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Behaviorist perspective


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Sana makatulong :)

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Behaviorist perspective

  1. 1. Behaviorist Perspective
  2. 2. Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990)
  3. 3. Burrhus Frederick Skinner • American psychologist - influential from the 1930’s - 60’s – developed operant conditioning • Skinner was interested in education – He believed that behavior is sustained by reinforcements or rewards, not by free will. • Famous for the skinner box & the teaching machine • Often worked with pigeons & rats and applied what he learned with these animals to human learning
  4. 4. Operant Conditioning • Is based upon the notion that learning is a result of change in overt behavior. • Changes in behavior are the result of an individual’s response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. S R Stimuli-response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond
  5. 5. Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcer – is any stimulus that is given or added to increase the response. • Negative Reinforcer – is any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrwan or removed.
  6. 6. Non-reinforcement • Shaping of Behavior- An animal on a cage may take a very long time to figure out that pressing a lever will produce food. To accomplish such behavior successive approximations of the behavior are rewarded until the animal learns the association between the lever and the food reward. To begin shaping, the animal may be rewarded for simply turning in the direction of the lever, then for moving toward the lever for brushing against the lever, and finally for pressing the lever.
  7. 7. • Behaviorist Chaining – come about when a series of steps are needed to be learned. The animal would master each step in sequence until the entire sequence is learned. • Reinforcement Schedules - once the desired behavioral response is accomplished, reinforcement does not have to be 100% in fact it can be maintained more successfully through what skinner reffered to as partial reinforcement schedules. Partial reinforcement schedules include interval schedules and ratio schedules.
  8. 8.  Fixed Interval Schedules the target response is reinforced after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reinforcement. Variable Interval Schedules – the amount of time that must pass between reinforcement varies. Fixed Ratio schedules- a fixed number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement may recur.
  9. 9. The End