or correct some of these conditions.
  12. 12. Cont. Stem cells can be used to produce large amounts of one cell type, to test new drugs for effectiveness and chemicals and toxicity. Stem cells might be transplanted into the body and treat disease (diabetes, Parkinson’s disease) or injury (e.g., spinal cord)
  13. 13. Current Regulations The Dickey AmendmentPrior to an August 2001 Bush Administration decision, no federal funds had been used to support research on stem cells derived from either human embryos or fetal tissue.
  14. 14. Cont. Under the admendment (a) None of the funds made under the Dickey Act may be used for…….(1) The creation of a human embryo or embryos for research purposes; or(2) research in which a human embryo or embryos are destroyed or discarded, or knowingly subjected to risk or injury or death greater than that allowed for research on fetuses in utero.
  15. 15. Cont. (b) For purposes of this section, the term ‘embryo or embryos’ includes any organism, not protected as a human under 45 CFR [the Human Subject Protection regulations} as of the date of enactment of this Act, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis, cloning or any other means from one or more human gametes [sperm or egg] or human diploid cells {cells that have two sets of chromosomes, such as somatic cells]
  16. 16. Peter Griffin visits stemcell research lab yer_detailpage&v=TRtlkcQ6brE
  17. 17. Administration PoliciesClinton Administration Stem Bush Adminstration Stem Cellcell Policy Policy Research in which human stem cells are  On August 9,2001, President Bush utilized to create or contribute to a human announced for the first time embryo federal funds would be used to Research in which human cells are combined with an animal embryo support research on embryonic stem cells, but funding would be Research in which human stem cells are used for reproductive cloning of a human limited to “existing stem cell lines where life and death decisions had Research in which human stem cells are derived using somatic cell nuclear transfer already been made. Research utilizing human stem cells that  (1) with the informed consent of were derived using somatic cell nuclear donors transfer Research utilizing stem cells that were  (2) from excess embryos created derived from human embryos created for solely for reproductive purposes research purposes, rather than for infertility  (3) without any financial treatment. inducements to the donors.
  18. 18. Federal Funds Federal Funds would not be used for: (1) the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos. (2) the creation of any human embryos for research purposes (3) the cloning of human embryos for any purpose.
  19. 19. Regulation of Stem CellResearch NIH Research funding andFDA Regulation Stem Cell Registry. The FDA defines “xenotransplantation” as any procedure that involves the tranpltation, implantation, or infusion into a human recipient of either (a) live cells, tissues, or organs from a nonhuman source (b) human body fluids, cells, tissues or organs that have had ex vivo contact with nonhuman animal cells, tissues or organs. Under FDA guidelines, transplantation therapy involving Bush approved stem cell lines, which have all been exposed to mouse feeder cells, would constitute xenotransplantation.
  20. 20. Private vs. Public FundingPublic Funding Private Funding Public funding can contribute to sound policy by increasing the probability that the results of stem cell research will reflect social priorities that may not inform research in the private sector.
  21. 21. Private vs. Public Fundingcont.Public Funding Many Americans including children are excluded from the U.S. health care system. Public funding offer the best hope of fostering public consideration for common good, rather than marketplace concerns, and of expanding access to the fruits of stem cell research for a large number of Americans.
  22. 22. Private vs. Public Fundingcont.Public Stem cell research is more likely to advance if canonical genetic stokes of ES cells are made available to the scientific community. Public funding under the auspices of federal agencies is the only effective means for ensuring equal access by scientists to standardized ES cell lines
  23. 23. Federal Funding The federal government is the only realistic source for such an infusion of funds. The government can strictly monitor the practices of public research through federal funding.