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Public health

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public health

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Public health

  1. 1. Public Health Understanding the Importance of Public Health [Archana Singh baghel] [MBA(ha and hc)]
  2. 2. Objectives • Understand the definition of public health. • Understand the role of public health . • Describe the key functions of public health. • Provide an example of public health’s impact in India.
  3. 3. According to WHO • Public health refers to all organized measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases. Thus, public health is concerned with the total system and not only the eradication of a particular disease. The three main public health functions are: • The assessment and monitoring of the health of communities and populations at risk to identify health problems and priorities. • The formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local and national health problems and priorities. • To assure that all populations have access to appropriate and costeffective care, including health promotion and disease prevention services.
  4. 4. What is Public Health? “The activities that ensure conditions in which people can be healthy. These activities include community wide efforts to identify, prevent, and combat threats to the health of the public. “ - Institute of Medicine Definition of Public Health
  5. 5. The Evolving Need for Public Health 1700s1800s • • • • • • • • The Age of Industrialization People moved from the farms to the cities Small pox inoculations - Lady Mary Wortley Montagu Development of the smallpox vaccine - Edward Jenner Introduction of epidemiology – John Snow The Germ Theory of Disease - Louis Pasteur The four postulates of infectious disease – Robert Koch The unhealthy conditions of New York City tenements – Lillian Wald
  6. 6. Snow: The Initial Investigations • Snow on Cholera http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow/Snowpart1_files/frame.ht m • The Initial Investigations http://breeze.unc.edu/p60491740/ • Next Steps http://breeze.unc.edu/p15812471/ • Snow Takes Action http://breeze.unc.edu/p24403330/ • Further Investigation http://breeze.unc.edu/p17552645/ • The Case of the Hampstead Widow http://breeze.unc.edu/p35464436/
  7. 7. Public Health Today (Continued) • The anthrax crisis of 2001 • Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) • Monkey virus
  8. 8. Goals of Healthy People 2010 • Goal 1: Increase quality and years of healthy life Help individuals of all ages to increase life expectancy and improve their quality of life. • Goal 2: Eliminate health disparities Help our nation eliminate health disparities among different segments of our population.
  9. 9. What Are the Leading Health Indicators? • Will be used to measure the health of the Nation over the next 10 years. • Each of the 10 Leading Health Indicators has one or more objectives from Healthy People 2010 associated with it. • Each were selected on the basis of their ability to motivate action, the availability of data to measure progress, and their importance as public health issues.
  10. 10. What Are the Leading Health Indicators? (continued) • • • • • • • • • • Physical Activity Overweight and Obesity Tobacco Use Substance Abuse Responsible Sexual Behavior Mental Health Injury and Violence Environmental Quality Immunization Access to Health Care
  11. 11. Who is Responsible for the Public’s Health? • Government agencies federal, state and local • Non-governmental agencies, such as nonprofit organizations.
  12. 12. Public Health: Past, Present and Future Achievements of the 20th century: Emerging threats of the 21st century: • Vaccinations • Chronic diseases • Improved sanitation • H1N1 • Fewer deaths from heart disease and stroke • New and re-emerging infectious diseases • Healthier mothers and babies • Natural disasters • Reduction in tobacco use
  13. 13. Federal Authority and Responsibility • The colonies’ Suspicion of a strong central government has led to dominance of the states and local governments • Health as a federal responsibility is not specifically mentioned in the Constitution
  14. 14. Overview of Health and Human Services • Responsible for protecting the health of Americans and providing essential human services, especially for citizens least able to help themselves • it is charged with most (but not all) public health activities. • The Secretary of Health and Human Services serves as a member of the President's Cabinet. is appointed by the President and must be approved by the U.S. Senate.
  15. 15. National Organizations For Public Health Professionals • American Public Health Association • Association of State and Territorial Health Officials • National Association of City and County Health Officers • HRSA Public Health Training Centers Network
  16. 16. State Authority and Responsibilities • The more complete and coordinated structure for public health activities is at the state and local levels. • Various states have taken different approaches to organizing and administering public health. • Centralized vs. decentralized
  17. 17. Local Health Departments and Boards of Health • Each community has its own unique local public health system • Generally, public health decisions at the local level are made by professionals at regional or county health departments and by their boards of health. • Public health practitioners at these departments are responsible for ensuring that all members of the community are served. Generally, a local board of health has primary responsibility and legal authority for public health decisions.
  18. 18. Role of Non-Governmental Entities • Organizations that are not part of the government also play a vital role in the U.S. public health infrastructure. • These organizations include hospitals, health care providers in private practice, and health plans. • Private, non-profit organizations, too, contribute to public health’s mission. Among them are the United Way, American Red Cross and American Cancer Association.
  19. 19. Contributions to Increase Life Expectancy
  20. 20. What public health means to everybody…
  21. 21. Public Health Today • “Newer” diseases, such as West Nile virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), have emerged. • Infectious agents can travel faster – and farther – than ever before • “Old” infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, rear their ugly heads with new, more virulent strains, • “Chronic” conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer and obesity, have become the leading causes of death and disability.
  22. 22. Making the Invisible More Visible
  23. 23. The 10 Essential Public Health Services 1. Monitor the health status of the community. 2. Investigate and diagnose health problems and hazards. 3. Inform and educate people regarding health issues. 4. Mobilize partnerships to solve community problems. 5. Support policies and plans to achieve health goals. 6. Enforce laws and regulations to protect health and safety. 7. Link people to needed personal health services. 8. Ensure a skilled, competent public health workforce. 9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility and quality of health services. 10.Research and apply innovative solutions.
  24. 24. Increased Years of Life 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40
  25. 25. How did we add 30 years in one century? • Mostly through the accomplishments of public health. • Five of the 30 years can be attributed to improvements in medicine and drugs. • The other years are due to various public health initiatives.
  26. 26. Public Health Accomplishments 1. Vaccination 2. Motor-vehicle safety 3. Safer workplaces 4. Control of infectious diseases 5. Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke 6. Safer and healthier foods 7. Healthier mothers and babies 8. Family planning
  27. 27. The Taylor Family: A Public Health Success Story “We have benefited from the health department through the years – sometimes we utilized it purposely, other times we used it and didn’t even know it was benefiting our family’s health.” - Barbara Taylor, Lawrence-Douglas County Resident
  28. 28. Public Health in the Future • Public health issues are difficult to predict and are episodic (such as the spread of a new infectious disease). • Other challenges are very predictable such as the impact of smoking and chronic diseases • To be prepared the U.S. government has established national health objectives called “Healthy People 2010”
  29. 29. Public Health…
  30. 30. THANK YOU!! [Insert your contact information on this slide.]

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