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Information Architecture in Real Life - Part II


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Lecture held at HiO Nov 14 2006

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Information Architecture in Real Life - Part II

  1. 1. Information Architecture in Real Life Part II HiO, November 14 2006
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Navigation and Central Aspects of IA </li></ul><ul><li>Search and Search Log Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Politics of IA </li></ul><ul><li>IA 2.0? </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Navigation Pyramid – Understanding Central IA Concepts
  4. 4. Navigation as Rhetoric <ul><li>Master thesis in Media and Communication, spring 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Starting point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frustrating personal user experiences with governmental web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it possible to take control over user experience of public, governmental web sites? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Navigation? <ul><li>The users movement in information space, and ways to facilitate such movement </li></ul>Global + functional navigation Local navigation Contextual navigation content Functional navigation
  6. 6. The Keyhole Effect Informasjonsrom (dokuvers) Vindauge/ nøkkelhol Information space ” Keyhole&quot;
  7. 7. What is Navigation - Really? Application Process Closing dates Application form .... When is the closing date for applications? User Task Website Page Hypertext link Navigation Mechanism Navigation Scheme Application form http:// /
  8. 8. A Model for Rhetorical Navigation People/users/customers should ... be persuaded, understand, act ... get their job done ... be able to navigate Rhetorical navigation Relevant navigation Rudimentary navigation
  9. 9. Rudimentary Navigation – being able to navigate Rhetorical navigation Relevant navigation Rudimentary navigation <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>People should be able to navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the three questions </li></ul><ul><li>Classical navigation design </li></ul><ul><li>Global og local navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Functional navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback og affordance </li></ul>
  10. 11. How do we give overview when navigation is turned upside-down? Google/ Kvasir External links Blogs/ RSS
  11. 12. Checklist and resources for rudimentary navigation <ul><li>Consistent global and local navigation schemes on all pages </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate breadth, depth and ways forward from frontpage </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly marked link to frontpage/starting points </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate position within the information space as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Functional navigation as needed (Indexes are underrated) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate all navigation elements critically to avoid navigation overload </li></ul>
  12. 13. Relevant navigation – get the job done <ul><li>Mål: </li></ul><ul><li>People should be able to solve the tasks they set out to do </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant and prioritized links </li></ul><ul><li>Design for information scent </li></ul>Rhetorical navigation Relevant navigation Rudimentary navigation
  13. 14. Scenariobased Design 2. What are their goals? 1. Who are the users? 3. How can we help them achieve their goals?
  14. 15. Information Foraging <ul><li>Theoretical framework developed ad Xerox Parc (Pirelli/Card) </li></ul><ul><li>Compares web users with animals foraging for food (ecological metaphor) </li></ul><ul><li>The human is an ”informavore” (G. Miller) </li></ul>Information Energy
  15. 16. Cost vs benefit <ul><li>Humans (animals) wants to optimalize cost/benefit </li></ul><ul><li>If cost (use of time, resources and mental capasity) exceeds estimated benefit, we switch patches </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Satisfising”- Users invest little mental capasity, ”muddling through” </li></ul><ul><li>Always-on-broadband increases this pattern (Jakob Nielsen): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The easier it is to find good content, the shorter time users will spend in one site/patch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites has to support short visits (&quot;be a snack&quot;) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Information Scent <ul><li>Textual and visual ”clues” that help us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide if ”this website looks edible” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find our way to the right information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We follow scent as long as it’s strong enough, or try elsewhere: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We typically start from a search engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow a trail as long as the scent is strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the scent diminish, we go back to the search result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue until target is reached or we give up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good information scent when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content has high quality (relevant, updated, useful) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content is easy to find </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links and menus give good (relevant) descriptions of underlying content </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Global og lokal navigasjon <ul><li>exempler på global, lokal, feedback </li></ul>
  18. 20. Checklist and resources for relevant navigation <ul><li>Design decisions based on personas and scenarios for prioritized target groups? </li></ul><ul><li>Are these personas and scenarios based on actual knowledge about users? </li></ul><ul><li>Are links and menues optimalized for information scent? </li></ul>
  19. 21. Rhetorical navigaiton – people should understand, act (and be persuaded as needed) <ul><li>Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve rhetorical effects: sale, understanding, persuasion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Rudimentary and relevant navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Argumentation paths </li></ul><ul><li>Calls to Action </li></ul><ul><li>Best bets in search resulst </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnelling, simulation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>Rhetorical navigation Relevant navigation Rudimentary navigation
  20. 22. Persuation paths step by step <ul><li>To begin with, we need defined and realistic goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscribe to newsletter, download whitepapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add to shopping basket, go to checkout, pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call phone number, take printout to shop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on knowledge about users and the medium, we can device persuation paths through our content </li></ul><ul><li>We also provede calls to action, which are clearly defined decision point leeding to the desired action </li></ul><ul><li>Desired actions should be followed up and measured by the conversion rate </li></ul># of desired actions * 100 trafic [ ]
  21. 23. How to build persuasion paths <ul><li>Start with knowledge about business and user goals </li></ul><ul><li>Build personas and scenarios based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psykographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topographics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build content, design and navigation that supports prioritized scenarios, independent of starting point </li></ul>
  22. 24. Case: Leo Diamonds <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>High profiled diamond dealer </li></ul><ul><li>Only physical shops, no netshop </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigned by FutureNow in 2004 (Jeffrey and Bryan Eisenberg) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion rate for ”Find Dealer&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March 2004: 0,86% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>September 2004: 54,1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase of 5.500% </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Før
  24. 26. Personas <ul><li>David Commonsense </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to know everything about diamonds before he buys ”the perfect one” to his girlfriend </li></ul><ul><li>Methodic and logical choice maker </li></ul><ul><li>Natalie Golddigger </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion conscious </li></ul><ul><li>” Expects the best in life” </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: &quot;keep up with the Joneses&quot; </li></ul>
  25. 32. Calls to Action
  26. 34. Checklist and resources for rhetorical navigation <ul><li>Are business goals in balance with user goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there clearly marked Calls to Action on relevant pages, in accordance with site goals? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there good and relevant persuasion paths for prioritized personas and scenarios? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we give best bets for the top 100 search phrases? </li></ul><ul><li>Are conversion rates tracked and followed up? </li></ul>
  27. 35. Search and Search Log Analysis
  28. 37. Internal vs exsternal search <ul><li>Websearch </li></ul><ul><li>Site search </li></ul>
  29. 38. Oslo kommune 2004 <ul><li>Search for ”parkområder” </li></ul>
  30. 39. Oslo kommune 2006 <ul><li>Search for ”barnehage gamle oslo” </li></ul>
  31. 40. Simultaniously on Google <ul><li>Search for ”barnehage gamle oslo” </li></ul>
  32. 41. Google performs better than internal search Source: Jupiter Research 2003 Even without backend integration, websearch gives much better hits than internal search on explicitely marketed key phrases.
  33. 42. 1. Saumfar søkeloggen Illustrasjon: Gullgruve, gullbarrer, e.l. Search Log Analysis
  34. 43. Search Log Analysis Keywords: sivløkonom; 0; 09/20/04 12:57 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.2 Keywords: siviløkonom; 75; 09/20/04 12:59 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.2 Keywords: siviløkonom jobbmuligheter; 101; 09/20/04 1:02 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.2 Keywords: finn en ansatt; 879; 09/20/04 3:35 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.59 Keywords: master managment; 323; 09/20/04 3:35 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.126 Keywords: master +managment; 323; 09/20/04 3:35 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.126 Keywords: &quot;master of managment&quot;; 3; 09/20/04 3:36 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.126 Keywords: blackbord; 0; 09/20/04 3:36 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.36 Keywords: &quot;eksamensoppgaver bedriftsøkonomi&quot;; 0; 09/20/04 3:36 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.55 Keywords: eksamensoppgaver; 28; 09/20/04 3:36 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.55 Keywords: krokan; 2; 09/20/04 3:37 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.55 Keywords: arne krokan; 33; 09/20/04 3:37 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.55
  35. 44. Search Log Analysis Keywords: sivløkonom; 0; 09/20/04 12:57 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.2 Keywords: siviløkonom; 75; 09/20/04 12:59 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.2 Keywords: siviløkonom jobbmuligheter; 101; 09/20/04 1:02 PM; XXX.XXX.XXX.2 Search phrase # of hits Date/time IP adress Session
  36. 45. <ul><li>valuta </li></ul><ul><li>valutakurser </li></ul><ul><li>nibor </li></ul><ul><li>valutakurs </li></ul><ul><li>inflasjon </li></ul><ul><li>euro </li></ul><ul><li>valutakalkulator </li></ul><ul><li>rente </li></ul><ul><li>kurs </li></ul><ul><li>valutta </li></ul><ul><li>renter </li></ul><ul><li>kurser </li></ul><ul><li>NIBOR </li></ul><ul><li>inflasjonsrapport </li></ul><ul><li>statsobligasjoner </li></ul><ul><li>bath </li></ul><ul><li>pund </li></ul><ul><li>styringsrente </li></ul><ul><li>konsumprisindeks </li></ul><ul><li>dollar </li></ul><ul><li>kalkulator </li></ul><ul><li>gull </li></ul><ul><li>rentemøte </li></ul><ul><li>inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Oljepris </li></ul><ul><li>bnp </li></ul><ul><li>kpi </li></ul><ul><li>usd </li></ul><ul><li>zloty </li></ul><ul><li>sedler </li></ul><ul><li>orbof </li></ul><ul><li>sjef </li></ul><ul><li>Valutakurser </li></ul><ul><li>baht </li></ul><ul><li>valuta kurser </li></ul><ul><li>tyrkiske lire </li></ul><ul><li>oljefondet </li></ul><ul><li>sdr </li></ul><ul><li>libor </li></ul><ul><li>inflasjonsmål </li></ul><ul><li>brasil </li></ul><ul><li>obligasjoner </li></ul><ul><li>lån </li></ul><ul><li>sek </li></ul><ul><li>statsobligasjon </li></ul><ul><li>kuna </li></ul><ul><li>rand </li></ul><ul><li>Valuta </li></ul><ul><li>kronekurs </li></ul><ul><li>valuttakurser </li></ul><ul><li>pesos </li></ul><ul><li>egyptiske pund </li></ul><ul><li>forsinkelsesrente </li></ul><ul><li>valuta kurs </li></ul><ul><li>foliorente </li></ul><ul><li>arbeidsledighet </li></ul><ul><li>lønnsvekst </li></ul><ul><li>bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>valuta kalkulator </li></ul><ul><li>boligpriser </li></ul><ul><li>real </li></ul><ul><li>kina </li></ul><ul><li>exchange rate </li></ul><ul><li>rmb </li></ul><ul><li>polen </li></ul><ul><li>BNP </li></ul><ul><li>prisstigning </li></ul><ul><li>realrente </li></ul><ul><li>australske dollar </li></ul><ul><li>egypt </li></ul><ul><li>renteutvikling </li></ul><ul><li>morarente </li></ul><ul><li>leva </li></ul><ul><li>olje </li></ul><ul><li>thailand </li></ul><ul><li>styringsrenten </li></ul><ul><li>yen </li></ul><ul><li>gdp </li></ul><ul><li>handlingsregelen </li></ul><ul><li>ansatte </li></ul><ul><li>eur </li></ul><ul><li>rubler </li></ul><ul><li>swift </li></ul><ul><li>kredittkort </li></ul><ul><li>sikkerhetselementer </li></ul><ul><li>thb </li></ul><ul><li>tyrkia </li></ul><ul><li>giro </li></ul><ul><li>deponering </li></ul><ul><li>kroatia </li></ul><ul><li>chf </li></ul><ul><li>Euro </li></ul><ul><li>dollarkurs </li></ul><ul><li>aed </li></ul><ul><li>prisindeks </li></ul><ul><li>valutareserver </li></ul><ul><li>petroleumsfondet </li></ul><ul><li>estland </li></ul><ul><li>peso </li></ul><ul><li>VALUTAKURSER </li></ul>
  37. 46. <ul><li>valuta </li></ul><ul><li>valutakurser </li></ul><ul><li>nibor </li></ul><ul><li>valutakurs </li></ul><ul><li>inflasjon </li></ul><ul><li>euro </li></ul><ul><li>valutakalkulator </li></ul><ul><li>rente </li></ul><ul><li>kurs </li></ul><ul><li>valutta </li></ul><ul><li>renter </li></ul><ul><li>kurser </li></ul><ul><li>NIBOR </li></ul><ul><li>inflasjonsrapport </li></ul><ul><li>statsobligasjoner </li></ul><ul><li>bath </li></ul><ul><li>pund </li></ul><ul><li>styringsrente </li></ul><ul><li>konsumprisindeks </li></ul><ul><li>dollar </li></ul><ul><li>kalkulator </li></ul><ul><li>gull </li></ul><ul><li>rentemøte </li></ul><ul><li>inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Oljepris </li></ul><ul><li>bnp </li></ul><ul><li>kpi </li></ul><ul><li>usd </li></ul><ul><li>zloty </li></ul><ul><li>sedler </li></ul><ul><li>orbof </li></ul><ul><li>sjef </li></ul><ul><li>Valutakurser </li></ul><ul><li>baht </li></ul><ul><li>valuta kurser </li></ul><ul><li>tyrkiske lire </li></ul><ul><li>oljefondet </li></ul><ul><li>sdr </li></ul><ul><li>libor </li></ul><ul><li>inflasjonsmål </li></ul><ul><li>brasil </li></ul><ul><li>obligasjoner </li></ul><ul><li>lån </li></ul><ul><li>sek </li></ul><ul><li>statsobligasjon </li></ul><ul><li>kuna </li></ul><ul><li>rand </li></ul><ul><li>Valuta </li></ul><ul><li>kronekurs </li></ul><ul><li>valuttakurser </li></ul><ul><li>pesos </li></ul><ul><li>egyptiske pund </li></ul><ul><li>forsinkelsesrente </li></ul><ul><li>valuta kurs </li></ul><ul><li>foliorente </li></ul><ul><li>arbeidsledighet </li></ul><ul><li>lønnsvekst </li></ul><ul><li>bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>valuta kalkulator </li></ul><ul><li>boligpriser </li></ul><ul><li>real </li></ul><ul><li>kina </li></ul><ul><li>exchange rate </li></ul><ul><li>rmb </li></ul><ul><li>polen </li></ul><ul><li>BNP </li></ul><ul><li>prisstigning </li></ul><ul><li>realrente </li></ul><ul><li>australske dollar </li></ul><ul><li>egypt </li></ul><ul><li>renteutvikling </li></ul><ul><li>morarente </li></ul><ul><li>leva </li></ul><ul><li>olje </li></ul><ul><li>thailand </li></ul><ul><li>styringsrenten </li></ul><ul><li>yen </li></ul><ul><li>gdp </li></ul><ul><li>handlingsregelen </li></ul><ul><li>ansatte </li></ul><ul><li>eur </li></ul><ul><li>rubler </li></ul><ul><li>swift </li></ul><ul><li>kredittkort </li></ul><ul><li>sikkerhetselementer </li></ul><ul><li>thb </li></ul><ul><li>tyrkia </li></ul><ul><li>giro </li></ul><ul><li>deponering </li></ul><ul><li>kroatia </li></ul><ul><li>chf </li></ul><ul><li>Euro </li></ul><ul><li>dollarkurs </li></ul><ul><li>aed </li></ul><ul><li>prisindeks </li></ul><ul><li>valutareserver </li></ul><ul><li>petroleumsfondet </li></ul><ul><li>estland </li></ul><ul><li>peso </li></ul><ul><li>VALUTAKURSER </li></ul>
  38. 48. Search Log Analysis <ul><li>Get a hold of the search log, analyze in Excel </li></ul><ul><li>See what people are looking for! </li></ul><ul><li>Follow trends </li></ul><ul><li>Catch synonyms and misspellings </li></ul><ul><li>Identify no-hits </li></ul><ul><li>Identify too-many-hits </li></ul>
  39. 50. Read More <ul><li>Rosenfeld & Wiggins: Search Analytics for your Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inan: A Guide to Analyzing and Optimizing Website Search Engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martin Belam, m.a. case frå BBC </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mondosoft/Behaviourtracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  40. 51. 2. Aktivér anbefalingar! Illustrasjon: Butler 2. Best bets
  41. 52. Best Bets <ul><li>Give Best Bets for top 100, plus synonyms </li></ul>
  42. 54. Why is this effective? Zipf distribution <ul><li>Read more </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Minst brukte søkeord Mest brukte søkeord ” Sweet spot”
  43. 55. UiO Top 100
  44. 58. Read more <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  45. 59. The Politics of IA
  46. 60. Information Architecture is a balancing act <ul><li>Business strategy and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational resources </li></ul><ul><li>Technological limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Time, budget, resources </li></ul>
  47. 61. Case: Vinmonopolet
  48. 62. Food and wine?
  49. 63. Short Recap
  50. 64. To Wrap It Up <ul><li>IA is a balancing act between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other competences </li></ul></ul>
  51. 65. But wait...
  52. 66. But wait... <ul><li>What about Web 2.0? </li></ul>
  53. 68. Core + Paths Photo Article Theme page ” Flow” Etc. Core Internal search External search Facets Site navigation Frontpage Inward paths Outward paths Calls to Action Tunnelled and other flows RSS subscriptions Email subscriptions Others?
  54. 70. IA 2.0 <ul><li>Adaptive Design for abstract structures and information spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Design for findability in all forms </li></ul><ul><li>Remixable content chunks (from sites to flows) </li></ul><ul><li>Combine structured and unstructured metadata </li></ul><ul><li>But don’t forget about web1.0 just yet... </li></ul>
  55. 71. A case – how should DinSide be redesigned?
  56. 72. Find Out More
  57. 73. Upcoming Events <ul><li>Check out for Norwegian events </li></ul><ul><li>UXnet-meetup first Wednesday each month </li></ul>Register at today!
  58. 74. More Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  59. 75. Contact me! <ul><li>Are Halland </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> (personal blog) </li></ul><ul><li> (company blog) </li></ul>