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Recent Trends in Adverting


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Recent Trends in Adverting

  1. 1. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 IntroductionAdvertisingAdvertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade anaudience (viewers, readers or listeners) to continue or take some new action.Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respectto a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is alsocommon. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees orshareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages areusually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media;including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial,radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such aswebsites and text messages.Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of theirproducts or services through "Branding," which involves the repetition of animage or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brandin the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money toadvertise items other than a consumer product or service include politicalparties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies.Advertisement is an encapsulated communication about a product(good/services), a clearly designed, concise, aesthetically appealing andcontent-wise accurate communiqué intended to effectively persuade the targetaudience(viewers/listeners/readers) to arrive at a decision as desired by theadvertiser often concerning the product (goods/service). Usually the aim of anadvertisement is to increase the sales of a product introduced into the market.The advertisement will speak about the salient features of the product on offerand the benefit the customer/consumer can derive out of the product. It can alsoeducate the target audience about the various other details such as the products 1
  2. 2. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012cost, availability, usage modalities, problems that may arise whiles using it andthe probable solutions to those problems etc.Advertisement also is used to inform a mass of audience about various sociallyrelevant factors such as employment, upcoming events, contests or elections ora host of other such events. Now newer media of advertisements are emergingand growing. Internet based media like social networks, web portals, tradeportals etc. are some of those.Normally the advertisements are prepared in such a way that it attracts theattention of the intended parties easily. Thoughtfully constructed copy(words/diction of an advertisement), interesting visual or pictures, attractivecolors and designs, and a uniquely arrived at theme, the central steam ofthought, etc. arouse interest of the customers, and help to retain the interest.Persuasive elements of the advertisement drive the customers towards a strongdesire to possess the product. This finally leads them toward buying orpossessing the product. Professional managers don‘t construe this as the finalpoint in advertising. They proceed for an extra mile to ensure the initial trialbecomes a success and ensures repeated clientele.In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paidadvertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership andincrease its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertisingagency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space invarious newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates toadvertisers. The actual ad - the copy, layout, and artwork - was still prepared bythe company wishing to advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. Thesituation changed in the late 19th century when the advertising agency of N.W.Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer and Son offered to plan, create, and executecomplete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising 2
  3. 3. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising wasfirmly established as a profession. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended the services of his news agency, Havas to includeadvertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first,agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer &Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertisingcontent. N.W. Ayer opened in 1869, and was located in Philadelphia.In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipmentmanufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radiosto consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit insetting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and civicgroups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularized, eachindividual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business inexchange for a brief mention of the business name at the beginning and end ofthe sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realised they couldearn more money by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations tomultiple businesses throughout their radio stations broadcasts, rather thanselling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show. This practice wascarried over to commercial television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Afierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialize the radio andpeople who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered a part of thecommons – to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. TheUnited Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally aprivate company, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as apublic body by Royal Charter in 1927. In Canada, advocates like Graham Sprywere likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt a publicfunding model, creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, inthe United States, the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of theCommunications Act of 1934 which created the Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC). However, the U.S. Congress did require commercial 3
  4. 4. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012broadcasting companies to operate in the "public interest, convenience, andnecessity". Public broadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967Public Broadcasting Act which led to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)and National Public Radio (NPR)In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern practiceof selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont hadtrouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and compensated byselling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventuallybecame the standard for the commercial television industry in the UnitedStates. However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows,such as The United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercisedgreat control over the content of the show—up to and including having onesadvertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor model ismuch less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.In the 1960s, campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass mediachannels became more prominent. For example, the Esso gasoline companyspent hundreds of millions of dollars on a brand awareness campaign builtaround the simple and alliterative theme Put a Tiger in Your Tank.Psychologist Ernest Dichter and DDB Worldwide copywriter Sandy Sulcerlearned that motorists desired both power and play while driving, and chose thetiger as an easy–to–remember symbol to communicate those feelings. TheNorth American and later European campaign featured extensive television andradio and magazine ads, including photos with tiger tails supposedly emergingfrom car gas tanks, promotional events featuring real tigers, billboards, and inEurope station pump hoses "wrapped in tiger stripes" as well as pop musicsongs. Tiger imagery can still be seen on the pumps of successor firmExxonMobil. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cabletelevision and particularly MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video,MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for theadvertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought. As cable 4
  5. 5. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channelsemerged, including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC,Home Shopping Network, and Shop TV Canada.With the advent of the ad server, marketing through the Internet opened newfrontiers for advertisers and contributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s.Entire corporations operated solely on advertising revenue, offering everythingfrom coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, a numberof websites including the search engine Google, started a change in onlineadvertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended tohelp, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar effortsand an increasing trend of interactive advertising.A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involve unusualapproaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of productssuch as cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertisingwhere the viewer can respond to become part of the advertising message.Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more popular with a lot ofcompanies. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, whichcauses consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing trendof interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, havingconsumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing socialnetwork services such as Facebook.Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19thand early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated atmore than $300 billion in the United States and $500 billion worldwide.Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates areInterpublic, Omnicom, Publicis, and WPP. 5
  6. 6. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Advertising theoryHierarchy of effects modelIt clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individualadvertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or abusiness buyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are:1. Awareness2. Knowledge3. Liking4. Preference5. Conviction6. Purchase Means-End TheoryThis approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message ormeans that leads the consumer to a desired end state. Leverage PointsIt is designed to move the consumer from understanding a products benefits tolinking those benefits with personal values. Verbal and Visual Images 6
  7. 7. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Conceptual FrameworkThe American Marketing Association, Chicago, defines advertising as "anypaid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by anidentified sponsor."A form is a presentation or a sign, a symbol, an illustration, an ad message in amagazine or newspaper, a commercial on the radio or on television, a circulardispatched through the mail or a pamphlet handed out at a street corner; asketch or message on a billboard or a poster or a banner on the Net.Non-personal means that it is not on a person-to-person basis.Goods, services, ideas for action means making a consumers work easy, as faras knowing about the product of a firm. It could be a television or a bankingservice or filing tax returns, which the firm or the marketer wants the consumerto know about. An idea could also refer to political parties letting the peopleknow about their party and why they should vote for the party. Adulteducation, AIDS awareness campaign and eye donation campaign are a fewexamples of ideas.Paid for by an identified sponsor implies that the sponsor has control over theform, content and scheduling of the advertisements. The sponsor could beidentified by the company name or the brand of the particular product.Some important terms usually used in the advertising fields are as follows:AD:The name used to indicate an advertising message in the print media.ADVERTISING AGENCY:An organization that provides a variety of advertising related services to clientsseeking assistance in their adverting activities. 7
  8. 8. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012ADVERTISED BRAND:A brand is owned by an organization (usually a manufacturer) that uses amarketing strategy usually involving substantial advertising.ADVERTISING MEDIA:The various mass media that can be employed to carry advertising message topotential audience or target markets for products, services, organizations, orideas.BANNER AD:A graphical Internet Advertising tool.CLIENT:The term used to indicate an advertiser who has been served by an advertisingagency.OTC:Opportunity to SeePOP:Point of Purchase 8
  9. 9. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012POS:Point of SaleShare:The percentage of households or target audience members using television orradio that are tuned to a particular program.TG:Target AudienceZAPPING: The act of using a remote control to change television channels when an advertisement begins. 9
  10. 10. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Types of advertisingVirtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertisingmedia can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components,printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema andtelevision adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, webpop ups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines,newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides ofairplanes ("logo jets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables oroverhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens,musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposablediapers, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in supermarkets, shoppingcart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video,posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an"identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium isadvertising.Television advertising / Music in advertisingThe TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-marketadvertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge forcommercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl footballgame in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event ontelevision. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this gamehas reached US$3 million (as of 2009). The majority of television commercialsfeatures a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtualadvertisements may be inserted into regular television programming throughcomputer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops orused to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcastaudience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the 10
  11. 11. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012background where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used intelevised sporting events. Virtual product placement is also possible. A still from Vodafone T V Ad 11
  12. 12. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012InfomercialsAn infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutesor longer. The word "infomercial" combining the words "information" &"commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulsepurchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buysthe product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website.Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and theirfeatures, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industryprofessionals. A still from T V infomercial Home Shop 18 12
  13. 13. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Radio advertisingRadio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radioadvertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to anantenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station ornetwork in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitationof being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as anadvantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air,but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 millionweekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. population.Online advertisingOnline advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and WorldWide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages toattract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of onlineadvertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages,banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, onlineclassified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam. A still from ESPN website advertising King James Vitamin Capsules 13
  14. 14. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Product placementsCovert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product orbrand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, themain character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movieMinority Report, where Tom Cruises character John Anderton owns a phonewith the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engravedwith the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot,where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoesseveral times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I,Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi andMercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillacchose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a resultcontained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, productplacement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars arefeatured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "FantasticFour: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a largeDodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obviousproduct placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard. A still from the movie Bodyguard with Audi product placement 14
  15. 15. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Press advertisingPress advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as anewspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything frommedia with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper ormagazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and tradejournals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classifiedadvertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small,narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Anotherform of press advertising is the Display Ad, which is a larger ad (can includeart) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper. Volkswagen ad in Times of India newspaper 15
  16. 16. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Billboard advertisingBillboards are large structures located in public places which displayadvertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they arelocated on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestriantraffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts ofviewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls oroffice buildings, and in stadiums.Mobile billboard advertisingMobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens.These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements 16
  17. 17. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargotrucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards areoften lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Somebillboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously orperiodically rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are usedfor various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including:Target advertising, one-day, and long-term campaigns, Conventions, Sportingevents, Store openings and similar promotional events, and big advertisementsfrom smaller companies. 17
  18. 18. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012In-store advertisingIn-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includesplacement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at theends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP—Point Of Purchasedisplay), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, andadvertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. A still from big bazaar Mathura featuring in store advertising 18
  19. 19. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Celebrity brandingThis type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money,popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores orproducts. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, whencelebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands ordesigners. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such astelevision or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use ofcelebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake bya celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example,following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games inBeijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps contract with Kelloggs wasterminated, as Kelloggs did not want to associate with him after he wasphotographed smoking marijuana. 19
  20. 20. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Present Scenario of Advertising In IndiaThe Indian context offers unique challenges to marketers. Cultural andeconomic diversity, a blend of Western lifestyles, strong cultural anchoring,and the rural/urban divide, with islands of prosperity in rural areas, are some ofthe critical factors that need specific treatment in terms of formulation ofmarketing strategies.In India, the advertising business is growing at the rate of 30% to 35%annually. It is a 1600 crore industry. It accounts for 90% of Indias GDP.In 2005, advertising was nearly a $300 billion industry in the U.S. It isirrevocably linked to media, whether traditional media like the 13,599 radiostations in America (about $20 billion in annual revenues), the 1,749 broadcastTV stations plus myriad cable and satellite TV outlets (totaling about $68billion in advertising revenues), the 2,250 daily and Sunday newspapers (about$49 billion in annual advertising revenues) or new media like the tens ofthousands of Internet sites that now accept advertising.The advertising sector also includes direct mail, at about $45 yearly in the U.S.;magazines, at about $21 billion; and outdoor advertising, at about $6 billion. Inaddition, there is significant activity in specialty and alternative advertising,from ball point pens printed with a message to T-shirts to small airplanestowing advertising banners.By one count, Americans are subjected to 3,000 commercial messages daily,most of which occur randomly such as billboards. A study by YankelovichPartners found that two-thirds of the Americans feel "constantly bombarded"by ads and nearly as many respondents felt that these ads have little or norelevance to them.Advertisers are faced with daunting new realities, when considering the variousmedia that they might use to get their messages across. Traditional media arelosing control over their audiences. It means that advertisers can no longer feel 20
  21. 21. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012secure that their ads on TV, on the radio or in print are going to receivemindshare. Gone are the days when television and radio programmers enjoyedcaptive audiences who happily sat through ad after ad, or planned theirschedules around favorite shows.Consumers, especially consumers in younger demographics, now demand moreand more control over what they watch, read and listen to and thus morecontrol over the advertising that they might be exposed to. Issues related tocontrol include: pricing for content (including free, illegal downloads versusauthorized, paid downloads or pay-per-view); portability (including the abilityfor a consumer to download once, and then use a file on multiple platforms anddevices including iPods and cell phones); and delayed viewing or listening(such as viewing TV programming at the consumers convenience via TiVo andsimilar personal video recorders).Over the last three decades, advertising and the context within which it occurshave changed beyond recognition. As the communications universe expandedand society became fragmented, advertising lost its traditional place within thecommunications system. It has been left with a variety of challenges that itcurrently seems unable to meet. Marketers should learn a lesson from politicsthat a new communications structure based on flexibility rather than traditionaldivisions in terms of media is required to generate effective knowledge,strategies and messages.Advertising and marketing are undergoing a seismic shift, as new technologyengenders social change and transforms the way consumers view commercialinteraction. Brand advertising is sometimes not adequate in meeting the needof the customers. Marketers are to make the most of the new opportunities,presented by technological progress.Advertising and advertising research are going through an exciting period ofchange, as technology and social changes enable marketers to focusincreasingly on individual consumers rather than mass-market. 21
  22. 22. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012In a world that is increasingly dominated by technology, marketing andadvertising are also evolving. Markets, according to postmodern thought, arebeginning to fragment, yet they are creating greater challenges for theadvertisers. Individuals are both isolated and interconnected with the wholeworld virtually via computers. Advertising has, for a long time, been based on aone-to-many communications model; yet new technology offers the possibilityof a computer-mediated environment, in effect, a virtual world.In this new millennium, the attempt is to make use of the Internet andcontemporary thought for developing advertising effectiveness.We are constantly hearing how the Internet, clutter, own-label brands and otherhot topics are about to turn the advertising world upside down. But, importantthough some of these issues are, will their impact on advertising really be thatgreat?We foresee an exciting future for advertising, as marketers developmulticultural strategies, find new uses for new media and explore e-commerceand on-line information technologies.Below are given some statistics of 10 years that describes a steady growth inadvertising expenditure in India. 22
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  28. 28. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Example in the Form of CasesIndians might as well be very emotional. The ever so marketable histrionics inBollywood movies only prove this point. There may also be a lot of demand forthe ―K serials‖. But do we need a forced dosage of emotions in the ads too? OnTV the viewers (much to the advantage of the advertisers) do not have muchchoice. One might just not be in the same mood, as being expressed by theadvertisement, worse still, nowhere close. Imagine if you are watching Mondaynight laughs & then I see the Airtel advertisement. Your brain might just urgeyou to make the same reaction as a boy enjoying his birthday party until hecomes to know that the biggest gift given to him by his worst enemy hasbroken. The tear would be sitting right on the edge of your eyes, wondering if itis worth taking the plunge!The advertising campaigns of things like life insurance, beauty products, babyproducts, retirement solutions, healthcare products, tour operators & socialmessages can never separate themselves from the emotional content. A viewereven expects an emotional connect. What, however, is not easily conceivable iswhy some companies practice emotional advertising even though there is noneed for it? In particular, advertisements of products like electrical switches,salt, telecom companies, Hawaii Chappals, newspaper & paint to name a few.Let me start not by decimating the whole concept of emotional advertising, butcite examples which I appreciate. Those which I think are path breaking,surpassing the barriers of the kind of product, or the target audience.The latest frooti advertisement is the first which comes to my mind. The VOplays, ―ladke se ladki tak,‖ and we see a guy with Frooti resting his head on agirl‘s shoulder. Hanging out with her friends in the college canteen, a girlwhistles on seeing a guy. VO: ―Canteen se seeti tak.‖ A teacher enters his classto find one of his students gulping down a Frooti. Approaching him he grabs itfor a sip. VO: ―Student se teacher tak.‖ Clad in a spacesuit, a little girl descends 28
  29. 29. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012from a spaceship sipping a Frooti. VO: ―Fancy dress mein chhipe armaanontak.‖ A guy notices a crumpled piece of paper thrown on the road bysomebody. He picks it up to throw it in the bin. VO: ―India badal gaya hai……lekin India ka favourite froot drink wahi.‖ Super: Frooti. India‘s most trustedfruit beverage brand.Striking a balance amongst creating melodrama & sending the message acrossis what the ad has brilliantly achieved. It is neither too moving nor does itrubbish the idea of an emotional connect. It is also not a product with whomone would appreciate an emotional connect. Hats off to the creative team, ofCreative land Asia for making the ad flawlessly.One cannot forget surf‘s ―daag ache hain‖ campaign. It not only connected tothe mother‘s desires & their plight of keeping the clothes white, but also withthose of the kids, who despite all efforts not to dirty their clothes, just do it!The ―chintamani‖ campaign for ICICI bank was a good break from the boringads of the banks. It was an innovative way to convey the emotional connect &with ―short term chintamani‖ coming in the second leg of the ad, they assured aspecial mention for their efforts.Going into the recent past, I seem to recollect a few advertisements from theautomobile sector. The ―Make your own road‖ campaign with the racy music,the rustic & adventurous imagery captures the inherent desire for an SUVamongst men. ―The josh machine‖ campaign did very well to sell the ford ikon.With the sport variant coming into the market the tag line fit perfectly with theyouth connect. Last, but surely not the least is the Enfield advertisement. Atrain is running on the tracks, the next scene shows an enfield approaching thetracks & the legendry thud of the engine, train is given a red signal & it stops,the enfield on the other hand is shown a green flag by a buy & it passes thetrack while the train remains at a halt, the VO says-‖make way for the bulletElectra‖. I might be biased here, being a diehard Enfield enthusiast, but thesound of the engine brought out all the emotions it was meant to. Not to 29
  30. 30. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012mention I could clearly see the jump in sales, looking at the number of Enfieldon road. This wasn‘t the first time that Enfield had used an emotional brandconnect. Watching an old Enfield ad, it became perfectly clear. A rider on anenfield is going through the streets of a city, the very recognizable bullet engine& then a jingle starts playing-‖yeh bullet meri jaan, manzilon ka nishan‖ the 20odd second ad finishes with some more imagery of meeting fellow bulletriders. It is the kind of camaraderie amongst the bullet owners, the ad exploited.In another category, thinking about ads for milk products like chocolates,butter, condensed milk, two brands occupy most mind space-Amul &Cadbury‘s. Both ―shamelessly‖ attempt to make us indulge in ―sinfulpleasures‖. (I speak strictly from the weight conscious‘ point of view,excluding myself.) The splashing milk, melting butter on parathas, condensedmilk on sweets, I am already drooling. The low cholesterol oils survive on anemotional connect. Unarguably condom ads also feature in the ―acceptable‖category of ads with an emotional connect; after all, it is all about the feeling,pun intended.The next in the line of fire, if I may, is the ads of Airtel. The ad starts with ayoung girl calling up her father who is out on duty. Apparently an engineer, hehelps his daughter who is awake well beyond her bed time & bored, to draw awhale by joining the stars in the night sky. What benefit can an emotionalconnect have for a telecom company? What first needs to be answered is why,rather how can a father leave his young daughter alone in a huge house?Advertisers should not distort reality only to accommodate the emotionalcontext of the story. It is not only misleading, but never lets the viewerunderstand the message. I still wonder why Airtel had created the previous adwith a football being kicked across what seemed to be a border protected bybarbed wires. The emotional content was still unwanted. The saving grace washowever that the ad makers didn‘t contort reality to fit in the approved storyline. 30
  31. 31. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Further a question rises, why do the advertisers not capture any otheremotions? Why not use the emotions of disapproval & disgust? The newbeauty product campaigners are increasingly using this very trick. Trying toproject an image that the brand actually sympathizes with their target audience,they are increasingly rubbishing promotion of all so perfect models on screen.More ―realistic‖ beauties are being used at an increasing level.Maybe use an emotion of betrayal, or anguish, or ecstasy, or fear? Is it toomuch of a gamble then, with an increasing number of companies unable to gettheir message across, I think they have nothing to lose to go ahead & try this.Bajaj Pulsar - PulsarmaniaQuite often I think to myself that ad makingis like cooking – a dash of this and a dash ofthat a little magic of the chef‘s hands and lobehold the perfect dish is there to be dunkeddown your belly, but whenever you try tocopy the Chef‘s original recipe you discoverthat in fact it was not that original and theend product is different from what youanticipated. Similarly in ad making the ad gurus copy the perfect formulacomplete with a celebrity roped in despite this the commercial falls flat (readthe last post). But at times you see something which is as close to being perfectas you thought it could be. 31
  32. 32. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012It‘s very rare that you see a commercialthat makes you crave for some actionwithout even asking you to do so, andthat‘s precisely what the new Pulsarcommercial titled Pulsar Mania does toyou. It makes you want to jump out of thebed, don your helmet pick up the keys andlisten to the rumble of your bike‘s enginebefore you hit the road.6 guys burning rubber in such a well choreographed manner that it would make John Woo sit up and take notice, the guys go through formations that are amazing and the effect is heightened by some excellent cinematography. The ad is perhaps the best bike commercial ever to have hit the TV screens in India – The commercial is one of the most captivating commercials I have seen in the recenttimes, it‘s visually breathtaking and the effect is tremendous. I bet even the admakers hadn‘t thought that the final product would be so good.The USP of the ad is that it focuses on the product through out without everlosing focus or stressing too much, it‘s un-conventional to say the least – Novoiceover, No tagline. Yes they could have done with some good music since itwould have increased the overall effect manifolds and moreover it would havegiven Pulsar its own tune which is still missing.Feels good to see such amazing work – it‘s a spark which has come out after along time. 32
  33. 33. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Coca Cola CokeA bunch of teenagers late in the night, hungry looking for food in an open aircar, sounds familiar?But that‘s where the familiarity ends because these youngsters meet HrithikRoshan and at the right moment you see the Coke bottle opening with a fizz(Off course Hrithik opens it). The Season opener from Coke features HrithikRoshan and a bunch of teenagers, the kids are out driving late in the night arefeeling ravenous and thus on the lookout for food. They enter a street full offast food shops but all are closed and they feel disappointed, one of them findsa man sprawled on the hood of a car and shouts at him ―hey brother‖ – the manlooks pulls up the cap on his face and passes a smile – its Hrithik. He has aCoke bottle in his hand and a bottle opener too, before opening the bottleHrithik slides the opener on the side of the Coke Bottle and you hear the soundso familiar to the pre multiplex days when the hawkers would enter the cinemahall sliding the openers against soft drink bottles during the interval. The 33
  34. 34. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012moment Hrithik opens the bottle you see food being made everywhere thewhole surrounding is lit up and we have a lot of Samosas, Jalebis and theIndian version of Chowmein being savored by the teenagers, all this disappearswith the last drop of Coke in Hrithik‘s bottle.All the while there is a jingle playing in the background ― Gajab ki shaam haiyaron jage hain hum matwale aaj naa yeh rukna hai aaj tu jashn manale‖ – ―It‘sa wonderful evening we all yuppies are together this moment won‘t last forever– so party now‖- Forgive my translation from Hindi to English. Well thisjingle is the second best thing in the ad and the best is the sound of the bottleopener sliding against the bottle. A very short ad with no idea behind it, the adsurvives only on the jingle, David Ogilvy had once said ―When you don‘t knowhow to sell a product – Sing‖, that‘s what the ad makers did in this commercial.Since it is the first Coca Cola Coke Ad for the season it‘s a big letdown, weexpect the season opener to be high on the entertainment value even if weignore the creative aspect.The Coca Cola commercial makes the new Pepsi ad featuring Shahrukh Khan,Deepika and Ranbeer look like a work of art and a master stroke.Coca Cola Coke needs to pull up their socks. 34
  35. 35. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Pepsi’s – Featuring Shahrukh Khan, Ranbeer Kapoor and Deepika Padukone.Summer‘s are around the corner and the soft drinkgiants are vying for your attention, Pepsi had launchedits latest commercial featuring Shahrukh Khan, RanbeerKapoor and Deepika Padukone. It‘s an explosivecombination sure to make viewers sit up and take noticeof the unveiling of the new Pepsi Slogan for 2008.The ad had Shahrukh as Deepika‘s geeky elder brotherand Ranbeer as the guy after Deepika.The season opener from Pepsi has Ranbeer trying to woo Deepika whiledonning a biking jacket and hanging from her balcony, suddenly he falls downand in the process he pulls down a dish antenna with him. Hearing this soundShahrukh opens the door with a book in his hand (titled antariksha yatri -come-on guys you could have done better than that) to check and finds Ranbeerdressed like a superhero with a dish antenna in one hand. Shahrukh asks himwho is he and where does he come from. Flabbergasted Ranbeer looks atShahrukh and points upwards towards the balcony, Shahrukh thinks he is from 35
  36. 36. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012another planet and asks him where is he coming from?, Ranbeer meanwhile hasturned around facing two hoardings with neon signs (one isHindustan something and the other is Young India Underwear) and he blurtsout in an alien like tone ―Youngistan se aya hoon - i have come fromYoungistan‖ to which Shahrukh replies - Why have you come here? and patgets the answer from Ranbeer in the same alien tone - ―To be your sister‘sbodyguard (tumhari behan ka body guard banane)‖. Shahrukh takes him tomeet Deepika and tells her that he has come from Youngistan and would staywith them from now on and leaves the love birds alone (while Ranbeer andDeepika give each other the know it all smile), Deepika asks Ranbeer ―Howdid you do this?‖ and Ranbeer replies holding a bottle of Pepsi ―Chaho to sabpossible hai - Everything is possible if you want it‖ at this moment the newslogan for 2008 is unveiled ―Yeh hai Youngistan meri jaan - Pepsi‖.The ad has tremendous entertainment value which fizzles out in the end whenShahrukh leaves the two alone and one more critical thing - SRK has beenwasted in this ad, the ad holds good promise as it begins but loses steam as itprogresses. The ad is in line with Pepsi‘s efforts to establish itself as a youthbrand and the only thing that comes to my mind is David Ogilvy‘s famousquote ―Every advertisement should be thought of as a contribution to thecomplex symbol which is the brand image‖. Full marks to the ad on supportingthe overall brand image but otherwise a poorly executed ad which lacks thepunch and banks only on the celebrity‘s appeal; let‘s hope Pepsi does bettersequels to this one.The ad has just been splashed on all the major channels but how all thesepieces fit in the mind of the consumer is yet to be seen, however since Pepsihas decided not to renew the contracts of Saurav Ganguly and Rahul Dravidwe believe that Pepsi would be pushing this campaign quite aggressively. 36
  37. 37. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Airtel comes of age - joins Idea, Reliance and VodafoneFinally Airtel comes of age – in line with the new trend.Well what to say, I seem to have developed a fixation for Airtel though not anAirtel user I have been quite impressed with the way Airtel always manages towaste money in some ad or the other. I mean they have a knack for it off latethey have been pouring money in like anything into their ads but ―uffff ads‖ isall that they have managed.But finally someone seems to have woken up at Airtel and they seem to becoming of age. The kids are amazing, the setting is great and the result is a wellexecuted ad with a message in it. By picking up soccer instead of cricket andnot showing the Indo Pak border the ad company certainly seems to be tryingto give it an international feel, or maybe they thought cricket in no man‘s landwould not have been a very good idea (We at Adidiot are big cricket fans so weare being biased).The Airtel ―No man‘s land soccer ad‖ scores heavily in terms 37
  38. 38. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012of being in line with the current trend in Indian Advertising ―Social Messagesor just messages‖.Vodafone did it with ―ek pal main kitna kuch campaign‖ and Idea had theirvery own idea in ―What an idea sirji campaign‖.Even Reliance kicked in with an ad which was not exactly a social message weare talking about the ―Yeh India ka Cricket hai Bedu ad‖. In my opinion thewinner is Idea because they were the first ones to come out with the brilliantcampaign starring Abhishek Bachhan. It‘s a very good ad with a very humanmessage but I have only one question ―Is Abhishek Bachhan required in thisad‖, he doesn‘t add anything to the otherwise brilliant advertisement. I am sureAbhishek would have charged a bomb to endorse Idea; well it‘s a differentdebate altogether ―Do we need celeb endorsements?‖ 38
  39. 39. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Research MethodologyResearch Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem, itnot only takes the research methods but also consider the logic behind themethods. The study of Research Methodology for developing the project givesus the necessary training in gathering materials and arranging them,participation in the field work when required, and also provides training intechniques for the collection of data appropriate to particular problems.Main objectives: To understand the advertising industry To analyze the recent trends in advertisingResearch DesignResearch Design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis ofdata in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose andconstitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.Research Design used in the project The descriptive as well as exploratorystudies is used in this project due to the fact that these studies attempt to obtaina complete and accurate description and exploration of a situation, that is itcovers the all phases required and provides the ways to collect the data fromvarious sources of information, ensure minimum bias in the collection of data,hold costs to a minimum, and reduces the errors in interpreting the datacollected.Sources of data collectionSources of data collection state the various sources of data from where wecollect the information‘s for the comparative analysis. 39
  40. 40. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Secondary DataSecondary data are those that have been collected by other organizations, suchas government agencies, newspapers and magazines, etc.Methods of Data CollectionMethods of data collection are the way through which the data is collected forthe research purposes. While deciding about the method of data collection to beused for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz.,primary and secondary. The researcher would have to decide sort of data hewould to select for his study and accordingly he will have to select one or theother method of data collection. The methods of collecting primary andsecondary data differ since primary data are to be originally collected, while incase of secondary data the nature of data collection work is merely that ofcompilation.For this type of research I will collect the secondary data as it is more relevantfor the study. 40
  41. 41. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Recent trends in Advertising in IndiaBesides the above given trends in marketing in India the advertising industryhas been shifting to an entirely new way of promotion. The use of women inadvertising was discovered in the early stage of the development of the industrybut in the present scenario the use of children, celebrities and otherinspirational people is a common practice. This may be a costly practice yet apowerful tool for advertisers to achieve sales success.On the contrary advertisers are seeking for other cheap way of promoting theproducts in the market which will help decrease cost of sales and will helpachieve breakeven point earlier. Thus advertising on internet is gaining hugeimportance and companies find it as a cheap and easer way to reach people.Some of the ways discussed above are described in details below.Use of children in AdvertisingThe print and electronic media today consist of slickly choreographed, visuallyappealing and professionally managed programming that has transformed thecurrent generation of urban youth into a bunch of mindless consumers. It istherefore important to bring into consideration the types of programming andits impact on emotional and intellectual growth. The advertising world claimthat it provides every individual with the right to choose and that therefore it isimpossible to imagine a world run away from an important issue. When cynicalTV programming meets unscrupulous advertising, life is grossly simplified,depriving the rebelliousness that characterizes youth - the time set apart in allcivilized cultures for the young to trouble and question the established order ofsubstance. The issue is therefore not only the impact but also the cause of theimpact itself and that is the content of the advertisement and to whom thiscontent is directed. TV surveys in 1990 revealed that the ad agencies estimateon the worth of the youth market was 2000 - 2500 cores. Advertisers thereforediscovered an untapped market among the youth and the persuasive power ityielded over the decision makers in the family. Children could therefore be 41
  42. 42. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012used to reach the target segment - the Parents. Advertising is based on thesuggestibility of the human mind and tends to exploit this trait, which isespecially heightened in children who do not possess without advertising tendsto the power to discriminate and hence believe in everything they see and hear.Exploiting the ignorance of the masses in this case children and morespecifically upper middle class children, advertising tends to firstly stimulatematerialistic desires creating wrong value where children begin to respect onlypeople with materialistic possessions and destroy the ability for originalthinking where they blindly ape western attitudes - teeny bopper look-alikes.Secondly, focusing on parental worries especially those of working parentswho face the guilt of not spending enough time with their children, advertisinghas rise to demanding attitudes among children. Parents look for ways toappease children and advertising suggests a basket of goodies to cure the youdont love me syndrome, which is simply emotional blackmail underlined byparental guilt.Also, children something that their friends have or something better rangingfrom toys to the family vehicle. Apart from creating mindless consumers,advertising also runs the risk of influencing values (gender values, male -female relationships, family ties and their quality, reinforcing stereotypes),buying patterns and lifestyles.Children, teenagers and youth constitute a very important consumer segmentfor the market. Their consumption habits are unique and their purchasedecisions are based on popular trends, brand image, use of new technology,flavor of food products, and style. The market also realizes that youngconsumers have a propensity to consumer junk food and prefer them overtraditional forms of food. This characteristic is exploited by the market byassociating convenience and a brand image with junk food like colas, pizzas,and fast-food joints. There are three major brands of toothpaste in India, viz.Colgate, Pepsodent and Close Up. All three of them compete with each other tocapture maximum market share. In order to achieve this, they not only target 42
  43. 43. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012children as consumers but also feature them in their advertisements to attractother young consumers. Colgate, for e.g., targets young children in the agegroup of 5 to 12 and offers free cartoon booklets along with toothpastes.Pepsodent vies for the same consumer segment and depicts some childrenrelishing snacks, confectionery and sweets, while others are scolded by theirmothers for having done the same thing. This advertisement makes childrenbelieve that consumers who use Pepsodent are immune to any tooth decaybecause of the superior quality of the product. This claim is unauthenticatedand attempts to mislead children. Close Up, on the other hand, does notperceive children as its target audience. Instead, it targets teenagers and theyouth. It creates a brand image of confidence and popularity for youngconsumers between the age group of 16-30. Its advertisements constantlyfeature successful friendships and romances between Close-Up users. Millionsof rupees are spent on advertising a product which costs as little as Rs. 30 andis considered ordinary by most consumers. From pushing toothpaste on neemsticks to advertising in the Kumbh mela, the market can go to any extent toboost its sales. After a point, the sales tend to stagnate. This negativedevelopment is offset by constantly repackaging the present product andintroducing new products. For instance, Colgate has a number of brands in themarket, like Colgate Total, Colgate Dental Cream, Cibaca, Colgate Gel andColgate Herbal. Young consumers are special targets of the junk-food industry.The market knows that fast food is addictive and once young people get used tohaving their fat, salts and sugar rich food, they will become their consumers forlife. 43
  44. 44. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Examples Latest add of 2012 by Vodafone India featuring a love story of two kids and the famous Vodafone dag helping them. The advertisement gives a false message in context of the culture of India as traditional culture of India does not support it.A television commercial ofMaggie featuring a mothermaking Maggie for his sontelling him that the Maggie isgood for his health 44
  45. 45. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Latest ad by Flipkart.comfeaturing two kids. The point is that children are not only used in products which are used by the children but now a day‘s children are used in almost every ad. Children are used in products which are not made for them. Thus the rate of use children in India is increasing with an increasing rate. Celebrity Endorsements India is a country where people love to live in dreams. They worship celebrities. Celebrities which might be cricket stars like Sachin Tendulkar, Mahinder Singh Dhoni or Film Stars like Shah Rukh Khan or John Ebrahim. They treat them as God. Marketers use this very preposition so as to influence their target customers may be existing or potential ones. For this they rope in these celebrities and give them whopping amount of money. They believe that by doing this they can associate their products with their target customers. This is called celebrity endorsement. Everyday consumers are exposed to thousands of voices and images in magazines, newspapers, and on billboards, websites, radio and television. Every brand attempts to steal at least a fraction of a person‘s time to inform him or her of the amazing and different attributes of the product at hand. The 45
  46. 46. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012challenge of the marketer is to find a hook that will hold the subject‘s attention.In helping to achieve this, use of celebrity endorsers is a widely used marketingstrategy. In this modern age, people tend to ignore all commercials andadvertisements while flipping through the magazines and newspapers orviewing TV. But even then, the glamour of a celebrity seldom goes unnoticed.Thus, celebrity endorsement in advertisement and its impact on the overallbrand is of great significance. In this process, the companies hire celebritiesfrom a particular field to feature in its advertisement campaigns. Thepromotional features and images of the product are matched with the celebrityimage, which tends to persuade a consumer to fix up his choice from a varietyof brands. Although this sounds pretty simple, but the design of suchcampaigns and the subsequent success in achieving the desired result calls foran in-depth understanding of the product, the brand objective, choice of acelebrity, associating the celebrity with the brand, and a framework formeasuring the effectiveness.Companies invest large sums of money to align their brands and themselveswith endorsers. Such endorsers are seen as dynamic with both attractive andlikeable qualities and companies plan that these qualities are transferred toproducts via masscom activities. Furthermore, because of their fame, celebritiesserve not only to create and maintain attention but also to achieve high recallrates for masscom messages in today‘s highly cluttered environments.Similarly every product has an image. The consumer tries to consume a brandwhich has the maximum fit with his/her own personality/image. The celebrityendorser fits in between these two interactions, where he tries to bring theimage of the product closer to the expectation of the consumer, by transferringsome of the cultural meanings residing in his image to the product.The general belief among advertisers is that brand communication messagesdelivered by celebrities and famous personalities generate a higher appeal,attention and recall than those executed by non-celebrities. The quick message-reach and impact are all too essential in today‘s highly competitiveenvironment. 46
  47. 47. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012What is Celebrity Endorsement?The use of celebrities in order to increase the sales and/ or the recall value of abrand is called celebrity endorsementThe late 80s saw the beginning of celebrity endorsements in advertising inIndia. Hindi film and TV stars as well as sportspersons began encroaching on aterritory that was, until then, the exclusive domain of models. There was a spurtof advertising, featuring stars like Tabassum (Prestige pressure cookers), JalalAgha (Pan Parag), Kapil Dev (Palmolive Shaving Cream) and Sunil Gavaskar(Dinesh Suitings). Of course, probably the first ad to cash in on star power in astrategic, long-term, mission statement kind of way was for Lux soap, a brandwhich has, perhaps as a result of this, been among the top three in the countryfor much of its lifetime. Endorsements by celebrities have started since a longtime. The very fact that their use has continued for so long is proof enough ofits immense advantages, but they have several disadvantages too. When itcomes to celebrity endorsement, the first brand that comes to the Indian mind isthat of Lux, the Beauty Bar of the Stars. Since its inception, Lux the brand hasgrown positioning itself thus. However, recently Lux has tried to change itspositioning from being a woman‘s soap to being soap for men as well. Stickingto its strategy of using celebrities to appeal to its target audience, this timearound it has used Shah Rukh Khan to endorse Lux. Butthis time the response has been confusing. One of the first sports endorsementsin India was when Farokh Engineer became the first Indian Cricketer to modelfor Brylcream The Indian cricket teams now earns roughly Rs. 100 crorethrough endorsements. There was a spurt of advertising, featuring stars likeTabassum (Prestige Pressure cookers). Jalal Agha (Pan Parag).Kapil Dev(Palmolive Shaving cream) and Sunil Gavaskar (Dinesh Suitings)Rise of Celebrity CultureThe modern mass media has increased the exposure and power of celebrity.Often, celebrity carries with it immense social capitals that is highly soughtafter by some individuals. High paying jobs and other social perks unavailable 47
  48. 48. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012to most people are readily available to celebrities, even for wok not connectedto the talents or accomplishment that made them famous. For example Aretired athletes might receive high ―speaking fees ‗or compensation for publicappearances, despite his talent having been sports. Often, celebrities cannotescape the public eye & risk being followed by fans. As well, child celebritiesare notorious for having poor emotional health in adulthood, and often turn todrug and alcohols abuse when their fame fades. In India today, the use ofcelebrity advertising for companies has become a trend and a winning formulaof corporate image building and product marketing. Associating a brand with atop-notch celebrity can do more than perk up brand recall. It can createlinkages with the stars appeal, thereby adding refreshing and new dimensionsto the brand image. 48
  49. 49. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Indian Perspective – examplesIn recent times, we had the Shah Rukh-Santro campaign with the objective ofcreating awareness about an unknown Korean brand in the Indian market,Hyundai. The objective was to garner faster brand recognition, association andemotional unity with the target group. Star power in India can be gauged by thesuccessful endorsement done by Shahrukh for three brands- Pepsi, Clinic AllClear and Santro.Similarly, when S. Kumars used Hrithik Roshan, then the hottest advertisingicon for their launch advertising for Tamarind, they reckoned they spent 40-50per cent less on media due to the sheer impact of using Hrithik. Ad recall wasas high as 70 per cent, and even the normally conservative trade got interested.Confining to India, it would not be presumptuous to state that celebrityendorsements can positively affect the overall brand. We have numerousexamples exemplifying this claim. A standard example here is Coke, which, tillrecently, internationally didnt use stars at all - in fact, India was a first forthem. The result was a ubiquitously appealing Aamir cheekily stating thandamatlab coca cola. The recall value for Nakshatra advertising is only due to thesensuous Aishwarya. The Parker brand of pen, which by itself commandsequity, used Amitabh Bachchan to revitalize the brand in India. According toPooja Jain, Director, Luxor Writing Instruments Ltd. (LWIL), post-BachchanParkers sales have increased by about 30 per cent.India is one country which has always idolized the species of the celluloidworld. Therefore, it makes tremendous sense for a brand to procure a celebrityfor its endorsement. In India, there is an exponential potential for a celebrityendorsement to be perceived as genuinely relevant, thereby, motivatingconsumers to go in for the product - this would especially prove true if theendorser and the category are a natural lifestyle fit (sports-persons and foot-wear, Kapil-Sachin and Boost, film stars and beauty products, Katrina Kaif andLux).The young, handsome, self controlled, composed, autonomous cricket captainof Indian young brigade is one of the most famous images in Indian market. In 49
  50. 50. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012India, cricket is religion and cricketers are placed among the gods. Dhoni is abrand in himself and an attractive choice for the marketers as a brand endorser.Dhoni has been successfully used indifferent advertisement as a brandambassador. Few of the brands that Dhoni endorse are the famous Youngistanadvertisement of Pepsi, Rebook‘s ad of Your Move and funky ad of Lays withSaif Ali Khan. PEPSI: YOUNGISTAN MERI JAAN Pepsi has always tried to tap the young segment of India through their promotions. Beginning from the famous ―Ahaa‖ series of ads to the ―Yeh Dil Mange More‖ to today‘s ―Youngistan Meri Jan‖, Pepsi has always made ads to attract the youth. They have always chosen the young stars, may not be established, as a face of young India. So the main reason of using Dhoni is same in case of the latest Youngistan Meri Jan REEBOK: YOUR MOVEReebok is the most visible andremarkable sports brand of all time. Itmakes innovative products which aremaking a lot of difference toconsumers and athletes worldwide. Asall the persons related to sports are itstarget market, Reebok has been usingdifferent sport celebrities for itspromotion. Dhobi’s “YOUR MOVE” is afamous advertisement of Reebok. 50
  51. 51. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Other than the above given names we have numerous examples of celebrityendorsements in India like Akshay Kumar in Thums up, Selman khan inRevital capsules, Aishwarya rai in L‘Oreal shampoo, Katrina Kaif in slice, SaifAli khan in lays chips and Taj Mahal tea, Ranbeer Kapoor Nissan Micra,Shahrukh khan in Hyundai cars etc. Source AdEx India (A Division of TAM Media Research) 51
  52. 52. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Online AdvertisingOnline advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and WorldWide Web to deliver marketing messages to attract customers. Examples ofonline advertising include contextual ads on search engine results pages,banner ads, blogs, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, interstitial ads,online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing,including e-mail spam. Many of these types of ads are delivered by an Adserver.The internet has become an ongoing emerging source that tends to expandmore and more. The growth of this particular medium attracts the attention ofadvertisers as a more productive source to bring in consumers. A clearadvantage consumers have with online advertisement is the control they haveover the product, choosing whether to check it out or not. Onlineadvertisements may also offer various forms of animation. In its most commonuse, the term "online advertising" comprises all sorts of banner, e-mail, in-game, and keyword advertising, on platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, orMySpace has received increased relevance. Web-related advertising has avariety of sites to publicize and reach a niche audience to focus its attention toa specific group. Research has proven that online advertising has given resultsand is growing business revenue. For the year 2012, Jupiter research predicted$34.5 billion in US online advertising spending.Revenue modelsThe three most common ways in which online advertising is purchased areCPM, CPC, and CPA.• CPM (Cost Per Mille) or CPT (Cost Per Thousand Impressions) is when advertisers pay for exposure of their message to a specific audience. "Per mille" means per thousand impressions, or loads of an advertisement. 52
  53. 53. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 However, some impressions may not be counted, such as a reload or internal user action.• CPV (Cost Per Visitor) is when advertisers pay for the delivery of a Targeted Visitor to the advertisers website.• CPV (Cost Per View) is when advertisers pay for each unique user view of an advertisement or website (usually used with pop-ups, pop-under and interstitial ads).• CPC (Cost Per Click) or PPC (Pay per click) is when advertisers pay each time a user clicks on their listing and is redirected to their website. They do not actually pay for the listing, but only when the listing is clicked on. This system allows advertising specialists to refine searches and gain information about their market. Under the Pay per click pricing system, advertisers pay for the right to be listed under a series of target rich words that direct relevant traffic to their website, and pay only when someone clicks on their listing which links directly to their website. CPC differs from CPV in that each click is paid for regardless of whether the user makes it to the target site.• CPA (Cost Per Action or Cost Per Acquisition) or PPF (Pay Per Performance) advertising is performance based and is common in the affiliate marketing sector of the business. In this payment scheme, the publisher takes all the risk of running the ad, and the advertiser pays only for the amount of users who complete a transaction, such as a purchase or sign-up. This model ignores any inefficiency in the sellers web site conversion funnel. The following are common variants of CPA:• CPL (Cost Per Lead) advertising is identical to CPA advertising and is based on the user completing a form, registering for a newsletter or some other action that the merchant feels will lead to a sale. 53
  54. 54. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012• CPS (Cost Per Sale), PPS (Pay Per Sale), or CPO (Cost Per Order) advertising is based on each time a sale is made.• ECPM: Effective CPM or ECPM calculated through other conversion events such as Cost per Clicks, Cost per Downloads, Cost per Leads etc. for example when an advertiser getting $2 per download and for 100,000 impressions you received 10 downloads worth $20, in this case your effective CPM or ECPM will be 2*20*1000/100,000= $0.4• Fixed Cost: Advertiser paying fixed cost for delivery frame by campaign flight dates without any relevance to performance• Cost per conversion Describes the cost of acquiring a customer, typically calculated by dividing the total cost of an ad campaign by the number of conversions. The definition of "Conversion" varies depending on the situation: it is sometimes considered to be a lead, a sale, or a purchase.Types of online AdsThough, as seen above, the large majority of online advertising has a cost thatis brought about by usage or interaction of an ad, there are a few other methodsof advertising online that only require a onetime payment. The Million DollarHomepage is a very successful example of this. Visitors were able to pay $1per pixel of advertising space and their advert would remain on the homepagefor as long as the website exists with no extra costs. 54
  55. 55. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012• Floating ad: An ad which moves across the users screen or floats above the content.• Expanding ad: An ad which changes size and which may alter the contents ofthe webpage. 55
  56. 56. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012• Polite ad: A method by which a large ad will be downloaded in smaller piecesto minimize the disruption of the content being viewed• Wallpaper ad: An ad which changes the background of the page beingviewed. 56
  57. 57. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012• Trick banner: A banner ad that looks like a dialog box with buttons. Itsimulates an error message or an alert.• Pop-up: A new window which opens in front of the current one, displaying anadvertisement, or entire webpage.• Pop-under: Similar to a Pop-Up except that the window is loaded or sentbehind the current window so that the user does not see it until they close oneor more active windows. 57
  58. 58. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012• Video ad: similar to a banner ad, except that instead of a static or animatedimage, actual moving video clips are displayed. This is the kind of advertisingmost prominent in television, and many advertisers will use the same clips forboth television and online advertising.• Map ad: text or graphics linked from, and appearing in or over, a location onan electronic map such as on Google Maps. 58
  59. 59. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012• Mobile ad: an SMS text or multi-media message sent to a cell phone.• Superstitial: An animated adv on a Web page from Enliven MarketingTechnologies. It uses video, 3D content or flash to provide a TV-likeadvertisement. Used to be known as Unicast Transitional ads as they wereoriginally made by Unicast Communications but the company was acquired byViewpoint Corporation in 2004, which then changed its name to Enliven in2008.• Interstitial ad: a full-page ad that appears before a user reaches their originaldestination.In addition, ads containing streaming video or streaming audio are becomingvery popular with advertisers.E-mail advertisingLegitimate Email advertising or E-mail marketing is often known as "opt-in e-mail advertising" to distinguish it from spam.Display advertisingDisplay advertising appears on web pages in many forms, including webbanners. These banners can consist of static or animated images, as well asinteractive media that may include audio and video elements. Displayadvertising on the Internet is widely used for branding. This is why metrics like 59
  60. 60. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012interaction time are becoming more relevant. This may change in the future asdisplay advertising is becoming much more targeted to users, much like howsearch engine ads can be extremely relevant to users based on what they aresearching for. Display advertisers use cookie and browser history to determinedemographics and interests of users and target appropriate ads to thosebrowsers. Banner ad standards have changed over the years to larger sizes, inpart due to increased resolution of standard monitors and browsers, in part toprovide advertisers with more impact for their investment. The standardscontinue to evolve. Banner ads can be targeted to internet users in manydifferent ways in order to reach the advertisers most relevant audience.Behavioral retargeting, demographic targeting, geographic targeting, and sitebased targeting are all common ways in which advertisers choose to target theirbanner ads.Affiliate marketingAffiliate marketing is a form of online advertising where advertisers placecampaigns with a potentially large number of small (and large) publishers, whoare only paid media fees when traffic to the advertiser is garnered, and usuallyupon a specific measurable campaign result (a form, a sale, a sign-up, etc.).Today, this is usually accomplished through contracting with an affiliatenetwork. Affiliate marketing was an invention by in 1994 andwas excelled by when it launched its Affiliate Program, calledAssociate Program in 1996. The online retailer used its program to generatelow cost brand exposure and provided at the same time small websites a way toearn some supplemental income.Behavioral targetingIn addition to contextual targeting, online advertising can be targeted based ona users online behavior. This practice is known as behavioral targeting. Forexample, if a user is known to have recently visited a number of automotiveshopping / comparison sites based on click stream analysis enabled by cookies 60
  61. 61. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012stored on the users computer, that user can then be served auto-related adswhen they visit other, non-automotive sites. In the United States the FederalTrade Commission has been involved in the oversight of behavioral targetingfor some time. In 2011 the FTC proposed a "Do Not Track" mechanism toallow Internet users to opt-out of behavioral targeting.Online Advertising in IndiaIn last few years, online advertising has been growing at much better pace thanany other traditional advertising medium – According to recent report puttogether by MagnaGlobal, online advertising spends will touch 71 Billion dollars this yearglobally. In India, online advertising is picking up pace as well, thanks togrowth of Internet users in India, which has now crossed 100 million usermark. Currently, advertising spends in India are pegged at 200 Million USD,less than 0.5 percent of global market share. But over next 3 years, it isexpected that Indian online advertising will touch close to USD 1 Billion.While doing a comparison on average advertising rates in India, I came acrossan interesting chart published by Social Bakers giving average globaladvertising rates for Facebook. Although India is now one of the top 5countries in the world in terms of internet users, average advertising rates (Costper thousand impressions – CPM & Cost per Click -CPC) are abysmally low. 61
  62. 62. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Source: Magna GlobalSocial Media MarketingSocial media marketing refers to the process of gaining website traffic orattention through social media sites. Social media marketing programs usuallycenter on efforts to create content that attracts attention and encourages readersto share it with their social networks. A corporate message spreads from user touser and presumably resonates because it appears to come from a trusted, third-party source, as opposed to the brand or company itself. Hence, this form ofmarketing is driven by word-of-mouth, meaning it results in earned mediarather than paid media. Social media has become a platform that is easilyaccessible to anyone with internet access. Increased communication fororganizations fosters brand awareness and often, improved customer service.Additionally, social media serves as a relatively inexpensive platform fororganizations to implement marketing campaigns.Social media AdvertisingSocial network advertising is a term that is used to describe a form of Onlineadvertising that focuses on social networking sites. One of the major benefits ofadvertising on a social networking site (Facebook, MySpace, Friendster, Bebo,Orkut...and many others) is that advertisers can take advantage of the user‘sdemographic information and target their ads appropriately. 62
  63. 63. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Forms of Social Network AdvertisingThere are three major classifications of Social Network Advertising:• Direct Advertising that is based on your network of friends - This can be the most effective format but also causes the most controversy. An example is the Facebook beacon project. Based on an action your friend has taken, you might see a message in your news feed saying Bob has just bought a Radiohead CD from Music World. This can be an extremely effective mode as often people make decisions to purchase something or do something based on their close group of friends. However, there is also a lot of controversy surrounding this as it can be considered exploiting the personal relationships you have with your friends and also raises privacy concerns.• Direct Advertising placed on your social networking site - This is a more traditional form of web advertising that is minimally effective. Just like you see banner ads on many other sites, this is a similar concept, except on a social networking site. You can see these - for example - as a brick in the top right of MySpace pages or as a banner on the left of Facebook profiles and so on. There are two differences however - One is that these social networks can take advantage of demographic data on your profile and hence target the ad directly to you. Secondly, these types of ads can also be placed by individual developers on their application pages through ad networks. They have access to the same data and can generate income for application developers giving them further motivation to create apps and giving advertisers a more engaging way to reach out to these social networking users.• Indirect Advertising by creating groups or pages - This is an innovative marketing technique in which a company will create a page or group that users can choose to join. They will use this to build up subscribers or fans and use this to market a contest, a new product, or simply just to 63
  64. 64. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 increase brand awareness. These groups can quickly grow in numbers of subscribers which can become a very effective marketing tool.Major sites for Social media MarketingTwitterTwitter allows companies to promote products on an individual level. The useof a product can be explained in short messages that followers are more likelyto read. These messages appear on followers‘ home pages. Messages can linkto the product‘s website, Facebook profile, photos, videos, etc. This linkprovides followers the opportunity to spend more time interacting with theproduct online. This interaction can create a loyal connection between productand individual and can also lead to larger advertising opportunities. Twitterpromotes a product in real-time and brings customers in.FacebookFacebook profiles are more detailed than Twitter. They allow a product toprovide videos, photos, and longer descriptions. Videos can show when aproduct can be used as well as how to use it. These also can includetestimonials as other followers can comment on the product pages for others tosee. Facebook can link back to the product‘s Twitter page as well as send outevent reminders. Facebook promotes a product in real-time and bringscustomers in. As marketers see more value in social media marketing,advertisers continue to increase sequential ad spend in social by 25%.Strategies to extend the reach with Sponsored Stories and acquire new fanswith Facebook ads continue to an uptick in spend across the site. The studyattributes 84% of "engagement" or clicks to Likes that link back to Facebookadvertising. Today, brands increase fan counts on average of 9% monthly,increasing their fan base bytwo-times the amount annually. 64
  65. 65. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012BlogsEveryday there are more reasons for companies to use blogging platforms totheir social media repertoire. Platforms like LinkedIn create an environment forcompanies and clients to connect online. Companies that recognize the need forinformation, originality and accessibility employ blogs to make their productspopular and unique, and ultimately reach out to consumers who are privy tosocial media. Blogs allow a product or company to provide longer descriptionsof products or services. The longer description can include reasoning and uses.It can include testimonials and can link to and from Facebook, Twitter andmany social network and blog pages. Blogs can be updated frequently and arepromotional techniques for keeping customers. Other promotional uses areacquiring followers and subscribers and direct them to your social networkpages. In a similar fashion, online communities benefit businesses because theyenable them to reach the clients of other businesses using the platform. Theseonline environments can be accessed by virtually anyone; therefore consumersare invited to be a part of the creative process. To allow firms to measure theirstanding in the corporate world, Glass door is a site where employees can placeevaluations of their companies. Some businesses opt out of integrating socialmedia platforms into their traditional marketing regimen because theiremployees dislike such isolated online environments. There are also specificcorporate standards that apply wheninteracting online. Other corporations fear that the general public has too muchpower over how their marketing is perceived, due to the accessibility ofInternet-retrieved information. To ensure having the advantage in a business-consumer relationship, businesses have to be aware of four key assets thatconsumers maintain: information, involvement, community, and control.LinkedInLinkedIn, being a professional business-related networking site, allowscompanies to create professional profiles for themselves as well as theirbusiness to network and meet others. Through the use of widgets, members can 65
  66. 66. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012promote their various social networking activities, such as Twitter stream orblog entries of their product pages, ontotheir LinkedIn profile page.[17] LinkedIn provides its members the opportunityto generate sales leads and business partners.[18] Members can use ―CompanyPages‖ similar to Facebook pages to create an area that will allow businessowners to promote their products or services and be able to interact with theircustomers.YelpYelp consists of a comprehensive online index of business profiles. Businessesare searchable by location, similar to Yellow Pages. The website is operationalin seven different countries, including the United States and Canada. Businessaccount holders are allowed to create, share, and edit business profiles. Theymay post information such as the business location, contact information,pictures, and service information. The website further allows individuals towrite, post reviews about businesses and rate them on a five point scale.Messaging and talk features are further made available for general members ofthe website, serving to guide thoughts and opinions.YouTubeYouTube is another popular avenue; advertisements are done in a way to suitthe target audience. The type of language used in the commercials and the ideasused to promote the product reflect the audiences style and taste. Also, the adson this platform are usually in sync with the content of the video requested; thisis another advantage YouTube brings for advertisers. Certain ads are presentedwith certain videos since the content is relevant. Promotional opportunitiessuch as sponsoring a video is also possible on YouTube, ―for example, a userwho searches for a YouTube video on dog training may be presented with asponsored video from a dog toy company inresults along with other videos. 66
  67. 67. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Examples of Social site 67
  68. 68. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 Some Indian examples of social media advertising:Vodafone’s zoo zoo advertisement is a very successful campaign by Vodafone India. 68
  69. 69. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Maggie noodles from the house of Nestle India promoting the product on .com 69
  70. 70. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012The official fan page of ford motor company USA on Facebook. 70
  71. 71. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012Shahrukh khan the Indian superstar promoting his movie RA-ONE online 71
  72. 72. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 FindingsThe research states following findings: The advertising industry in India is growing with a great pace. The industry has been changed if compared form the early advertising industry which started in early 1880. The advertising industry has started using children in products that are not used by children. Business men have started exploiting children for advertisements for their own profit. The use of celebrity in advertising is also increasing with a great pace in India. The business men are using celebrities as an inspirational group for the people to increase sale. Use of multiple celebrities in ad is increasing for example: advertisement of head & shoulders with Karenna Kapoor and Saif Ali khan. The last but not the least it is found that business men are now moving towards online ads as these ads are cheap in price and are more reachable too people. These ads are now broadcasted on social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Thus ad world is now changing towards a new dimension of promotional efforts which will not only increase the scope and reach of ad but will also reduce the cost of advertising 72
  73. 73. Recent Trends in Advertising 2012 CONCLUSIONThe whole purpose of advertising is to sell products or ideas, so the massiveexpansion of foreign companies and advertising, whether coming fromoverseas or created in India, has meant the massive expansion of the sales offoreign products. The liberalization of the Indian economy in the early 1990shas led to the accelerated entry of foreign business and foreign advertisingagencies to sell the products of foreign products to the vast potential Indianmarket of over a billion people. Though there are approximately about 37%living at or below the poverty line, the expanding potential markets representedby those above the poverty line number hundreds of millions for low pricedrepeat purchase consumer goods, and many millions for those able to purchaseconsumer durables and luxury goods. Advertisers are using considerable ingenuity to develop strategies toenter these markets. In the early 1990s there were Indian advertising companiesin the profile of top advertising agencies but by the end of the decade most hadmade strategic alliances with foreign agencies. There was a concentration inrevenue, both in products, companies, (HUL being the largest company and thegreatest spender on advertising), and in the fact that 25 agencies accounted for75% of the advertising revenue in India in 1999 (Srinivas, 1999). The major competition is in the low end of the market between the colagiants, the personal products and soap markets but there is also an expandingmarket for electronics, consumer durables and services amongst ‗theconsuming classes‘. Television and satellite television has been eroding themarket dominance of print advertising in the 1990s, but print is still the largestsource of media, including newspapers and magazines, which have expandedconsiderably in the 1990s. Advertising in the 1990s focused on the Hindi andEnglish speaking population via television and print, which was predominantly,educated, urban and middle class. In the 2000s however, major companies have 73