The American Cocktail, Straight Up:
Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin,
and the “Age of Entertaining”
Kira A. Dietz
In-Servic...
(As opposed to the defining cocktail, which
is a whole other discussion…)
Defining the “Cocktail”
• A docked horse tail
• Any horse of racing stamp and qualities
• A person assuming the position of a gentlemen, but
defic...
“Will you be so obliging as to inform me
what is meant by this species of
refreshment [cock-tail]?...I have heard of
a jor...
“[As I make it a point, never to publish any thing (under
my editorial head) but what I can explain, I shall not
hesitate ...
What’s in a Name?
• “Punch”: liquor, sugar, water, lemon, and
spices
• “Cocktail” (1806): a stimulating liquor,
composed o...
It All Began With…Punch?
• Years active: mid 17th century onward (in
Western culture)
• Base spirit(s): alcohol (varied by...
Feuerzangenbowle
“On the other side of the
ledger stood the fact that
fortitude was useless
against it (liquor). Even the
...
The Rise of the Cocktail in America
• Years active: 1806-1918
• Base spirit(s): Gin, brandy, whisk(e)y,
absinthe, vermouth...
A Cocktail By Any Other Name
• Early cocktails developed in categories.
Usually, there was a basic recipe and you
simply s...
In February 2013, Special
Collections was lucky
enough to acquire a first
edition of How to Mix
Drinks, or The Bon-
Vivant...
“I have seen purer liquors, better
seagars, finer tobacco, truer guns
and pistols, larger dirks and bowie
knives, and pret...
The infamous “Blue Blazer”
Table Top Tolu Rock &
Rye Advertisement, c.
1880-1881
Items like this would have
been on display in
pharmacies and apothec...
The “Bitter” Truth
• Bitters emerged from patent medicines
• In the late 19th century, bitters were often
market as medici...
Hegenbarth's Bowlen,
Punsch-, und Kaffee-Haus-
Getränkebuch : eine
Sammlung zeitgemässer
Vorschriften zur
Herstellung von ...
“I drink Champagne when I
win, to celebrate.
And I drink Champagne
when I lose, to console
myself.”
-Napoleon Bonaparte
Drinks as They are Mixed:
A Manual of Quick
Reference: Containing
Upwards of 300 Recipes
for Mixing and Serving
Drinks…: I...
Louis’ Mixed Drinks, with
Hints for the Care &
Serving of Wine, Louis
Muckensturm, 1906
“Too much of
anything is bad, but
too much of good
whisky is barely
enough.”
– Mark Twain
Louis’ Mixed Drinks, with
Hints for the Care &
Serving of Wine, Louis
Muckensturm, 1906
Prohibition and Between the Wars
• Years active: 1919-1941
• Base spirit(s): Bath-tub gin, bath-tub
whisk(e)y, moonshine, ...
Lowenbach Brothers
Price List, c.1910s
(Ms2012-006)
Drink Mixer, Compliments of Nat M. Leff, boxing promoter, 1931
Forty Famous Cocktails:
Being a Compendium of
Reliable recipes Carefully
Compiled for Use in this
Arid Era, Engraved with
...
“Prohibition is better
than no liquor at all. “
-Will Rogers
“When I sell liquor,
it's bootlegging.
When my patrons
serve ...
The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, Albert Stevens Crockett, 1934
The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, Albert Stevens Crockett, 1934
The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, Albert Stevens Crockett, 1934
More Fun at Cocktail Time:
A Rollicking Book of
Games and Tricks, Julien J.
Proskauer, c.1935
So Red the Nose; or,
Breath in the Afternoon,
Sterling North and Carl
Kroch, c.1935
“The light music of
whisky falling int...
“Remember gentlemen, it's not just France we
are fighting for, it's Champagne!"
-Winston Churchill
The Latter Half of the 20th Century
• Years active: 1945-1999
• Base spirit(s): Vodka, rum, gin, whisk(e)y,
cordials, tequ...
Zodiac Cocktails:
Cocktails for All
Birthdays, Stanley S.
MacNeil, 1940
The “Age of Entertaining”
• After WWII and through the 1970s, cocktail
books were no longer simply bartending
manuals
• Pu...
The Club Cocktail Party Book, 1941
“Remember gentlemen, it's not just France we
are fighting for, it's Champagne!"
-Winston Churchill
The Stork Club Bar Book,
Lucious Beebe, 1946
Crosby Gaige’s Cocktail Guide and Ladies’ Companion, 1946
Le Barman Universel =
The Universal Barman:
600 Recettes de
Boissons de Bar, les Vins,
les Eaux, P. Dagouret,
1948
All-in-Vue 84
Drinks for You:
A Recipe Book
with a Great
Deal of Other
Valuable
Information
from the
Cocktail
Ephemera
Col...
A Guide to Pink Elephants: 200 Most Requested Mixed Drinks on Alcohol
Resistant Cards, c.1952
The Calvert Party
Encyclopedia, 1960 from
the Cocktail Ephemera
Collection (Ms2013-027)
From New York and Restaurants at the World’s Fair: 46 Great Drinks, 1961, from
the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-02...
Fleischmann’s Mixer’s
Manual, c.1960s(?) from
the Cocktail Ephemera
Collection (Ms2013-027)
Bacardi Recipe Book, 1971 from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
The 21st Century Cocktail
• Years active: 2000-
• Base spirit(s): You name it, you can concoct
with it.
• Additional ingre...
The Kentucky Bourbon
Cocktail Book, Joy
Perrine and Susan
Reigler, 2009
Carbonated Mojito Spheres (recipe adapted from Jose
Andres) from Modernist Cuisine, 2012
Why Cocktail History?
• Some places collect cocktail books, but
there aren’t many concentrated collections!
• Cocktails an...
“First you take a
drink, then the drink
takes a drink, then
the drink takes you.”
-F. Scott Fitzgerland
History of the American Cocktail
Collection
• Over 80 books
– 1862-2013
– Materials in four languages (English, German,
Sp...
“The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to the
Galaxy also mentions alcohol. It
says that the best drink in
existence is the Pan Galactic...
What’s in the Glass?
(Collection Contents)
• Recipes and the evolution of cocktails
• Bar manuals for the professional and...
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014
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The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014

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  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cocktail#mediaviewer/File:Classic_martini_by_Ken30684.jpg
  • jorum large drinking-bowl or vessel; also, the contents of this; esp. a bowl of punch.
    phlegm-cutter   n. a strong alcoholic beverage, typically one drunk in the morning.
    Flip A mixture of beer and spirit sweetened with sugar and heated with a hot iron. 
  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cocktail#mediaviewer/File:Feuerzangenbowle_with_glowing_orange_and_blue_flames.jpg
  • List is from a 1901 St. Louis newspaper
    He is… topheavy
    primed
    jiggered
    on the ree-raw
    full of mountain dew
    full of Jersey lightning
    wabbly on his pins
    He has… a skate on
    an applejack gait
    more sail than ballast
    been dallying with the black bottle
    been trying to beat John Barleycorn
    been measuring sidewalks upsidedown
    He can’t… see the hold in the ladder
    lie down without holding one

  • Postcards from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
  • At some point in here, I think the French confused cocktails with a fruit salad….
  • The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining," May 2014

    1. 1. The American Cocktail, Straight Up: Documenting Punch, Bath-tub Gin, and the “Age of Entertaining” Kira A. Dietz In-Service Day 2014
    2. 2. (As opposed to the defining cocktail, which is a whole other discussion…) Defining the “Cocktail”
    3. 3. • A docked horse tail • Any horse of racing stamp and qualities • A person assuming the position of a gentlemen, but deficient in thorough gentlemanly breeding • A type of beetle • A preparation of food usually served at the beginning of a meal • A mixture of chemical substances, especially one which is dangerous • The tail feather of a rooster • Oh, and it’s a type of drink… Defining the “Cocktail”
    4. 4. “Will you be so obliging as to inform me what is meant by this species of refreshment [cock-tail]?...I have heard of a jorum, of phlegm-cutter and fog driver, of whetting the whistle, and moistening the clay, of a fillip, a spur in the head, quenching a spark in the throat, of flip &c. but never in my life, though I have lived a good many years, did I hear of cock-tail before. Is it peculiar to a part of this country? Is the name expressive of the effect which the drink has on a particular part of the body? Or does it signify that the democrats who take the potion are turned topsyturvey, and have their heads where their tails should be? I should think the latter to be the real solution…” The Balance and Columbian Repository, Hudson, NY, 1806
    5. 5. “[As I make it a point, never to publish any thing (under my editorial head) but what I can explain, I shall not hesitate to gratify the curiosity of my inquisitive correspondent: Cock-tail, then, is a stimulating liquor, composed of spirits of any kind, sugar, water, and bitters—it is vulgarly called a bittered sling, and is supposed to be an excellent electioneering potion, inasmuch as it renders the heart stout and bold, at the same time that it fuddles the head. It is said also, to be of great use to a democratic candidate: because, a person having swallowed a glass of it, is ready to swallow any thing else. Edit. Bal.]
    6. 6. What’s in a Name? • “Punch”: liquor, sugar, water, lemon, and spices • “Cocktail” (1806): a stimulating liquor, composed of spirits of any kind, sugar, water, and bitters • “Mixed Drinks” (2002): one or more spirits, one or more mixers (i.e. juice or soda). Additional ingredients include sugar, honey, cream, herbs, spices, or fruits/veggies.
    7. 7. It All Began With…Punch? • Years active: mid 17th century onward (in Western culture) • Base spirit(s): alcohol (varied by region and availability) • Additional ingredients: sugar, water, lemon, spices, tea • New arrivals: fermented spirits from Southeast Asia, spices
    8. 8. Feuerzangenbowle “On the other side of the ledger stood the fact that fortitude was useless against it (liquor). Even the mightiest potsman, a paladin who could match tankards with a whole alehouse of swag-bellies Falstaffs and outquaff the parcel of them, would see his length measured upon the floor by less liquid than it would take to fill his hat.” ― David Wondrich, Punch: The Delights (and Dangers) of the Flowing Bowl
    9. 9. The Rise of the Cocktail in America • Years active: 1806-1918 • Base spirit(s): Gin, brandy, whisk(e)y, absinthe, vermouth. Later: cordials, fruit brandies/fruit liquors • Additional ingredients: gum syrup, fruit syrups, bitters, water • New arrivals: Pretty much everything was new in this era! Other “bases” that became popular include applejack, champagne, maraschino, and curacao
    10. 10. A Cocktail By Any Other Name • Early cocktails developed in categories. Usually, there was a basic recipe and you simply swapped out the base spirit: Fixes Rickeys Juleps/Smashes Sours Cobblers Cocktails Daisies Nogs/Egg Drinks Crustas Fizzes Toddies Coolers Slings
    11. 11. In February 2013, Special Collections was lucky enough to acquire a first edition of How to Mix Drinks, or The Bon- Vivant’s Companion… by “Professor” Jerry Thomas. Printed in 1862, this was the first ever guide designed for bartenders.
    12. 12. “I have seen purer liquors, better seagars, finer tobacco, truer guns and pistols, larger dirks and bowie knives, and prettier courtezans here, than in any other place I have ever visited; and it is my unbiased opinion that California can and does furnish the best bad things that are obtainable in America.” -”Professor” Jerry Thomas How to Mix Drinks, or The Bon- Vivant’s Companion…, 1862
    13. 13. The infamous “Blue Blazer”
    14. 14. Table Top Tolu Rock & Rye Advertisement, c. 1880-1881 Items like this would have been on display in pharmacies and apothecary shops. Of course, the main ingredient was often alcohol, which allowed distributors to get around the taxes charged on liquor. During Prohibition, patent medicines were still legal and as a result, many people would consume a bottle (or more!) a day.
    15. 15. The “Bitter” Truth • Bitters emerged from patent medicines • In the late 19th century, bitters were often market as medicinal to avoid the tax on alcohol and to escape the attention of temperance groups • They remained legal during Prohibition and some people would consume a bottle (or more) a day • Today, bitters come in as many varieties as you can up. Bars (and individuals!) make them with a range of flavors and profiles
    16. 16. Hegenbarth's Bowlen, Punsch-, und Kaffee-Haus- Getränkebuch : eine Sammlung zeitgemässer Vorschriften zur Herstellung von kalten, warmen und sonstigen Mischgetränken : Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der in- und ausländischen Kaffeehaus-Getränke der "american drinks", sowie Äpfel und sonstiger Frucht Bowlen und Punsche, 1903
    17. 17. “I drink Champagne when I win, to celebrate. And I drink Champagne when I lose, to console myself.” -Napoleon Bonaparte
    18. 18. Drinks as They are Mixed: A Manual of Quick Reference: Containing Upwards of 300 Recipes for Mixing and Serving Drinks…: Including Toasts and Sentiments for All Occasions, c.1904
    19. 19. Louis’ Mixed Drinks, with Hints for the Care & Serving of Wine, Louis Muckensturm, 1906
    20. 20. “Too much of anything is bad, but too much of good whisky is barely enough.” – Mark Twain
    21. 21. Louis’ Mixed Drinks, with Hints for the Care & Serving of Wine, Louis Muckensturm, 1906
    22. 22. Prohibition and Between the Wars • Years active: 1919-1941 • Base spirit(s): Bath-tub gin, bath-tub whisk(e)y, moonshine, home “brews.” After 1933: Gin, whisk(e)y, wine-based aperitifs, rum, champagne • Additional ingredients: fruit juices, sweeteners/syrups, bitters • New arrivals: Rum
    23. 23. Lowenbach Brothers Price List, c.1910s (Ms2012-006)
    24. 24. Drink Mixer, Compliments of Nat M. Leff, boxing promoter, 1931
    25. 25. Forty Famous Cocktails: Being a Compendium of Reliable recipes Carefully Compiled for Use in this Arid Era, Engraved with Humble Apologies to That Master Engraver John Held, Jr., c.1930s
    26. 26. “Prohibition is better than no liquor at all. “ -Will Rogers “When I sell liquor, it's bootlegging. When my patrons serve it on a silver tray on Lakeshore Drive, it's hospitality.” -Al Capone
    27. 27. The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, Albert Stevens Crockett, 1934
    28. 28. The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, Albert Stevens Crockett, 1934
    29. 29. The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, Albert Stevens Crockett, 1934
    30. 30. More Fun at Cocktail Time: A Rollicking Book of Games and Tricks, Julien J. Proskauer, c.1935
    31. 31. So Red the Nose; or, Breath in the Afternoon, Sterling North and Carl Kroch, c.1935 “The light music of whisky falling into glasses made an agreeable interlude.” ― James Joyce, Dubliners
    32. 32. “Remember gentlemen, it's not just France we are fighting for, it's Champagne!" -Winston Churchill
    33. 33. The Latter Half of the 20th Century • Years active: 1945-1999 • Base spirit(s): Vodka, rum, gin, whisk(e)y, cordials, tequila • Additional ingredients: flavored sweeteners, fruits and herbs, fruit juices, soda, milk/cream • New arrivals: Tiki drinks, popularization of the martini, Jell-O shots
    34. 34. Zodiac Cocktails: Cocktails for All Birthdays, Stanley S. MacNeil, 1940
    35. 35. The “Age of Entertaining” • After WWII and through the 1970s, cocktail books were no longer simply bartending manuals • Publications began to include food recipes, party games/themes, and planning tips for the hostess • At the same time, cookbooks began to include cocktails
    36. 36. The Club Cocktail Party Book, 1941
    37. 37. “Remember gentlemen, it's not just France we are fighting for, it's Champagne!" -Winston Churchill
    38. 38. The Stork Club Bar Book, Lucious Beebe, 1946
    39. 39. Crosby Gaige’s Cocktail Guide and Ladies’ Companion, 1946
    40. 40. Le Barman Universel = The Universal Barman: 600 Recettes de Boissons de Bar, les Vins, les Eaux, P. Dagouret, 1948
    41. 41. All-in-Vue 84 Drinks for You: A Recipe Book with a Great Deal of Other Valuable Information from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
    42. 42. A Guide to Pink Elephants: 200 Most Requested Mixed Drinks on Alcohol Resistant Cards, c.1952
    43. 43. The Calvert Party Encyclopedia, 1960 from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
    44. 44. From New York and Restaurants at the World’s Fair: 46 Great Drinks, 1961, from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
    45. 45. Fleischmann’s Mixer’s Manual, c.1960s(?) from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
    46. 46. Bacardi Recipe Book, 1971 from the Cocktail Ephemera Collection (Ms2013-027)
    47. 47. The 21st Century Cocktail • Years active: 2000- • Base spirit(s): You name it, you can concoct with it. • Additional ingredients: See base spirits. This is an age of creativity. • New arrivals: Craft ingredients/cocktails, molecular gastronomic approaches, infused spirits
    48. 48. The Kentucky Bourbon Cocktail Book, Joy Perrine and Susan Reigler, 2009
    49. 49. Carbonated Mojito Spheres (recipe adapted from Jose Andres) from Modernist Cuisine, 2012
    50. 50. Why Cocktail History? • Some places collect cocktail books, but there aren’t many concentrated collections! • Cocktails and cocktail culture are an interesting part of food history in America! • Food history is something we do! • Cocktails are fun!
    51. 51. “First you take a drink, then the drink takes a drink, then the drink takes you.” -F. Scott Fitzgerland
    52. 52. History of the American Cocktail Collection • Over 80 books – 1862-2013 – Materials in four languages (English, German, Spanish, and French) – Books published in at least 5 countries • 5 manuscript collections – Pamphlets – Postcards – Advertisements and flyers – Ephemera – Forms and business documents
    53. 53. “The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy also mentions alcohol. It says that the best drink in existence is the Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster, the effect of which is like having your brains smashed out with a slice of lemon wrapped round a large gold brick.” ― Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
    54. 54. What’s in the Glass? (Collection Contents) • Recipes and the evolution of cocktails • Bar manuals for the professional and home bartender • Profiles of people and bars • Social history • Party planning, party games, and entertaining • Spirits and drink history • Science of distillation • Temperance/Prohibition

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