Group  8Yeni 	12192Aprilia Kartika Putri12252<br />
Morphology and Syntax:Grammar<br />
Grammar and Description of Language.Grammatical  Categories and Prototypes.Constituent Structure.Descriptive and Prescript...
GRAMMAR  AND  DESCRIPTION OF                                                                        LANGUAGE<br />
Grammar is a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language.<br />
The relation between GRAMMAR and DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE is grammar is one of major areas of description of language.<br />
ModernGrammarians vs Traditional Grammarians<br />Modern grammarians use  form-based definition when identifying  grammati...
Compare these two sentencesYeni cooked chicken curry yesterday.It would be better if Yeni cooked tomorrow.<br />
Now , let’s see other example<br />Will you come to my house?    asking<br />Compared with<br />Will you get out?    com...
Grammatical Categories and Prototypes<br />
Grammatical categories : <br />	Sets of syntactic features defined by form-based definition.<br />
	Traditional grammarians tend to define<br />“subject” as “the doer” or “what the sentence<br /> is about” .  Compare thes...
To correctly determine which one the subject is, we can use tag question form.<br />John takes the book, doesn’t he?<br />...
Grammatical Prototypes:<br />	Sets of syntactic features defined by meaning-based definition.<br />
    To define ”noun”, traditional grammarians use terms “the name of place, thing, or person”.  <br />	This definition can...
CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE<br />
An analysis, often in the form of a schematic representation, of the constituents of a construction, such as a sentence.<b...
EXAMPLE<br />
	Immediate Constituents : <br />	Constituents which ARE DIRECTLY BELOW the construction .<br />	e.g.<br />Noun phrase Bali...
How Do We Know How to Analyse a Sentence into Its Contituents?<br />Substitution<br />	If a sequence of words can be subst...
Movement<br />	If a sequence of words can be moved to another position, then it is the constituent.<br />	e.g. We can say ...
DESCRIPTIVE AND PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR<br />
Prescriptive Grammar: <br />  Grammar prescribing the ways in which language should be used.<br />
This is the house which he lives in.(This form is incorrect according to prescriptive grammar)This is the house in whichhe...
Descriptive Grammar:  <br />	Grammarprescribing the ways in which language is used.<br />
However, according to descriptive grammar, both forms are correct.This is the house which he lives in.(This form is formal...
Prescriptive Grammar tend to operate with a simple contrast between correct and incorrect; Descriptive Grammarrecognize th...
Prescriptive and descriptive grammar are not necessarily in conflict; they just have different goals.Prescriptive grammar ...
Thank You<br />
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Morphology and syntax kelompok

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Morphology and syntax kelompok

  1. 1. Group 8Yeni 12192Aprilia Kartika Putri12252<br />
  2. 2. Morphology and Syntax:Grammar<br />
  3. 3. Grammar and Description of Language.Grammatical Categories and Prototypes.Constituent Structure.Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammar.<br />
  4. 4. GRAMMAR AND DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE<br />
  5. 5. Grammar is a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language.<br />
  6. 6. The relation between GRAMMAR and DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE is grammar is one of major areas of description of language.<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. ModernGrammarians vs Traditional Grammarians<br />Modern grammarians use form-based definition when identifying grammatical properties .<br />On the other hand,<br /> Traditional grammarians tend to invoke meaning rather than form when defining grammatical properties.<br />
  10. 10. Compare these two sentencesYeni cooked chicken curry yesterday.It would be better if Yeni cooked tomorrow.<br />
  11. 11. Now , let’s see other example<br />Will you come to my house?  asking<br />Compared with<br />Will you get out? commanding<br />Will you have another cup of tea? offering<br />
  12. 12. Grammatical Categories and Prototypes<br />
  13. 13. Grammatical categories : <br /> Sets of syntactic features defined by form-based definition.<br />
  14. 14. Traditional grammarians tend to define<br />“subject” as “the doer” or “what the sentence<br /> is about” . Compare these sentences.<br />e.g.<br />John takes the book.<br />John is a doctor. <br />It was raining.<br />The book is taken by John.<br />
  15. 15. To correctly determine which one the subject is, we can use tag question form.<br />John takes the book, doesn’t he?<br />John is a doctor, isn’t he?<br />It was raining, wasn’t it?<br />The book is taken by John, isn’t it?<br />
  16. 16. Grammatical Prototypes:<br /> Sets of syntactic features defined by meaning-based definition.<br />
  17. 17. To define ”noun”, traditional grammarians use terms “the name of place, thing, or person”. <br /> This definition can be used to define concrete noun (e.g. school, tree, John).<br />
  18. 18. CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE<br />
  19. 19. An analysis, often in the form of a schematic representation, of the constituents of a construction, such as a sentence.<br />
  20. 20. EXAMPLE<br />
  21. 21. Immediate Constituents : <br /> Constituents which ARE DIRECTLY BELOW the construction .<br /> e.g.<br />Noun phrase Bali island and verb phrase is the most visited tourism place this year is the immediate constituent of construction Bali island is the most visited tourism place this year. <br />
  22. 22. How Do We Know How to Analyse a Sentence into Its Contituents?<br />Substitution<br /> If a sequence of words can be substituted by a single word, then we can assume that the sequence is the constituent.<br /> e.g. We can say Bali island is the constituent because this word can be replaced by pronoun it.<br />
  23. 23. Movement<br /> If a sequence of words can be moved to another position, then it is the constituent.<br /> e.g. We can say this year is one of the constituents of Bali island is the most visited place this year because it can be moved into different position,This year Bali island is the most visited tourism place.<br />
  24. 24. DESCRIPTIVE AND PRESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR<br />
  25. 25. Prescriptive Grammar: <br /> Grammar prescribing the ways in which language should be used.<br />
  26. 26. This is the house which he lives in.(This form is incorrect according to prescriptive grammar)This is the house in whichhe lives. (This is the correct form according to prescriptive grammar)<br />
  27. 27. Descriptive Grammar: <br /> Grammarprescribing the ways in which language is used.<br />
  28. 28. However, according to descriptive grammar, both forms are correct.This is the house which he lives in.(This form is formal)This is the house in whichhe lives. (This is the informal form)<br />
  29. 29. Prescriptive Grammar tend to operate with a simple contrast between correct and incorrect; Descriptive Grammarrecognize the existence of different varieties of language; formal and informal, written and spoken, standard and nonstandard, etc.<br />
  30. 30. Prescriptive and descriptive grammar are not necessarily in conflict; they just have different goals.Prescriptive grammar present rules to be followed, while descriptive grammar aim to account for the grammatical system that underlies our use of language.<br />
  31. 31. Thank You<br />

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