CHAPTER 3:Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn
Period of the Zygote: Week 1-2Key terms: Ovulation; fertilization, implantation, fallopian tube;zygote, blastocyst; germ discCharacteristics: 2 weeks duration; rapid divisionLet’s look at the next slide to viewthis period more closely.
Period of the Embryo: Week 3-8Key terms: Embryo Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Amnion and amniotic fluid Umbilical cord Placenta VilliCharacteristics: Third to eighth weeks of prenatal development Differentiation of organs and organ systems occurs
Period of the Fetus: Weeks 9-38Key Terms: Cerebral cortex Vernix Age of viabilityCharacteristics: From 9 weeks after conception to birth Increase in size Systems begin to function
Period of the FetusFetal Behavior: Fetal movement Behavioral maturity of sense Changes during prenatal development
Five Steps Toward a Healthy Baby1. Regular check-ups2. Healthy foods3. No alcohol or caffeinated beverages4. Exercise5. Adequate diet
General Risk Factors Nutrition Chronic stress Mother’s age
Teratogens: Diseases, Drugs,and Environmental HazardsTeratogen:Agent that causes abnormal prenatal development Diseases passing through placenta directly or attacking atbirth Potentially dangerous drugs Environmental hazards
Can you hear me now???Is cell phone usage a potentialteratogen for pregnant women?Check out Yale’s recent study…http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/yale-study-cellphone-pregnancy-bad-babies-health-article-1.1039527
Let’s review the effects of teratogensacross prenatal development.
Labor and DeliveryLabor is usually divided into three stagesLet’s watch some men give it a try…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A44oEcmDn1c&list=PLmc_JvKoNAoqH1xNuQVMs8rLrlPn7EnYA Stage 1• Startswhenmusclesof uteruscontractand endswhencervix isfullyenlargedStage 2• Baby ispushedthroughthe birthcanalStage 3• Placentaisexpelled
Assessing the Newborn Apgar score (Table 3-5) Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)Newborns’ reflexes prepare them to interact with theworld Survival reflexes Protective reflexes Foundational reflexes
Newborn States: PrimaryFour primary states Alert inactivity Waking activity CryingThree distinctive types of cries Basic Mad Pain SleepingCheck out how to determine the 5 words all newbornssay…Dunstan Baby Language Method (Oprah Clip)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nWQ51099C24
Newborn States: Sleep Developmental change in sleep-wake cycle Types of sleep (REM/non-REM) Co-sleeping
Perception and Learning in theNewbornAll the basic perceptual processesare operating at birthNewborns can see, hear, taste,smell, and feelNewborns can also learn andremember