Mass communication in prevention & control of AIDS

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Mass communication in prevention & control of AIDS

  1. 1. Role of M ass Communication in prevention and control of AIDS: Mass m edia strategies in India A study of AIDS awareness and mass media reach amongst school going adolescents in Delhi and Ghaziabad ( India ) Archana Rakesh Singh, Department of M ass Communication, P anjab University, Chandigarh, India
  2. 2. Purpose of health communication  Behaviour change communication (BCB) Including IEC  Social Change Communication  Advocacy Communication A good program combines all three
  3. 3. Role of Mass Media Create an environment  Create favourable social climate  Counter hostile propaganda  Dispel rumours  Clarify doubts
  4. 4. Why AIDS?    It is the fourth leading cause of death globally Since there is no cure - control depends on prevention Social, Psychological, Behavioural, Ethical and even Economic issues attached.
  5. 5. AIDS in India  5.19 million people are living with AIDS  Andhra Pradesh has 2.25% population infected  85.81% transmissions are sexual in nature   Highest number of people living with AIDS are in the age group 30-59 HIV is spreading in the rural areas
  6. 6. Communicating AIDS    Programmes where primary input is information rather than services Gives voice to affected, frames communications with local perspectives Tailored messages for individual and community level
  7. 7. Mass media in AIDS communication        Careful planning Audience research Pre testing Dissemination strategy Evaluation Co ordination with existing services Linking mass with interpersonal communication
  8. 8. Objectives of this study   Review the use of mass media for AIDS communication Ascertain awareness levels of the target group  Survey media habits and preferences  Find appropriate media
  9. 9. Methodology: Triangulation     Content analysis of print media Observational analysis of audio visual media AIDS awareness and mass media reach survey Focus Group Discussions with the sample
  10. 10. Selected sample School going adolescents from New Delhi and a satellite town, Ghaziabad in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.
  11. 11. Review of Literature      Indian Studies Universities talk AIDS Studies with adolescents as target group Content Analysis studies of print media KABP studies
  12. 12. Findings: Content Analysis of AIDS messages appearing in 5 leading English language daily newspapers with nationwide circulation in India. The analysis was conducted in the month of 15 th November to 15th December for the years 1993,1994,1995 ,2000 and 2004
  13. 13. Figure I : Year wise comparison of AIDS related stories in Cm² 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1993 Ne w s Re por t 1994 Inte r vie w 1995 Analys is 2000 Hum an Inte r e s t 2004 Adve r tis e m e nt Figure II : Year wise comparison of AIDS related stories in No’s 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1993 Ne w s Re por t 1994 Inte r vie w 1995 Analys is 2000 Hum an Inte r e s t 2004 Adve r tis e m e nt
  14. 14. Figure III: Yearly comparison of sub categories of News in No’s 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1993 Inform ation 1994 Policy/plan 1995 Medical 2000 Opinion Activity 2004 Sensational
  15. 15. Headlines   Terms - pessimistic: Warning, horror, war against AIDS, alarming spread, AIDS threat, taboo, AIDS soars, AIDS victims By 2004, headlines have mellowed and are non threatening. Positive lives, positive people
  16. 16. AV Media Television Endorsements by Celebrities & PWA Radio Celebrity voice-overs No knowledge of Hotlines AIDS messages - part of music programmes
  17. 17. Demographic profile Knowledge about AIDS Survey AIDS awareness profile Mass media profile Sex education
  18. 18. Findings : Figure IV DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AS PER GENDER & SCHOOL TOTAL - 439 GIRLS TOTAL PUBLIC SCHOOL 46% GOVT. SCHOOL (196) BOYS BOYS 234 144 99 54% GIRLS 196 69 127 (234) BOYS DISTRIBUTION (234 NO.) GIRLS DISTRIBUTION (196 NO.) 41% 35% Govt. School (99) (144) 59% (127) Public School 65% Govt. School (69) Public School
  19. 19. Figure V: Media Profile as per Location & School Type 150 100 50 0 New spaper Subscription Magazine Subscription TV Ow nership Radio Ow nership VCD / DVD Ow nership Audio player Ow nership Govt School - Metropolis 86 70 101 92 34 66 Govt School - Sattelite 81 63 116 103 19 67 Public School - Metropolis 105 93 110 109 71 103 Public School - Sattelite 92 69 102 87 34 79
  20. 20. Figure VI: AIDS Awareness Age wise distribution 17Yr 16Yr 21% 4% 13Yr 29% AGE % AWARENESS 13 14 15 16 17 BOYS GIRLS 15Yr 14% 48.1 57.2 13Yr 57.27% AGE WISE % AWARENESS GIRLS 17Yr 78.2% 13Yr 48.1% 14Yr 57.2% 14Yr 58.68% 16Yr 72.47% 66.1 14Yr 32% AGE WISE % AWARENESS BOYS 17Yr 77.31% 57.27 58.68 67.28 72.47 77.31 15Yr 67.28% 16Yr 69.7% 15Yr 66.1% 69.7 78.2
  21. 21. Source of information about AIDS Others Bill Board No Answ er Friends Class Mates Teachers New spapers TV Printed Material Radio
  22. 22. Salient findings of the study  Television - most powerful medium  Newspaper lags behind TV and cinema.  Music on radio and TV wins hands down.  Cinema is popular medium but films are watched on TV.
  23. 23. AIDS awareness        Metropolitan students better than satellite town. Girls have better AIDS awareness profile. The media access profile was similar public school scored better than government schools 97.7% students had heard about AIDS, but did not count it as a health problem. Seminar, workshop or lecture on AIDS – Minimal exposure More than 50% keen to attend a programme related to AIDS. Medical professionals - Most preferred source.
  24. 24. % distribution of population, based on most preferred source of information about AIDS 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Teacher Friend Parent Counsellor Medical Professional Television Film Boys 48 30 10 7 73 54 5 Girls 39 26 19 6 48 32 4
  25. 25. FGD : Findings - Radio  Active listener ship minimal  Public school students keen  Never used any hotline  Low recall of AIDS jingles.
  26. 26. FGD : Findings - Television Vivid recall of AIDS messages Celebrity endorsement works Embarrassment for some Prefer full length feature films
  27. 27. FGD : Findings - Newspapers Very low recall of AIDS messages Newspaper readership low Only human interest stories register Would still prefer messages in Newspapers as it is a solitary activity.
  28. 28. FGD : Findings - Internet  Delhi students surf more.  The % of net savvy boys was more than the girls  Visit cyber-cafes for net surfing.  Some boys visited pornographic sites on the Internet.  Aware of term cyber sex but shy to elaborate  No hit on AIDS related web sites on the Internet
  29. 29. Conclusion  High media profile gives scope to media  Denial stage is evident   Metropolitan city students are better equipped because of interpersonal messages Students keen on receiving information
  30. 30. For details, refer to the book :: For details, refer to the book 1. http://www.conceptpub.com/servlet/Getbiblio?bno=00000963 1. http://www.conceptpub.com/servlet/Getbiblio?bno=00000963 2. http://www.amazon.in/Mass-Communication-Prevention-Control-AIDS/dp/8180692698 2. http://www.amazon.in/Mass-Communication-Prevention-Control-AIDS/dp/8180692698 3. http://books.rediff.com/book/mass-communication-in-prevention-and-control-of-aids--strategies-for3. http://books.rediff.com/book/mass-communication-in-prevention-and-control-of-aids--strategies-foradolescents/9788180692697 adolescents/9788180692697 4. http://www.snapdeal.com/product/mass-communication-in-prevention-and/775561 4. http://www.snapdeal.com/product/mass-communication-in-prevention-and/775561 5. http://read.ebay.in/ci/Mass-Communication-in-Prevention-and-Control-of-AIDS:-Mass-Media-Strategies-in-India-/21784 5. http://read.ebay.in/ci/Mass-Communication-in-Prevention-and-Control-of-AIDS:-Mass-Media-Strategies-in-India-/21784 6. http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Mass_Communication_in_Prevention_and_Con.html?id=zDe8CA4y3sQC&redir_esc=y 6. http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Mass_Communication_in_Prevention_and_Con.html?id=zDe8CA4y3sQC&redir_esc=y

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