This presentation is about bullying in the workplace. This is a comparatively resent world wide phenomena with serious consequences for employees and employers. There are no laws in the U.S. and most of the world against it.It is important to understand that this is not the same thing as harassment.Bullying affects victims in many ways, the effect of bullying can range from mild stress to suicide.
These are the questions this presentation will answer. Questions are encouraged.
Workplace bullying falls into a continuum of bullying which occurs from elementary school through retirement. The range of bully behaviors through out the continuum is so varied that there is no definitive definition that can adequately cover all of it. Researchers usually adapt a working definition for their research. Workplace bullying takes place over time. The ongoing stress can last for less than one month to well over a year with some cases lasting five years or longer. The actions of the bully are usually covert to avoid attracting attention and to avoid punishment. If the bully is a coworker and management does not stop it the behaviors may become overt or come out in the open to some degree. Weather the actions of the bully are covert or overt they are intended to intimidate, degrade, humiliate, or undermine the victim. The bullies actions often create feelings of defenselessness in the victim leaving the victim open to further attacks. These actions can also lead to physical health problems requiring time away from work and combined with the psychological problems created can lead to unsafe work practices by the victim risking the safety of coworkers.
These are just a few of the ways bullying can occur, there are dozens of others. In many cases it is so subtle the victim doesn't even know what is happening. Even in these cases others in the workplace may see it but do nothing. Workplace bullying is usually known by all or many coworkers but reported in very few cases.
It’s important to remember that all work experiences are not always positive, but that doesn’t necessarily mean bullying has occurred. Employers do have the right to demote, discipline, transfer, counsel or terminate employees when warranted.
Employment conditions along with organizational commitment and ethical climate can by design or inadvertently create an environment in which bullying occurs, or is allowed to flourish in the workplace along with the serious effects and consequences these behaviors pose to individuals. (Bond, Dollard & Tuckey, 2010; Workplace Bullying Institute, 2011).Bullying in the workplace happens for a number of reasons including wide spread ignorance of the problem. Educating people is key to ending it, if we don’t know about it we can’t get rid of it. Workplace bullying persists partly because people in authority fail to act either because of ignorance of the problem or their unwitting or active participation in it. Employees under stress may turn to bullying to relieve their stress, or vent frustrations. There is no system of reporting or protection for victims or observers. It is not illegal in the United States or most other countries. Observers who fail to act when it happens in their presences are actually contributing to the problem. Again, there are no laws in the U.S. against bullying leaving the victim no recourse to stop it without the cooperation of management.workplace bullying is grossly underestimated, and highly underreported, due to lack of workplace support, or anti-bullying rules and regulations. It is often made worse when victims or observers attempt to fight back especially if the bully is a manager or the manager is in collusion with the bully.Although many larger and some small companies have rules or codes of conduct that may cover workplace bullying because employers rarely see bullying as a serious problem they fail to enforce their own rules.
Sacrificing one’s mental and physical health to keep a paycheck is not worth it.75% of victims end the bullying by leaving Accepting bullying behavior or allowing it to cause one to terminate their own employment does not resolve the larger issue. It likely only results in a new target.Namie, Gary and Ruth (2000)
Lack of anti-bullying policies work to allow the behavior to continue without consequences to the bully. If a bully finds that there is no penalty for their behavior it usually escalates causing more damage to the victim and organization.
These are a few of the things that motivate a bully, there are many others.Most bullying is intentional, three types of bully are identified as destructive narcissistic, psychopathic, and accidental (Stoupe, 2007). The destructive bully is usually a corporate climber and may be unaware that their behavior is destructive to those around them because they are hyper focused on moving up, that is not to say they care about their coworkers they are just oblivious to what their behavior is doing to them. The second type, the psychopath bullies for enjoyment pure and simple. The accidental bully is surprised at being labeled a bully, and may voluntarily seek help for their behavior.
These 3 relationships give bullies specific means, opportunity and motive to target others. Participants can be associates, underlings, managers, supervisors and even owners of the company.(Chart courtesy of The Workplace bullying Institute, 2010 statistics)
No one is exempt from becoming a target, but research indicates that specific people and workers in certain job sectors are at greater risk of becoming targets. An important note here is that bullying takes place four times more often that harassment which is illegal.
The chart shows that men are nearly twice as likely to be bullies at 62% and women at 38%. It is rare for a woman to bully a man, this happens in only 8% of cases.Women are the victim in over half of cases at 58% and men are the victims in 42% of cases.(Chart courtesy of The Workplace Bullying Institute, 2010)
Two groups in 2010 reported bullying at higher rates than the national average -- Hispanics and African-Americans. This suggestsgroups with legally protected status experience status-blind cruelty in addition to discrimination, or (2) there is some same-race bullying occurring, or both. In either case there is an element of harassment not addressed by current legal protections (Workplace bullying Institute, 2010).
In a national survey on workplace bullying over 49% of respondents in the U.S. have been involved in a workplace bully situation lasting more than one year, 3.6% for under one month, 9.8% for one to three months, 14.6% for three to six months, and 22.6% for 6 to 12 months, as shown in the chart above.In the U.S. over 49% of all workers say they have been involved in a workplace bullying situation.Among the effects of workplace bullying are: varying degrees of stress and job dissatisfaction with high absenteeism. Hyper-vigilance, which is, being constantly on the watch for the bully and those in collaboration with them if any, this is especially troublesome in small towns or when the victim lives near the bully. Intrusive thoughts, these are thoughts that are constantly coming to mind these thoughts are of the bully, despair, replaying situations in the mind, http://www.digitalopinion.co.uk/clientservices-bullying-workplace-natsurvey-results-length.html
Surveys have indicated that more than a third of all workers, 37%, have been the victims of workplace bullies, another 12% reported that they have witnessed bullying.Debilitating Anxiety are experienced by more that 80% of bully victims.39% of victims develop clinical depression for the first time or relapse into a previously controlled depression.30% of targeted women & 21% of men develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from deliberately inflicted bullying.A sense of shame or deserving a bad fate are the desired result of humiliating tactics by the bully.Many victims feel guilt for having "allowed" the bully to control them.An overwhelming sense of Injustice & inequity (the unfairness of targeting you who works so hard) is often felt by the victim; a result of the inadequacy of the employer's response to the victims complaint (Workplace Bullying Institute, 2011).
Witnessing workplace bullying has a lasting impression on bystanders. A bystander articulated it as “far worse in the staffroom than the classroom; it’s far worse in the world of work than in the schoolroom, and it can sabotage everything else in your life.”
Bystanders or witnesses in most cases do nothing to stop the bullying often for fear of becoming a target themselves and in some cases will join with the bully as a form of protection which results in mobbing. What is important for these people to know is that they are, as witnesses turned bully, subject to the same devastating symptoms as the victim.
Distribution of cyber-bullying venues used by young people in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control.Once in cyber space always in cyber space, when these tactics are used by a bully they can easily turn into harassment which is illegal.By using these forms of communication there is a permanent record of the incidents, not good for the bully.
These are the benefits of a zero-tolerance policy and a positive psycho-social safety climate, which means a healthy and productive workplace. What employer would not want happy more productive employees?(Washington State Department of Labor & Industries, 2011).
A workplace with low psycho-social safety culture (PSC) have 32% higher employee turnover,11% more employees suffering chronic stress, 19% more employees looking for work somewhere else,13% fewer employees that would recommend their place of employment as a good place to work, and8% fewer employees that are satisfied with their job.This is according to the APA’s 2010 psychologically healthy workplace award (PHWA) winners.
If employees will step up and take the initiative to stop bullying, which can be done, they will be protecting not only themselves but every one of their co-workers and their jobs.
Without these steps being implemented the problem will persist. It will end when employers finally recognize the problem and what it cost them. If a few rules and enforcing those rule will add to a companies bottom line and they recognize it, that will be the beginning of the end.
A lot of employers are into the idea of codes of conduct and ethics but don’t enforce them. An anti-bullying policy will work only if it is enforced. (Washington State Department of Labor & Industries, 2011).
Education is a key component to stopping workplace bullying. I you don’t know about it you can’t do anything about it.(Washington State Department of Labor & Industries, 2011).
To create a safe work environment employers need to provide help for anyone involved and take an active roll in their recovery. One major road to company success is a good Psycho-social Safety Culture (Bond, Dollard, & Tuckey, 2010).
We can all become change agents, no matter how big or how little our involvement; the key is to “act”, to be engaged and active, be socially responsible in issues concerning the world
This problem is not going away over night. Those who research workplace bullying believe it will take 5 to 10 years to make significant change, but change it must. Affecting nearly half the U.S. and world workforce and costing so many so much it must change.
There are thousands who have been victimized by their co-workers and managers, many of these victims suffer debilitating symptoms like nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, anxiety, depression, PTSD, shame, guilt, neurotransmitter disruption, hippocampus shrinkage, immune system impairment, high blood pressure, and a hundred other symptoms both psychological and physiological. Whether these symptoms are mild or severe the victim, the person, will never be the same. If you watched this happen you too are in danger of the same fate. The symptoms can start up to a year after the bullying has stopped, making you a victim too.
You can’t change the world, but you can change how you respond to bullying, you can share what you have learned today, you can learn more, and you can take small steps that add to a big change. A journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.
Presented by Group E:Charlotte Baker, Janice Battinelli, Laycee Gaul, Crystal Haines, Carlyle Morel, Cladise Slaughter, Ashley Teyechea, & David Woods Social Responsibility SOCI 4080-10 Instructor: Professor Ginger Devine
What is workplace bullying? How does workplace bullying occur? What motivates the bully? What types of people are at risk for becoming targeted? What are its effects on victims, observers, & businesses? What can be done about it? How can social change agents help combat the problem?
What is Too complex to have a universal definitionWorkplace Repeated stress inducingBullying? actions toward another Passive, active, overt, or covert actions that intimidate, degrade, humiliate, or undermine another Creates feeling of defenselessness
Spreading malicious rumors, gossiping Undermining or intentionally impeding another’s work Blame or unwarranted criticism without factual justification Exclusion, social isolation Excessive monitoring, micromanaging, unwarranted punishment Blocking training, leave or promotion
A strict supervisor Consequences for poor work performance Warranted demotion, discipline, counseling, or termination
How Does Ignorance of the issueWorkplace Bully supportedBullying through action or inaction of managementHappen? Stressed employees taking frustrations out on others No system of reporting or protection for victims Lack of recognition and anti-bullying laws worldwide
How Do Targets Handle Bullying? Targets accept the bullying behavior as part of employment Victims fear retribution or losing position for making waves 75% of victims end bullying behavior only by leaving the company entirely
Bullies work to psychologically & Work Environmentssystematically wear the Can Perpetuate target down to: Bullying Ensure own job security Further own career Exert or gain a sense of power Instill fear in the target or observers
Personal prejudices harbored against othersPrevent advancement opportunities for targetCreate a scapegoat for workplace stressors such as company downsizing, unreasonable work demands or work overloadCreate social isolation for target
Top-down: managers and supervisors who bully subordinatesHorizontal: peers who bully co-workers in similar job positionsBottom-up: workers who bully supervisors or managers
Perceived as threat to job security or advancement Diversity Issues: Negative interpersonal relationships or role Race, culture, ethnicity, conflicts national origin, religion High risk job sectors or Age, gender, level of employment personality traits, physical characteristics Sexual orientation, Viewed as weak or easy to gender identification victimize
The following chart denotes the percentages of: men bullying men women bullying women, men bullying women women bullying men
Effects of Bullying on the Victim 3.6% Stress & job dissatisfaction 9.8% 14.6 High absenteeism 49.4 % % Hyper-vigilance 22.6 % Psychological and Under 1 month 1-3 Months psychosocial distress 3-6 Months 6-12 Minths Over one year Job loss
Workplace Bullying Suicide:50% of surveyed individuals has devastating reported contemplatingsuicide; 20% later succeeded effects on the target!Victims of bullying are three times more likely toexperience depression than the average individual The impact of bullying on victims has been found tocorrelate with the diagnostic criteria of Post-TraumaticStress Disorder and anxiety
“Bystander effect" - the idea that observers stand by, unwilling to assist someone in need of help• 12% of observers report that they have witnessed bullying• Bystanders fear that the workplace bully will turn on them In order for bystanders to feel comfortable enough to intervene, they need to know they can do something about it. Witnesses need to feel empowered and supported when they report bullying behavior.
Fear of becoming targeted causes observers to join forces with the bully, resulting in mobbing. “Workplace mobbing” is an issue in which a group of people gang up on a target without retribution for their actions.
Use of work computers &Billions of dollars lost technology extends behavior intoworldwide each year cyberspace, sullying due to: business reputation High employee turnover Decreased productivity Low job satisfaction High absenteeism
Improved staff satisfaction, retention Enhanced reputation for the business Creates a culture of professionals, role models Improves work safety, quality Greater staff willingness to report Reduced liability, risk management A more civil, productive, desirable workplace
Psychologically healthy workplaces have lower turnover, less stress & higher job satisfaction Sources: American Psychological Association, U.S. Dept. of Labor Bureau of labor statistics, 200980 8%70 Difference 13%60 Difference50 APAs 201040 11% PHWA award Difference30 winners 19% U.S.20 32% Difference Average Difference100 % employee % employees % employees % employees % employee turnover reporting seeking work who would satisfaction chronic stress eleswhere recommend as a good place…
Employees: NEVER become a bully under any circumstances Recognize when you are being bullied, realize it is not your fault Alert management immediately Ask witnesses to testify that they observed bullying
Employers: Provide conferences or workshops to educate and empower Create & enforce a zero tolerance anti-bullying policy Determine & enforce possible courses of action for bullying behaviors Promote & endorse anti-bullying legislation
Employers must establish and enforce strict guidelines Have employees submit a signed statement regarding commitment to abide by conduct rules Encourage reporting Have focus groups to “conduct surveys” to be analyzed regularly
Three levels of intervention for bullies, victims, and observers: Informal Intervention: conduct interviews to discuss events, listen to responses, get perspectives of all people involved Awareness Intervention: Compilation and divulge complaints from data in a supportive manner to raise awareness Authority Intervention: specify behaviors that need improvement, give timeline to improve behavior
Employers can support victims, observers, and bullies by: Offering healthcare support, evaluation, treatment plans & wellness programs Providing training on professional behavior Participating in the recovery of those who experienced or witnessed disruptive bullying behavior
Recognize and report Workplace bullying when it occurs Help educate others and create awareness Volunteer to help the State Coordinators enact the Healthy Workplace Bill Become a citizen lobbyist or state coordinator Assist employers in creating a anti-bullying policy Endorse the Healthy Workplace Bill: http://www.healthyworkplacebill.org/
Recent recognition of the problem andincreasing awareness are improving the future outlook of this issue. Companies worldwide are establishing annual training courses and codes of conduct regarding workplace bullying A safe and comfortable work environment where all employees feel secure and able to be productive is the ultimate goal 5-10 years will likely not see the eradication of this issue, however, each individual commitment can contribute to overall social change
“As a victim who was fired for being a victim, I amabsolutely incensed at the injustice and inhumanity ofexecutives and managers who let this continue!As a victim who has suffered many of the debilitatingsymptoms of bullying, I am sickened by thehypocrisy of company "codes of ethics and conduct". Signed, a victim
Workplace bullying is a serious, yet preventable, problem that results in harmful effects victims, witnesses and businesses alike There are currently few laws against workplace bullying but companies and individuals choosing to take a stand can have a huge impact and work toward its elimination
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