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  1. 1. jD1.-Ta-f 2 o'f 10 . - quc Iquot;Aw $Lf c opuql'l ' lo N-' ' r()c lt lMI NA I ' j i ,,,,.'ffic[w|ric|lctrtltritvcttcs[ltclirwa lrc |w|ric lr, ln iry . t rc f b ||o wc c |b y ol' cclrtviction' lilllowing coltsc(ltlcllcc, praccccliirgs IlrclttcrrclariI witlr irr,,.i,quot;inor lri.osccutio, punis lt t t t c t tl . Ln)'y? LuRP0sl6-0Fclt IMINnt' l trttltl rci r prttl tcrtylitlrtt ltat'ttt ) proltcrl.Y Phlttcct ilr t li v i tl trl rl s i irl c c Uquot; l)hisc.t't'cot'tlct' itt stlcie t.' (/: l) y r t is lt t lr t ls c t l' lt t l tl c s c l 'v g l ) t l l l i s l t t t t c t l t rT - as (:ttlMl,l. : ( l( l. t v t t ' lf l,l,lM liN: , l] . i O 'Ff - n l:,l1 lr , lYllr l' S l r , . A clcllcttts which s t a l g t l l : al'lirirs),tltcro arc lquot;wo 3, ot'lillict liabilitl (cxccptct'itttcs s t r ir : l lin L r i l i t v i t t r c l . , . i, . r , . cnl' rcus Forquot; crirrtcs ull tllc itctus clcrtt€ttts arc collcctivcly crtllcd 'l'ltc rrrirstlrc llrovcd i;;ih- proscctrl'it-ltt. s t:rtc i s c rr'lvsic*l tttcl ts rei t. Il ctltl tc it r t c t lt c ilc c o l l rl ):rn i c tl,n .:,tta I | fr. 'thc lncans l:i ttonJitci'quot;rcun.t mcttssit rca'whiclr ttisi I ucrus ,[.rrcsc rllaxiui, corlc tr.our&Latin tcrnrs Llnl0ss witlra guiltymindquot; Ut- clonc grrilt '{, actitscll'clocs constihtc not i:' ' 6,:. + CI1IMB: ACTUSI].EUS MR'DBFBNCE ct;AS S IlrlcA Tw 4. :i'-.'.'ffi'l;l::quot;');j;.l,,,.-rriab|ctlttlyitrt|rctlragis.|'rittoscoltrts.[.g.tcclrrrica| crowncourts' cittrcr rhc r,','agistrate the or in in canbc tr.iccl ^i,jtiW*-wtrictr ;;tou't E'g' -..r^i^r. r,.i,rtrln in thc crowncourts ifidictrnent' E.g.thcli on .,r,, whiclr arc triablcnrrlv tltr only tf|inrc.-o|.|,crrccs Itttlit:ttttlk: c) nrurclct', nslittt tcrrf,'lllo gh ttta clrl vllNAl- c 5. l-lol.islloi: LORDS t CRIYINAL DIVISION COLJ OF API)I]AI- t{.I. I DIVISION QUEIIN's tlllNcl{ t COURT . CI{OWN t MAGISTITAI' ES' COURT .I'YPESO F CITIMR 'nto two catcgortcs: call Dcoiviclcd Criiues ES CRIM LT RESU DUCT CON CRI M ES CRIMTS # Phone Bangladelh' Dhaka'1209' House 77, Road r,lA,Dhanmondi' theeq # # Froor), uitas' m # Esil4rn co chamber web: www' The Equitasr g121 oo7' 1 1 5564o+''rmair- nro e$egqg$et'do!0' og4 .t { ': $ I i .$ I Yf,- .' tti , i ,l
  2. 2. 1;C-f-A-P 3ofl0 lre Barrister SaYed-Ul-H;rc1 itself' conduet Irirst,tlrc'c ilrc con(luctcrinrcsi,vhcrc actusrcusis thc prohibited tlrc q. t;orcxalttplo,rr'..,.t,ffi|jbrrccol.clangcrousclrivittgissirrrp|y''drivinga placcquot;(s2 Road'frafficAct 1988)' vclriclc a ro{lcl otltcrprrblic or on propcllccJ rrrcclrarically drivillgnccdbc cstablisl,cd' N9 Sarpr oopsc(prcr:lce clartgcrrrits ol'thalquot; or oJ'fcncc .l-hc typc urc linclrvrr rcsult crimcl whcrc thc actusrcus ol'thc as q scccl*cl rcqurir.csproo.|.tIlattligcotrc.|ttctcitt'tscd.u@o*lrr|torconscqucncc.Ilorcxarnplc,the bc rntrst lrolorrgirrg itrrotlrcr to rllnrlgc'istlratpropcrty o[,cr.inrinal ol'tlrc act's rcLrs 'l'fbrcc ( I ( l|ir r r ir r ; r l l ) l t r t l i t g c A L : t I 9 7 l ) ' (s I ()r' r lir r r ilr gc c l ) clcstr.oyc c l Actus ltqtrs ,l I i lnustbc provcdto havc' I liatrility crirninal is thattlrcdcf'cndant law in quot;fhegcrrcral basis inrposing {br. I ! ol'tnirtd' .o,n'iquot;,ittcclglilty act wltilsthavirg ltacj gtriltyslquot;atc a a mdntal state rcus and the accompanicd Thc physicitlclcmcntsitrc collcctivclycalled thc actus is cirllcdtltc mclts rc:r. poi nt of ti rne w i th thc act w hi ch causes I t is geuc r ally s a i c lth a t th e l rc n s re a n ru s tc o i nci dc i n 401.' is said to embody a urt rtisi-mens s.tt- r:e tlre actus rers. Tlrc Latirr rrraxirn quot;gt:ttts rrttrr,frtsit the l rri nd i s gtti l ty' pcrtoi r grri l ty trnl css * ol c o l ' c ri rn i rrn ll a rv , * r,' * * m *r,l .-J c ar c lir al tlrat quot;...quot;(tpcrsoncunnot be convictcdof acrime rl',*g*,',*ralrulc is As l-orcl'Coclclarel las statccl, r i' c ipa l C.f ctefault but also '.' a wrongful intention ar uttless lre ltct.r not onllt contntiilert i.ft,rtticlclcn ctet or lo hitttquot; TYetttgg,ltushafdv Luflig (.1949) )' blartrewrtrth)t conclitiorr e.f ntinrJ ,r,,n bL itrtlst.trccl ltx?nrplc:Thclt cc AlL ' appro;rrialcs''- ucI cotid J ' piop.i'ty' circutnstancs - o ' b c l o n g i rrgto a n o th c r' - c i rc t ttrrstancc U cE Mtt d i s h o rre s tl y l n e n ta ls ta teo f thc accused - A thc other o1' [property]' - mental state of the .i rrte n ti o no { . p c rn ra rrc rrtl c l c pr.i vi ng y 1A accusccl Burdgn of Pr:qof doubtthat D hascaused actusreus the rcasonablc havcto provcbeyorrd ce'crally, the prosccurtion time' This is thc rule crinrcat thc approprlgtq ol. the crinrc a'd had thc rcq,irccl'rcns rca lbr thc (t,2']fl Ac-462' ol'l.,orcls lv(xt!minsittnv D-.ll'Pquot; irr laiclclorvri tlre I-lorrsc [:y .ltisthefunclanrcntalclr,rtyol.tltgp,mentsoftheoffencetothe doubt. In the absenccof suclt proof thc satisfuctiorr tlic .iudgc or .iury bcyonclrcasonatrlc oF clelbndant bc acqrrittccl. will ygl,uryJ'AltY Vltis'r.BE 'Lr-t4 RllIlS ACTUS to ittcurliability'It rnaybe ,quot;*tt bC quot;r,OIrttltilr)rquot; quot;li'ccly willcdquot; if hc is Or quot;l1r- ,tC.tlquot;adlr i,r*l*t i r t v olt t t t t ar y a v l ri c ty tl l -rc a s tl trs : lbr ''$JATE,o{ AFFAIttsquot; cAslls o1'voluntary areoftcnrcferrcd asthe to acts irrtcnns cannot cliscussccl bc whiclr one group cascs ol. doing positivc a irtrt. dcfcndant ,'statc.l.afhirs,,cascs. crinrcs clclrrrccl in tlrcscnsc quot;l'lrcsc rrot arc etc' or quot;bcing chargcquot; in ittposscssiottquot; quot;bcirig lburrdquot;, quot;trcing clcltnclant actbutco'sisting ttrc in rhe ,rn^il1ilori';,,}ir'rlii!;,H:f Fquira, L:,:';.,;::quot;j,1j11;il,ilffi*ffi:ffi;ffradesh'.Phone# .i;*rs-'.i-F ,quot;:
  3. 3. ;5C-f.tuyo 4of10 B ar r i s teS a Ye d -U a q u e l -H r ol'tlrc factualcircunrstanccs' necds provcarc thc cxistcncc Lo L sor'c suchcascs thc;rrosccution all (l9r?3.) Crlnp 24 ol'rhsstatcof al'fbirs,l!.Y,|-ut3lltrlnenr wlriclrconstitrrtc crirnc- ttrc{rxistgrcc tlrc of'Kent ( 198-?l .'firrrt',r Mu,rcl, 28 The II,7l. WirrZttrv Cltit,f Ctt.nsluhle OM ISSIONS to ol'thc {irilurs g'rcrnl rrlc is tlurlrhcrccan lrc rroliatrilitylbr lailingto ilct,ttnlcss tltc tit].lc at -l-6c 'lquot;hcrc rtoovcrallduty to actcg to is action. ttl tlkL ;rositivc lcgalclr.rty act t5c clclbrrcllrrt urrclcr.r wus (unlikcl?r'ancc cxarnplc)' lbr s.rvc chilctelrow'i'e. 'lquot;hcrc no'.Coocl S*nraritanquot; in linglancl law is a idcntificd' quot;l.5isrcflcctst6e llw'l rcspcct irrclividr,ralautonorlty requircs duty to bc a and ibr poirrts trakc hcrc include: to Possiblc piii, is thcrc no gcricral act'? clirtyto Wc pay taxcslbr paidprolbssionals do itto U clangerOui to lrclp,cxaccrbatc alrcacly an pcoplclllay, in tryirrg Orclinary O sitttatiott too pcoplcnrayput tlrcmsclvcs dangcr itt Orclinary o intcrvcnc, don't?Are thcy but . who corrld of'pcoplc what il.thcrcarc clclzcns o all liablc'? to or... tlrc con1l110l1 itnposes duty rrpon person a a law ,,urrlcss stntutespecilically proviclcs, so a to crirninal a msrc onrissionto act [cannot lcad way towards another 4ct in a particr.rlar. liabilityl.quot;(R yMlltcf f I2[3 ') was lrighlighted the 4lund c(se.[1993]' in nncronrissions a,cts rrosi-tiyq Trrc rriffqrcncc...r?ehyc.ch t ,h heldthat whcrc the Houseo{'l-orcls . .ir. i ';, '{r' a drugto 'i' stcps cnd a patient's suchas administering li{b, to ol'positivc cc cutSanasia r.r1sa11s by 1 ! ACT). (POSITIVE aboiriliis ctcath, uttlawfitrl is brirrg includingartiflcial fccding, fionr an insensate treatnrcnt, rrrcdicar cr I-lowcvcr,wit6clr.awing would bs thatthe patient whcn it washnownthattttc rcsutt witS ,o hopcol.rccovcry paticnt his life bcst intcrests to'pl'olong not would soon clic, is lawlirl il, ii was in thc paticrtt's (OMISSIOn). tnanslaughter' oi'rcnces bc conrrittcd Llyomission(murder, .l..lte carr acrtts rausol''rany crinrirrirr are: cases examples). leading The bcingotrvious daniagc crimirial (lgAU 19'f LR 37 v Pit(woott It v Stone& Dobirtsonl19771QB354 ll r' lt4illcr I l9tt3| 2 AC' 16l It v Ailutrutko 19951 AC 17| | Il |. [2004] EWCA Crinr 3365 v Lltittrtughby R when2 qucstions a'swercdin theal'firnrative: are will o'ly bc irrrposccl I_iability collltl'littcd otlrissioll? by L ls tlrc ol'l'eir..ttp*frtc ol'beirrg , 2. Was thc D ttnclcr lcgalclrrty act? to a ' ci,c.,'nsta,rccs: c|trty actcxistsilt tlrc lbllowing to A positivc StatirtorY n 'n Contractuitl relationshiP SPccial n Voluntarilyassurnedduty il , . r ,.r:r^ whcrcbylifc or prOporty at are situation w6crc D i'advcrtcntlycrcarcs dangcrous a n risl < # r g l a d e s h 'h o n e P r'- n r l l 1 / A 'D h a n m o r # The Equ it as : Cham ber t lEsquot;' . ' knFloor ) ' H o u s e # 7 7 'R o a d # l 'l / A 'D'Veb:www'thee+qi-tas'cqm a n |l4r h a n m o n d i 'D h a k a - 1 2 0 9 'B fmuit- info@theequitas.com, glztAOZ, A61I4SSG;6+,
  4. 4. :::.;,;r,ilmquot;*{;,.iy.f ,. i6#nrtpl'*+iro,t-' ,f. oL'ra-P 5ofl 0 l-H ue Sayed-1..tac1 Barrrister A c l rrty l o i l c t, l rt' c l cl t o l quot; uvl ri cl t givcs risc lquot;o liability Ior a conrnon law [i r t ti s rl c ttrc l l tl ()t. It' (u) i- iabilir y l' o r l i ri l i n g ttl u c t w i l l b c i rn p osctivvhcrctl rc cl cl ' cncJant t bc sl i orvnto havc becn undcr a cal . s t at r r t opy u tyto tl i l i c p o s i ti v c a c { i c l n A Icucl i rrg unpl c o1' sucl t casc i .sprovi cl cci thc C hi l rl ren b)i a cxl - cl ur r d l/ ot r rrgP(r,s ' o tt,s ,' l c 9 .l .J ,.n ' h i c :lcrcl tl c.s tc cl l ' l cncc ' rvi l l trl l y rrcgl ccti ng chi l d. I-l cnccby a tl ol lt t s ir r r ply f ir i l i n g to p ro v i c l c l i > o rll i rr' { quot; l rc ri l tl . or l i ri l i rrgt< lobtai n appropri atcrl tcdi ci l lcarc, a parcn t cl c oglc l bc h c l c lc ri rrri rL rl l y ;' ,5 1 cl i rr u rry ltrrrtt tl rl t rcstrl ts. A rtothcrcxarnpl oi s thc Il oad l ' ral frc A ct l rvhcrrrcqui rcdto do so and I' ai l i ng l9, 8t jr . v [ ic [ c rc a tc sth c o l ' l ' c l rc c rtl ' l a i l i ng to provi dc a spcci ttrctr s rvltctt rccltrit'ccl do so. Scc also: Gracrrar v DPP. [o anclaclclrc.ss tcl givc lr corrcct n{.lntc (b) DIITY AIilSINCJlrltoM A CONl'ltAcl' his undcra contract, o1'liisobligations WScrca pcrsonis unclcla piisitivc utyto acl bccausc cl clut,v clLrcstion lbrnr thc basisol'criminal liability.i? v cilt't in corrtractual Iailureto pc;lbrnrthc (1902) I9 'fLR. Pittvt'ood clutl' thcirpaticnts. to rrurscs a contlacluai cc arrcl owc Doctors l i fb regardl css ol ' tl te tlle llaticttt's (r Doctors ilrc rtttclct' l.lo lrbsoltttc clttil' lquot;tl lllolong circutttstarr c c s ( Air c t lit lc Nt lS quot;l' r ' us t v l i l : l e )' (c) SI'}E,CI L, llllLA-l-I-ONSHI P A (l ff99)) Cllos c lir r r r i l yr.c l a ti o rrs l ri l rrra yg i v c ri sc tri a cl rrtyc.g. l l ctw ccrt:pl rrctttattclchi l d (S crri or rs i n l oco parcrtl .i s. ar r c (- iiLllti rrs :rl rrlI,r' o q !_ o r' (l 9 l l J ).).u ty cxtcttdsLothosc D l( ttnlil lhc child relchc' l8'/ Or lcave's,fttll'tino Doc:,tit !u,s't lct,yt'/ ik,r, long(lpt,,s',s'rtc:ltrlttt.yt u ct ctltrculiort'/ I8 (1862),lto dttly was held to bc owcd by a parcntto hcr quot;entirclycntancipatedquot; Ip SlrcpircrtJ parcnt? owc a cltrty attcldcrly to clrilcl Might an aclLrlt clauglrter. )/carquot;olcl ruttl wili' cr tlttsbuttcl uncl car,and B ?nnvnl nn (1?42) i n rvhi ch a dutY S c c S n ri fi r (1 9 7 9 ), w [i c l r l e l i th e l rosi ti orr n ,. ,;.,:..' g, as i, . , . , 1to so in a h u s b a n rlb u t tl ri s i s n o t a gooclruthori ty as hc w ets so hi s w i fc' s doctor. al quot;i iF.*t:,b'i' l) r o l ra b l ytto c l ttt,r' s c l ra rl tc c l ' if n (L llctwcctt colrabitccs'? I.stltcrc a clLrty rc l a ti o rrs h i p x i s ts b e l w ccn si bl i ngs(W i l l i am S nri tl f (l 1126).). c cc No sp c c i a l A s l i t IM l )1 ' l o N o F l t E S I)ON S Il l l l ,l TV /l l E l ,l A N C Il , ( c l) / ot , t lNl ' A l tY and def,cndant betwcen Thercis a cornprorr cluty carcwircrcthercis a relationship rcliance of of iaw responsibility anotherpersolrthen they also for assurnes volurrtarily Thus if sorleorrc 'ictim. t6e positivccluryto act lbr thc gcrrcral wcllare of that pcrsonand may be liable for asssrre [1974. Ruffall(200-i) I)rthirrsott lrrtrrl. t',llrtrrt'rrrrt! lI r.r,lriclr rrrrrissiorrs lrrrrvc t)r lquot;r'YDtIIi 1 ' O I) OIT E N I)A N ' I' ' SP It I()IT C ON D 1IC T bccotncsaw arc o1' hartn,and sr' rbsccl trcntl y I l, t hc c J c f b n c l a rrt c i c l c rrta l l c o rl n ri l quot; s r r l rct l l rat caLl scs a ac y Thc duty i s to t 5c eJ angch c h a s c rc a tc c l tl tc rc a ri s c sa dri t,rz act rcasonabl y avcrt that dangcr. to ro , r at ri sl t' t llic r . c as o n a b ls te p sto p rc v c rrlo r rc d u cc i l i rttti ci al l ]ogc pcrsonsor propcrty to . c . lglf.ll t AII !:l( 978, Dl>lt v,lutiturru-Rumnder(2(l(l.ll Il i,,4'lillt:r..1 B angl adesh'P hone # T h c E q u i t a s:Clr a m b cr lt' EsB ( 4 ' h F lo o r ) . Ho u se i l 77. R oad l l 11/A ,D hanmondi , D haka-l 209, Em a i I- i nl-o*f0th-qg$li ta s.co m, Web : www. th eequ i ta s.coln 9 1 2 1 AO7 .0 1 9 1 4 5 5 6 4 6 4 . fftrW :
  5. 5. 'r ': i' ,!iii ' -_i .1 - .D C Ta-F Barrister Sayed-Ul-Haque 6of10 D IAC ITA M l : OMIS S ION OMIS S ION liltlACIquot;l OI; l)tiquot;f' quot;l'O iC'|quot; ('.!,-0.a/:tt'/:ugfiS) Ut v-lDtIpn! ()lj :i, AjistJlvll''l'lON CrltllljOlt l. DLi'l''At{tstNC or otj'[ ANO]'|lHt (&vll.tlan) (4J CONl'ltiCquot;f (ll v PiItwoot) Stoneancl Dobinson) 4. CREATiONOF A t'1'1' Oi: 2. Dt, riilSINCOiJ'Iquot; DANGfltOUS SITUrTION (B.J l{Et-,,1r0Nsl-rIP Qi v.lt'tillcr] glt Gi ttbi rt.s d Proct.or) Rv may owe each other a duty of care (R v WackerQAll, engagedon a joint enterprise Ci'inrinals a Willoughby). this fair? ls whethera duty exists(R v Willoughby).ls fair? thls ln casesof doubt,it is the jury'stask to decicJe a C]A ISA'TION T dcath(although dcltndatll's nccd act thc musl bc provcdto havc causccl victirn's thc l'lrc dclbrtdanl. iauscol'dcallr), thc rnairt nol lrc thc soleor I Sitrtatirtrt- {/',t.cJeath ) l)'s crc: (.rtult lt i ng,) | Catrsatirtttcsttthli'rtteil.D will he tiahle. Sitt!g!irtn-2 D,.yacI(stab|sing)rtt:|of',[,l,(ttnlhtt|unc:cdriver) deatlt, Ite will be liabtc D wil he !irthte.fttr stuhhitti; ottly. If antltulurtcatlriver trc{:ligenriy cuuses r g ross ncgl igencc nrunsluughlcr, fo Two mattcrsnccdto bc corrsidcrcd: and clicl clclbndarrt l:rctcittlsctlrevictinl'sdcatlt, irr lt tlrc can ltc bc lrclcl[o lravccatr.scd irl lnr'r'? it i1'soquot; ft CAUS{I]ION xN FACT A) cstablishedinv llltittt4 mustbeapplied. rnust It R causation l'act, quot;But lbrquot; Tcs;t the in To cstablish occurred: wouldnothave oi'thevictinr that,burt thcdcl'endant's th.:cJcath acts. for beprovcd drink.Shsdrankthe oontaining mothcr's his poison a glass in placccl -Thc clgfbnclant R r, lyltitrs Thedcfendant tr'cfbrc poison couldtakeeflbct. the lirilirre ol'tlrc glass, dicclof lreart but conrplrls With rcgard causation fact,the in to nturder. ol'attcrlptccl rquot;or'lTiurs,cct rnurdcr convictcd but with cause deuth.If one her drink rlirtnot in any w.uy ttct in p!ucingpois'ort his nutlhcr':; in tteJ'c)tctnnits a rhP n # e de ho rh Eqa n e u quot;' ifi * ;sl,:'& rii !;,Hff ffiJ.Tiild,ffi 1ffi, ,ifrdtrr ?l tffi ;i; ti quot;Yg'
  6. 6. ' Qc-na'r1 7 of 10 Sayed-Ul-Haque Barrister woUld obviously ltavccliccl'?quot;, attswcr tltc rlc{bnrllrnt's woultllrislttotltcr ucl quot;[]uI lirr.tlrc ,vcrc irsl<, tel oattsittion Iact. ilt 6avcto be ycs;sIc woukl havctlicdanyr,vay. disprovirtg tlrus hoiling his girlliicncl a slticldand firingat thc policc as 'lrtrIlirrquot; thc tlclbrrctant ln []lgr:tt il,)8:) 1 i'- sltcrvould ltavcdiccl. not i v E C N I, C A T ISN' I' I()N t]) i i cause the of nrustslror,v iilegalactionwas tllorc thatra trlinitrral i. thc tlc In aclcjitiorr llt.osccution that thc dcl'cndant's was an 'operativc act cstiiblislrcrl slrowing lrv carrlrc i'.iury. Causation lar.v in oiluscol'thc c()nscqucncc tltat tltcrc wils llo ittLcil'cning (novusactus act lnri and .substantial' intcrvcnittltlnrr,,quot;ti:rl sorrrctlring trivial.l'his is ltnownas tltc'dc nrinimust prorctharr vcry rricans rulc $ C )p c ra ti v c i s ta k c n to l rc a l t s i grri l i cant tttost,i tn;rortant or ! f t. .l'hc conscqucncc tt ot l ti tvc to l tc tl rc sol c cl tl l sc ol ' thc spccilrcd c J c l ' c n c l a rrt'o ti o n tl o c s as cc i.. :' (Bansa). .a IlkGttA M 2i CAIquot;ISATION t I. i CAI J 5ATI O N i I t i( : A t .( 'A t l s A 'r l o N 4. NEID NOTIJESOLI 3. D N,IIJS'I.,Iquot;AITI V AS I.II: I'IIS CAUSE FINI)S l'llliI(lt v tllaue) .fI_I,,NINII{AL N{ 2. IvIOItE (BJ (Il CIAIJSE v Dx:-orr) Aelgm,s) quot;l 'l 'l l ttl ) a ) ACl' ION S Ol j (ll v IJPtTgg) l'Al('flLS tlrc deathoccur6 aftcr thc clclbndant's llrcrc is alr irrtcrvcning or cvcltt U.lor. act act, Sornetirncs, act' consider tcgalcffoctof an intervening the wlrichcontrib.rtes thc dcath.Wc rnustthcrclbrc to subsequent rvherc victirndicsas a rcsultof son're tlre Thc clef,cndeurt r-csponsiblc thc dcatlr 1'or is not on own evenif the wit6 t6e dgfbnclarrt's wlriclrrvouldhavecaused death its the act, act,Lrlcornected clulblrclant rrotilllictccltheorigillalilrjrrrl'otl victirn' thc lracl fi'onr liability lbr thc subsequcnt act will rclicvc tlrc dcfcndarrt evcry intcrvurirrg Flowcvcr, death. 'ot Cortt bi n;t t iolt r lf t : itt t s c s ol'twocauscs, thedcltnclant's rcmains operating quot;an act and If,t5cdcatS caused a conrbirration by is bc liable, v Mntfhgrek Couftof Appeal thc R ciluscquot;, thcclcfundant still wiII thcn ancl srrbstanfial a inflicted the by 'lrcld wounds t6c opcratirrg substantial of dcath been original iire, lrad causc ancl that in injuries iroldthe effect the: of to nrachine merely was deltndanr. e{.fbct rlrelifb support of Thc Phone# radesh' ras, o* uquot; rhe ui . nu' * ur r*;!ffJ}, Eq iltrffi H:li tildffi#,lffi :Qt
  7. 7. F' I)('NtuP Bof10 I L Ja rris t c S; r Yed- U Flc t uc l- cl r I thc conti l l Ll cd caLl sc t0 sw i tcl rccl ' f' tl tc ori gi rralw oLl l l cl s ol sL tsp cttsioll ; as s ooll as t lt c t r r lt c lt it t c r v as I ot' thOl l l achi l l c' s sconnccti ott, di cvcll il'dcathfbllowcd thi n scconcl s rvi ol'thcviclittt. clcaih I .,,,ir., o l ' l )' ii. N i tl tl t' :tl ,l':'l btrt I' orthe act not hrl vcoccrtrt' cd rvhi cl tl vtl ttl cl , 1. 5c r ]1 a y l i c u s rl rc r.c s u l o l ' s o n rc nct or cvurI t c is - tl rat i s' i t w as tct cortsccl Ll cl l oc' tl tc t[ctl ;ncl ant' tl l ' ic [ ir r c ior c b1,t lr c c i c rc ri l .' t ' n c l ri ,h i c h i s l r. ri rr.rrntl w i l l sti l l c()urscol ' cvcttts. l tt sttcl tl l ci l sc' thc cl cl ' cncl ant lir r . c : ; c c at rllrs Il 1 c l 1 ,[()()c c L rr.i rr c r:()r' nr.rl th c lr c lic lt l Lt llr l v c c i trts c cth c c l c a tl r' l l br tl tc l yi rrg i rr Il rc r.ad.' l ' l tc.ttacl i cr w i l l bc rcspo' si i rl c r ; r lr . c x ar ' 1 rrca rrr.r.rs a i l quot; u c k c c rrc l rc ri i , w o.ttrds'or i l ' hc i s rul l ovcr ^ cxl ]ostl t' c' i rrl bcti orr ' tl tc ol Ittt c lc at hif ' t lr c trra tltl i c s l l ' o rl l l o s s .[' b l ' :rc l c l ' t l i ghtcrti rrg'ti l l ed by l rrurl rc l i abl c i l ' thc nri utw { ' l sstt' trclby b; , . , ^, , , . .llo i v c v c r.,tl rc c l c l c n c l u rrt. )L rrcl wi bui l cl i ngcl rquot; rri rrg cai ' thqual < c' an a' or S c r . as s a i l r| 1 t r l i i l l c c l b y a c o l l a p s i rr g o of clonc-1'or purposss thc lvlacr.cconr;ists a Ibrcsecablc instirtctivcly act irr it intcr'entior, i-lrir'an docs brcak chain causation: of thc cruty, rrot sclr._prcscrvatior,thccxcc,ticr'of rcgar a or in at andshot arrest, a gi'l in f.ontoihim asa shicld rrcld rarvrirr to rcsist prga*:.I rrcctcrcrrclant, II t,, cotrrt ol ' A l rpcal hcl d thc gi rl ' ' l ' hc l i l l ccl l racl i iir . r r c c1l' lic c .rc rr.' l quot; i i c l ro l i c c i rs ti rrc ;ti ' c11,' 1i ' ecl tl,' ,.1 l l ri rclparty by w ay l quot; rl c.ti r.rrr[ th:quot; rt tc rcasorratrlic ons ol ' a cti t lr . t t lr c c lc : l i :' c l u rrr,s t l rrc l c a rrs c cti rc l ilc (trcw act irrtcrvcrring)'Tltc irtlet'ttcttiarr'r crclu,s rs a //(/v tt,s' rrl.sclf.-clclcrcc ctlurlrl rrtlt [rc r.cgr'clccl of hi s act had bccn a fbrci ceabl c corrscqLl cnce c l c a th l s th c il ' l tcrvcni ng c lc l. c ' c lar rh a c l c u u s c c l rc ti t dcl ' cndant as l i abl c l br mansl aughtcr' w oc t ior l ar c l h a c i* o r [r* l l ..c nth c c h a i ' c l l ' c arusati on.' i l hc Clt l ra c tc ri s ti c tl l ' ti tc -v i c ti l n ttl andwill thcnit cic'cs havcto bc fbrcsccablc tlot ol'thcvictirtr Il.t'c irrr.crvcri'r: is chrr..s1c.i5t;c uct musttake dcfbndant tlquot;rata quot;'l'hinSkullquot; Rule,which providcs ' rrotbrcart crrii'.[.causatio,,,.--i't.,r thc headrviththc dcgree lbrcethat of 'i'ir., i.s, iID rritsv on the urrply iri*, r,r,irr rrisvicri' as irc trrrcrs V hasan unLlsLlally skull thin slightbr,isirrg, bccattsc but tlrarr rr'thirrg,r.rof. cirr-rsc. rcll' 6''' cviclcncc v's pltysical u,orlciusuallv of brii'cra'ragi D can'ot riiictrrr.cci ;,rrcr rl..',tt crr's!:s rtl srr-rcr.a V cxat'ple: nt-t'tt'quot;tiorr becnbrOkc''For ltas chairr slro'tcotrrirrgsslrorl'thc [o l<icl<cd shc collapsed hcr' arrcl i'to trrcstrcctslro'tirg thrcats * r, f[.itlttt,orrr. rrurrcrrasccl rvirc rris and A exertion rur.cptiblcto physical pcculin,ty hcr corrclitiorr irr',,','rr,rc rnl rr.o'ra trryroicr a'cr crlgd or rncdicar ncnt' chain trcat the iil Yihi -J.o,,,. chooscstoseck ltclp'and bccausc must not hc ;ll; :l;;;;1il:[$] D to scclt borhlrccarisc rvasundcrno cluty V will rrclt brol<cn, bc 'i.lusr.rtiorl as ltc llrrds'hittt: tal<c victirl lris andshe witncss,l3 titlres' wrrow0: o Jcrrovah's trrc , Bruua.-r.rrc dcrb'crarrl stabbecr 'ictirrr, trad have a blood R did ttot torcrrrcr ir',^*,tquot;,. rvo'ld dit it' shc croctors r.r,rrcrc al l cr' Thc was rusrrccr rrospitar to arrcl i ccll i rl rrt Il ct' rvot' tnclshortl y s cl g,' n,' ,,' r.l * o rr r.c l igi .rrs lr . lr ' s r ir s i.rr..r.l rc i ,.j ti ,r r.c Irs c tl v rcsl ronsi bi l i ty) d appcal cd a' ot' cti ' ni ,ri si i cd .[-' ra ' s l a u g rrcr.cn,r gro,quot; ,,i cl s had brol tcn the chai n of dc r c . c la' t rv a s c o rv i c r.c c r .,,i c i i rrquot; r,sri rs i r oI trcat' rcrrt,rrci ng unr.oi nobl c, rc o. - ,t r r c gr o rquot; rrrc r trre r trrrrquot; hcr' meani ng not rrJ to takcl ri s vi cti rn as l tc fbrrnd l -..1 c td tl i a t tl rc c l c l trrci ant h that his r . r ius ar ic l' L a rv to rr not argutc . coulcl cicttnclant rrcr'crigio,.,bclicfs.rnc corrcritiou. r.rrso rrur of'treattncntwere .j.,strrcr prrl,sicar ccftain l<inds hcr fl'onracccpting rcligio's Lrclicl!rvhich inhibitccl was thc stab causcdthc dcatlr'Thc answcr c-lrcsrquot;io, crccisiorr what was 'icti*,s ror Lrr.casor.blc..-r-6c wottrtcl cgl i gcrrt nredi c al iv . t*,lrlcttts ,i n t6or tc ,rr.i nrc .affii ji:i,iiJl,jiquot;;i; Arrortrcr ut,Til.---I scr ;ll]::.:i:quot;tl::::::;lJi'lL*,,Ji.,circunrstanccs 'n,1,quot;*,. liiJii::,':l' 'quot;i;ll;;;rquot;i;.-t;J::, s;:ll:i,il#**quot;:quot;ri:?iHllquot;' r'r:^quot;Tr'quot;':j*quot;,: phonef Dhaka-r20g.angradesh' B r - t o u sr t 1 7 , - R 7 a d # 1 r / A , D h a n m o n d i , e Thc Eq uir as ;ham bJ rr r r . , J B64' r , Fr oor ) , web : www' th ecqqi cem c tos' s 121 oo7' o',' o ui o;' E; quot;; i i-nj-e@lheesstlel'sqm' quot; ,' lj: W i i, .i ... ,rri: .',,' ',ir::;'.' .?,:
  8. 8. Q|''Ta-P 9of10 ue Ba rristerSay ed- Ui- Haq t'cccivcd a victint.Iollowingan attacl< thc dcl'cndant. rclicvchirn will by by lrcatrttr:tit thc nrcclical dics. ol'liabilitylbr lrolnicicJc victirttsttbscqttcntly il'thc and dicd eightdays I, .' itabbccl victirnwho was adtnittcd hospital to thc R r, ,lrt{ilrttr. ]-hc clclbrrclant ;' '1{ F tlrat ol'two cloctors allowcdto tltccl'fbct was cvidcrrcc fl'csh tlrc latcr,Ilr lhc Courtof'A1l1lcal, i'1 quot; '.: r-- I which was lnaittlylrcatcd the at wottttcl, clusccl tltc sLab by (a) ip t6cir opilrionclcatlr not, lracl bccrr trcatrrlcl]t, tinrcof tttccloath, lry tltc tttcclical [rtrt (b) tlrc victilr hacllrcerlgivcrrilt'l anti-biotict<l r,vlticlt was allcrgicancl largc amountsof hc uncl Iiquid; iptr.aygrcous wrongquot;,andthe directand immediate arccorcJirrg cviclcnce, quot;;ralpably wa$ to thc (c) tSistrcatrncnl., causc l' dcath(prrcrrlrrorr ia). o causcof death was rncrclythc scttingwithin which another helcltlratthc stabwouncl The cour.t jury rnightnot havcbccnsatisfied the that Thoy lrcldthata opcratccl, qLlashccl corrviction, thc ancl cvidcncc cxperl'opinion. and cleatS caLlsccl thc stabr,vound thcy hacl thc rncclical all hact by was particular distipggisliccl thc Courtol'Appcalin R tt Sntith|959] 2 QB 35, asa quot;v.cry by .lortltsrwas cxnctfitctsquot;. casccicpcrrcling its uport the duringwhichhc stabbcd Tlrc clcfcrrcllrrt involvccl a tightr,r,itlt lbllorvsoldicr a irr was R r,,gntitlt. where died he statiolt bcingtal<en the mcdical to resultirrg thc victirtr in witlr a bayeslst, quot;quot;ti'iti*ice lror.rr argucd that the chain of thc defcndant witlr rtturclcr latcr. On bcirrg clrargccl about or-rc and tlre dcatlrhad bccnbrolicnby the way.in whiclrthe victim had bctwccnthc stabbing caLtsariotl bccnfr'Catcd, ltrrticular facttlrat: tltc itt carricd thc tncclical to statiott; tlcing twiccwhil.st clroppcd (a) thc victinrlracl bccrr olficcr.who was dcalingwitlr a scricsol'crnergcncies, not realisc serious the did (b) thc nrcclical artd cxtutt of thc wounds; , of (c) t6c treartrncnt gavc hirrrwas quot;thorourghly and nrightwell haveaffbctedhis chances bad hc 'l'hcdel'crrclarrt convictcd unsuccessfully. ol'ttrttrdcr appcalid and rvas rccovcryquot;. was thc i'operbting causequot;of the and substantial stal'ltrillg The cour-t6elclt6at thc clcltnc'lant's caused thc stabwounds by loss'bl'bioocl IL'ortr clcarlquot;r,clicct dcatlr,ln tlriscascthc victirrr victirn's Only il'rhc originalwoundcouldbc saicl havcmerclyprovided the to ip{-lictcd thc dclcpcllnt. by did not resultfrom could it bc saidthatthc death opcrartccl ol'clcatlr settingin which anothcrcaLlse tltc rvound. slrot thc victirn twicc who was taken to hospital and died two months R tt Cheslrire. Tlre clel'errdant arrestdue to gunshot t r iquot; l, th c c a L ts e Ith c v i c ti rrr' s e ath.u,as vcn as quot; cardi o-respi ratory gi d o lat r . A t lv ounds quot; anc l tl :c d c l c n d a rrt u ,a s c o n v i c t cd ol ' nrttrdcr.Thc del bndant appeal edand i ntroduced c x pc r t c v ic lc n c cto th c c l l b c t th a t causcclby a rarc corrrplicarionrcsultirrgli'olrr the rrtcdicaltrcattllent hc had (a) t5c ctcatS6acl Lrccrr r c c c iv ed,and th a t (thc doctors had ( ir ) . t lr c c lr air r9 [' c a u s l rl .i o n ra rl l rc c n b n l l i .crr ry tl rc ncgl i gcrttrttcdi caltrcatrtrctrt l l qrrickly). morc blockagc slrorrld rcactcd ltavc and llilcclto rcalisc scri()g:j;tcss rcspiriltory ol'il tlrc Phone# Bangladelh. Charnber# E5Bt4rr'Floor). House# 77, Road # lllA. Dhanmondi,Dhaka'1209. The Equitas: Email-rdo@JhegUilelgot1]. $Ueb:Wr+rw.theeqgitas'c9,fn g1210A7.01914556464. ,F