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SMDH 2015 TG. KARANG: METHODS OF T&L SCIENCE (BIOLOGY)

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This paper paper was presented at Sekolah Menengah Dato Harun, Tanjong Karang to Form 5 Science students on March 5, 2015

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SMDH 2015 TG. KARANG: METHODS OF T&L SCIENCE (BIOLOGY)

  1. 1. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN,SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANGTANJONG KARANG 1111Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 DR. ARBA’AT HASSANDR. ARBA’AT HASSAN BSc; MSc; PhD (Illinois, USABSc; MSc; PhD (Illinois, USA)) Bekas Pelajar SMDH 1965-69Bekas Pelajar SMDH 1965-69 email: arbaat@yahoo.comemail: arbaat@yahoo.com Assalamualaikum wbth …Assalamualaikum wbth … dandan Selamat PetangSelamat Petang
  2. 2. 22Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 22 METHODS OFMETHODS OF T&L SCIENCET&L SCIENCE (BIOLOGY)(BIOLOGY) Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  3. 3. DEFINITIONDEFINITION • Teach:…………..Teacher:……….Teach:…………..Teacher:………. • Learn:……………Learner:……….Learn:……………Learner:………. • Teaching methods: …actions initiated byTeaching methods: …actions initiated by teachers to guide instruction and learningteachers to guide instruction and learning Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONGSEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANGKARANG 33Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016
  4. 4. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 4444 METHODSMETHODS • What methods suit you?What methods suit you? • ……many; varies; multiple;…many; varies; multiple;… • ……involve the use of materials but theyinvolve the use of materials but they are distinct from the materialsare distinct from the materials themselvesthemselves • e.g.: a teacher may ask students to read ae.g.: a teacher may ask students to read a textbook, develop note-taking skills,textbook, develop note-taking skills, experience themselves, etc.experience themselves, etc. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  5. 5. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 5555 METHODSMETHODS • ……require skills to become effectiverequire skills to become effective • ……a teacher may be very exciting as aa teacher may be very exciting as a lecturer or story teller; but…lecturer or story teller; but… • ……other, may be boring; andother, may be boring; and • ……other, may confuse students.other, may confuse students. • …… so, what is theso, what is the BESTBEST methods neededmethods needed in teaching?in teaching? Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  6. 6. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 6666 METHODSMETHODS Your answer:Your answer: • TheThe BEST(?)BEST(?) method/s of teaching andmethod/s of teaching and learning arelearning are …………………………………………….....……………………………………………..... ……………………………………………….………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………….......... ………………………………………………………………………………………….......... ………………………………………………………………………………………….......... ……………………………………………………………………………………………….... Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 66SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  7. 7. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 7777 METHODSMETHODS • Teaching methods are generally chosenTeaching methods are generally chosen to enhance learningto enhance learning butbut theythey cannotcannot guarantee that learning takes place.guarantee that learning takes place. WHY?WHY? • ……students vary theirstudents vary their abilities; interestsabilities; interests;; previous experience; background;previous experience; background; etc.etc. • Learning process is controlled by manyLearning process is controlled by many factors.factors. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  8. 8. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 8888 TEACHING METHODSTEACHING METHODS Teaching methods can be groupedTeaching methods can be grouped intointo THREETHREE categories:categories: A. LISTENINGA. LISTENING──SPEAKINGSPEAKING B. READINGB. READING──WRITINGWRITING C. WATCHINGC. WATCHING──DOINGDOING Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  9. 9. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 9999 A. LISTENINGA. LISTENING──SPEAKINGSPEAKING 1.1. LectureLecture ─majority!─majority! 2.2. Giving instructionGiving instruction 3.3. RecitationRecitation 4.4. Drill methodDrill method 5.5. ReviewReview 6.6. QuestioningQuestioning 7.7. Oral examinationOral examination 8.8. DiscussionDiscussion 9.9. Film analysisFilm analysis 10.10. DebateDebate 11.11. Oral reportOral report 12.12. BrainstormingBrainstorming Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  10. 10. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 10101010 B. READINGB. READING──WRITINGWRITING 1.1. TextbookTextbook 2.2. WorkbookWorkbook 3.3. ChalkboardChalkboard 4.4. Bulletin boardBulletin board 5.5. Problem-solvingProblem-solving 6.6. Laboratory reportLaboratory report 7.7. Team learningTeam learning 8.8. Peer reviewPeer review 9.9. Peer tutoringPeer tutoring 10.10.ProgrammedProgrammed instructioninstruction 11.11.IndividualizedIndividualized instructioninstruction 12.12.Note-takingNote-taking 13.13.Journal-keepingJournal-keeping Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  11. 11. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 11111111 C. WATCHINGC. WATCHING──DOINGDOING 1.1. DemonstrationDemonstration 2.2. Field tripField trip 3.3. ContactContact 4.4. ““Hands-on”/LabHands-on”/Lab 5.5. InquiryInquiry 6.6. Learning centreLearning centre 7.7. ProjectProject 8.8. SimulationSimulation 9.9. GamesGames 10.10. Exploratory-Exploratory- DiscoveryDiscovery Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  12. 12. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 12121212 A. LISTENINGA. LISTENING──SPEAKINGSPEAKING 1.1. LectureLecture ─majority!─majority! 2.2. Giving instructionGiving instruction 3.3. RecitationRecitation 4.4. Drill methodDrill method 5.5. ReviewReview 6.6. QuestioningQuestioning 7.7. Oral examinationOral examination 8.8. DiscussionDiscussion 9.9. Film analysisFilm analysis 10.10. DebateDebate 11.11. Oral reportOral report 12.12. BrainstormingBrainstorming Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 1212 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  13. 13. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 1313 1. LECTURE1. LECTURE •Purpose: deliver informationPurpose: deliver information orallyorally •Use: wide; mostly; traditionalUse: wide; mostly; traditional •Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high •Students: passiveStudents: passive •Group size: 10Group size: 10──3030 •Activity: take notes and/or askActivity: take notes and/or ask questionsquestions Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  14. 14. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 14141414 1. LECTURE1. LECTURE SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  15. 15. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 15151515 2. GIVING INSTRUCTION2. GIVING INSTRUCTION • Purpose: provide direction forPurpose: provide direction for students to begin a taskstudents to begin a task • Use: wide; in every classroomUse: wide; in every classroom activityactivity • Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 1Group size: 1──3030 • Activity: direct students, take notesActivity: direct students, take notes ask questions, and do itask questions, and do it Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  16. 16. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 16161616 2. GIVING INSTRUCTION2. GIVING INSTRUCTION 2. GIVING INSTRUCTION Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  17. 17. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 17171717 3. RECITATION3. RECITATION •Purpose: assess what students understand on a regular, informal to reinforce correct or accurate understanding •Use: wide;Use: wide; traditional •Teacher dominance:Teacher dominance: medium •Students: aStudents: active •Group size:Group size: 5──30 •Activity:Activity: Recall information that has been presented Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  18. 18. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 18181818 3. RECITATION3. RECITATION •Purpose: assess what students know or understand on a regular, informal to reinforce correct or accurate understanding •Use: wide;Use: wide; traditional •Teacher dominance:Teacher dominance: medium •Students: aStudents: active •Group size:Group size: 5──30 •Activity:Activity: Recalling information that has been presented SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  19. 19. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 19191919 4. DRILL METHOD4. DRILL METHOD • Purpose: provide students withPurpose: provide students with enough practice and reinforcement forenough practice and reinforcement for specific learningspecific learning • Use: wide, esp. in conjunction withUse: wide, esp. in conjunction with written and oral exam method etc.written and oral exam method etc. • Teacher dominance: mediumTeacher dominance: medium • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1Group size: 1──3030 • Activity: repetition practiceActivity: repetition practice Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  20. 20. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 20202020 5. REVIEW METHOD5. REVIEW METHOD •Purpose: have students to look again at something the have learned before •Use: wide; an essential step in the consolidation of information learned •Teacher dominance: medium •Students: active •Group size:Group size: 5──30 •Activity: refer to textbook, workbook, lecture notes, previous learning materials, to recall the relationship Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  21. 21. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 21212121 5. REVIEW5. REVIEW METHODMETHOD Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 2121 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  22. 22. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 22222222 6.6. QUESTIONINGQUESTIONING •Purpose: to stimulate thinking and understanding • Use: wide; common • Teacher dominance: medium • Students: active • Group size:Group size: 1──30 • Activity: recall specific facts, principles, synthesize information, formula, etc. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  23. 23. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 23232323 6.6. QUESTIONINGQUESTIONING •Purpose: to stimulate thinking •Use: wide; common •Teacher dominance: medium •Students: active •Group size:Group size: 1──30 •Activity: recall specific facts, principles, synthesize information, formula, etc. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 2323 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  24. 24. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 24242424 7. ORAL EXAM7. ORAL EXAM • Purpose: provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned without express in writing • Use: wide, traditional • Teacher dominance: medium • Students: active • Group size:Group size: 1:1 (repeated with entire class) • Activity: project, questioning, contract Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  25. 25. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 25252525 7. ORAL EXAM7. ORAL EXAM •Purpose: provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned without express in writing •Use: wide, traditional •Teacher dominance: medium •Students: active •Group size:Group size: 1:1 (repeated with entire class) •Activity: project, questioning, contract Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 2525 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  26. 26. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 26262626 8. DISCUSSION8. DISCUSSION • Purpose: promotes free exchange of ideas among students on a given topic-commonly used • Use: initiate by announcing the topic- students is expected to contribute the idea • Teacher dominance: high • Students: active • Group size:Group size: 5──30 • Activity: give and take among students Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  27. 27. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 27272727 8. DISCUSSION8. DISCUSSION •Purpose: to promote free exchange of ideas among students on a given topic-commonly Use: •Use: initiate by announcing the topic- students is expected to contribute the idea •Teacher dominance: high •Students: active •Group size:Group size: 5──30 Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 2727 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  28. 28. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 28282828 9. FILM ANALYSIS9. FILM ANALYSIS • Purpose: guide students toward new ideas/ generalization; arouse students’ interest • Use: seldom, more dramatic than written materials • Teacher dominance: high • Students: active • Group size:Group size: 10──30 • Activity: watching films, review, discussion, questioning, etc. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  29. 29. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 29292929 9. FILM ANALYSIS9. FILM ANALYSIS •Purpose: guide students toward new ideas/generalization; arouse students’ interest •Use: seldom, more dramatic than written materials •Teacher dominance: high •Students: active •Group size:Group size: 10──30 •Activity : watching films, review, discussion, questioning, etc.Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 2929 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  30. 30. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 30303030 10. DEBATE10. DEBATE • Purpose: argument to support views; enable students to discuss opposing sides of a question or issue • Use: common, attractive • Teacher dominance: low • Students: active • Group size:Group size: 20──30 • Activity: debate advantages and dis- advantages on the development of nuclear power Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  31. 31. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 31313131 10. DEBATE10. DEBATE •Purpose: argument to support views; enable students to discuss opposing sides of a question or issue •Use: common, attractive •Teacher dominance: low •Students: active •Group size:Group size: 20──30 •Activity: debate advantages and disadvantages on the development of nuclear power 3131SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  32. 32. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 32323232 11. ORAL REPORT11. ORAL REPORT • Purpose: provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned; allow students to tell about a topic they have studied • Use: common; wide • Teacher dominance: low • Students: active • Group size: 5──30 • Activity : students may show materials they have collected or produced. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  33. 33. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 33333333 12. BRAINSTORMING12. BRAINSTORMING • Purpose: encourage students to use their creative imagination • Use: frequent; in problem-solving method • Teacher dominance: low • Students: active • Group size: 5──30 • Activity: ask students to think about the topic overnight Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  34. 34. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 34343434 12. BRAINSTORMING12. BRAINSTORMING •Purpose: encourage students to use their creative imagination •Use: frequent; in problem-solving method •Teacher dominance: low •Students: active •Group size: 5──30 •Activity: ask students to think about the topic overnight Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  35. 35. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 35353535 B. READINGB. READING──WRITINGWRITING 1.1. TextbookTextbook 2.2. WorkbookWorkbook 3.3. ChalkboardChalkboard 4.4. Bulletin boardBulletin board 5.5. Problem-solvingProblem-solving 6.6. Laboratory reportLaboratory report 7.7. Team learningTeam learning 8.8. Peer reviewPeer review 9.9. Peer tutoringPeer tutoring 10.10.ProgrammedProgrammed instructioninstruction 11.11.IndividualizedIndividualized instructioninstruction 12.12.Note-takingNote-taking 13.13.Journal-keepingJournal-keeping Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  36. 36. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 36363636 1. TEXTBOOK1. TEXTBOOK • Purpose: to ensure uniformity inPurpose: to ensure uniformity in learning through readinglearning through reading • Use: quite frequent, traditionalUse: quite frequent, traditional • Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity: keep class together (e.g.:Activity: keep class together (e.g.: recitation; discussion; etc)recitation; discussion; etc) Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  37. 37. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 37373737 1. TEXTBOOK1. TEXTBOOK • Purpose: to ensure uniformity inPurpose: to ensure uniformity in learning through readinglearning through reading • Use: quite frequent, traditionalUse: quite frequent, traditional • Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity: keep class together (e.g.:Activity: keep class together (e.g.: recitation; discussion; etc)recitation; discussion; etc) Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  38. 38. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 38383838 2. WORKBOOK2. WORKBOOK • Purpose: to provide practice of skills andPurpose: to provide practice of skills and application.application. • Use: depend on how close the workbookUse: depend on how close the workbook matches students’ readiness and purposematches students’ readiness and purpose of activity with the objectivesof activity with the objectives • Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity: varies (drill, review, lab report,Activity: varies (drill, review, lab report, individualized instruction, etc.)individualized instruction, etc.) Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  39. 39. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 39393939 3. CHALKBOARD3. CHALKBOARD • Purpose: emphasizePurpose: emphasize specific ideas orspecific ideas or information in writing orinformation in writing or graphic form forgraphic form for students to see.students to see. • Use: traditional; wideUse: traditional; wide • Teacher dominance:Teacher dominance: highhigh • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 5-30Group size: 5-30 • Activity: discussion,Activity: discussion, brainstorming, givingbrainstorming, giving instruction,instruction, demonstrationdemonstration Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 3939 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  40. 40. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 40404040 4. BULLETIN BOARD4. BULLETIN BOARD • Purpose: display information andPurpose: display information and attract attention.attract attention. • Use: frequent; improve effectivenessUse: frequent; improve effectiveness of learningof learning • Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 30Group size: 30 • Activity:Activity: lecture, project, field tripslecture, project, field trips Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  41. 41. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 41414141 4. BULLETIN BOARD4. BULLETIN BOARD • Purpose: display information andPurpose: display information and attract attention.attract attention. • Use: frequent; improve effectivenessUse: frequent; improve effectiveness of learningof learning • Teacher dominance: highTeacher dominance: high • Students: passiveStudents: passive • Group size: 30Group size: 30 • Activity:Activity: lecture, project, field tripslecture, project, field trips Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 4141 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  42. 42. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 42424242 5. PROBLEM-SOLVING5. PROBLEM-SOLVING • Purpose: provide students withPurpose: provide students with practice and support while theypractice and support while they learn to solve problems.learn to solve problems. • Use: widely useUse: widely use • Teacher dominance: mediumTeacher dominance: medium • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity: generate many possibleActivity: generate many possible ways to solve problemways to solve problem Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  43. 43. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 43434343 6. LABORATORY REPORT6. LABORATORY REPORT • Purpose: stimulate students’ thinkingPurpose: stimulate students’ thinking and help them to generalize from theirand help them to generalize from their laboratory experience.laboratory experience. • Use: in science subjectUse: in science subject • Teacher dominance: mediumTeacher dominance: medium • Students: medium activeStudents: medium active • Group size: 5-30Group size: 5-30 • Activity: discussion, questioning,Activity: discussion, questioning, team learning, peer review, workbookteam learning, peer review, workbook Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  44. 44. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 44444444 6. LABORATORY REPORT6. LABORATORY REPORT Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  45. 45. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 45454545 7. TEAM LEARNING7. TEAM LEARNING • Purpose: foster a spirit of sharing andPurpose: foster a spirit of sharing and cooperation while students learn.cooperation while students learn. • Use: frequently used by grouping studentsUse: frequently used by grouping students in different skills and interest in manyin different skills and interest in many subject areas.subject areas. • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: multiples of 5 or 6Group size: multiples of 5 or 6 • Activity: laboratory, oral report, inquiry,Activity: laboratory, oral report, inquiry, projects, problem solvingprojects, problem solving Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  46. 46. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 46464646 7. TEAM LEARNING7. TEAM LEARNING • Purpose: foster a spirit of sharingPurpose: foster a spirit of sharing and cooperation while students learn.and cooperation while students learn. • Use: frequently used by groupingUse: frequently used by grouping students in different skills andstudents in different skills and interest in many subject areas.interest in many subject areas. • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: multiples of 5 or 6Group size: multiples of 5 or 6 • Activity: laboratory, oral report,Activity: laboratory, oral report, inquiry, projects, problem solvinginquiry, projects, problem solving Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 4646SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG
  47. 47. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 47474747 8. PEER REVIEW8. PEER REVIEW • Purpose: enhance students’ learningPurpose: enhance students’ learning by having them apply high standardsby having them apply high standards provided by teacher.provided by teacher. • Use: frequent; evaluate each other’sUse: frequent; evaluate each other’s work; improve their own work.work; improve their own work. • Teacher dominance: low.Teacher dominance: low. • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1:1Group size: 1:1 • Activity: writing activitiesActivity: writing activities Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  48. 48. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 48484848 8. PEER REVIEW8. PEER REVIEW Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 4848SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  49. 49. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 49494949 9. PEER TUTORING9. PEER TUTORING • Purpose: to have one student help anotherPurpose: to have one student help another to learn.to learn. • Use: seldom; teacher provide moreUse: seldom; teacher provide more assistance to students who need it; inassistance to students who need it; in context of team learning.context of team learning. • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1:1 (repeated with entire class)Group size: 1:1 (repeated with entire class) • Activity: discuss the topic with classmate,Activity: discuss the topic with classmate, games, drillgames, drill Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  50. 50. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 50505050 10. PROGRAMMED10. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONINSTRUCTION • Purpose: to attractPurpose: to attract students, tostudents, to individualized instruction.individualized instruction. • Use: not very often;Use: not very often; associated with computerassociated with computer technology.technology. • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity: individuaklizedActivity: individuaklized instruction, learninginstruction, learning centres, exploratory-centres, exploratory- discoverydiscovery Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG
  51. 51. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 51515151 11. INDIVIDUALIZED11. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTIONINSTRUCTION • Purpose: to present each student withPurpose: to present each student with learning materials that have beenlearning materials that have been especially selected for him / her.especially selected for him / her. • Use: frequently; to promote greatestUse: frequently; to promote greatest progress for each students.progress for each students. • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1:1 (repeated)Group size: 1:1 (repeated) • Activity: teacher match learning materialsActivity: teacher match learning materials with individual students’ needs andwith individual students’ needs and abilities, peer reviewabilities, peer review Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  52. 52. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 52525252 11. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION11. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION • Purpose: to present each student withPurpose: to present each student with learning materials that have beenlearning materials that have been especially selected for him / her.especially selected for him / her. • Use: frequently; to promote greatestUse: frequently; to promote greatest progress for each students.progress for each students. • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1:1 (repeated)Group size: 1:1 (repeated) • Activity: teacher match learningActivity: teacher match learning materials with individual students’materials with individual students’ needs and abilities, peer reviewneeds and abilities, peer review Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 5252 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  53. 53. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 53535353 12. NOTE-TAKING12. NOTE-TAKING • Purpose: to enable students toPurpose: to enable students to record information in an organizedrecord information in an organized and abbreviated formand abbreviated form • Use:Use: very wide; traditionalvery wide; traditional • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity:Activity: Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  54. 54. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 54545454 12. NOTE-TAKING12. NOTE-TAKING • Purpose: to enable students toPurpose: to enable students to record information in an organizedrecord information in an organized and abbreviated formand abbreviated form • Use:Use: very wide; traditionalvery wide; traditional • Teacher dominance: lowTeacher dominance: low • Students: activeStudents: active • Group size: 1-30Group size: 1-30 • Activity:Activity: Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 5454 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  55. 55. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 55555555 13. JOURNAL-KEEPING13. JOURNAL-KEEPING • Purpose: encourage students to keen for observations and record keeping • Use: frequent; in problem-solving method • Teacher dominance: low • Students: active • Group size: 1──30 • Activity: project, field trip, individualized instruction Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  56. 56. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 56565656 C. WATCHINGC. WATCHING──DOINGDOING 1.1. DemonstrationDemonstration 2.2. Field tripField trip 3.3. ContactContact 4.4. ““Hands-on”/LabHands-on”/Lab 5.5. InquiryInquiry 6.6. Learning centreLearning centre 7.7. ProjectProject 8.8. SimulationSimulation 9.9. GamesGames 10.10. Exploratory-Exploratory- DiscoveryDiscovery Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  57. 57. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 57575757 1.1. DEMONSTRATIONDEMONSTRATION • Purpose: to enable students to see and follow a series of steps; to witness a phenomena or events • Use: always; to prepare students to conduct their own experience in lab • Teacher dominance: high • Student: active • Group size: 5-30 • Activity: demo in lab (cut cost, time, safe-guard to students) Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  58. 58. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 58585858 1. DEMONSTRATION1. DEMONSTRATION • Purpose: to enable students to see and follow a series of steps; to witness a phenomena or events • Use: always; to prepare students to conduct their own experience in lab • Teacher dominance: high • Student: active • Group size: 5-30 • Activity: demo in lab (cut cost, time, Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 5858 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  59. 59. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 59595959 2. FIELD TRIP2. FIELD TRIP • Purpose: to provide students with experiences that cannot take place in the classroom, i.e. outdoor • Use: frequent anticipation • Teacher dominance: high • Student: both active • Group size: 30 or more • Activity: nature, wilderness, parks, museums, zoos, etc. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 5959 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  60. 60. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 60606060 3. CONTRACT3. CONTRACT • Purpose: to guide students towards independence in learning • Use: common practice in school • Teacher dominance: medium to high • Student: passive • Group size: 1:1 (repeated with entire class) • Activity: oral reports, drill, projects Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  61. 61. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 61616161 4. “HANDS-ON”/LAB4. “HANDS-ON”/LAB • Purpose: students have opportunity to solve problems • Use: frequent; experiment, art, cooking, science subject • Teacher dominance: medium • Student: active • Group size: 5-30 • Activity: exploratory- discovery, inquiry, field trips, lab projects Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  62. 62. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 62626262 5. INQUIRY5. INQUIRY • Purpose: enable students to gain experience and confidence in their ability to find answers to questions problems that interest them • Use: widely used • Teacher dominance: medium • Student: 1-30 • Activity: questioning, exploratory-discovery, • problem solving Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  63. 63. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 63636363 6. LEARNING CENTER6. LEARNING CENTER • Purpose: promote independent learning among students • Use: commonly use • Teacher dominance: low • Student: actively involved • Group size: 1:1 (repeated with entire class) • Activity: games, simulations, exploratory-discovery Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  64. 64. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 64646464 7. PROJECTS7. PROJECTS • Purpose: increase students’ involvement with conceptual ideas and to develop skills that might not be developed by other methods • Teacher dominance: low • Student: actively involved • Group size: 1-5 (repeated) • Activity: oral report, written reports, note-taking Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  65. 65. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 65656565 8. SIMULATION8. SIMULATION • Purpose: to increase students’ abilities to apply concepts to the solution of problems; resolve social issues; see other point of view • Use: often; more successful when life like materials are use • Teacher dominance: low • Student: actively involved • Group size: 10-30 • Activity: simulating an animal behavior Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  66. 66. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 66666666 9. GAMES9. GAMES• Purpose: creates enjoyment to learning • Use: adapted to variety of subjects • Teacher dominance: low • Students: actively invoved • Group size: 1-30 • Activity: animal population density; food chain, “jejak kelawar”, etc. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  67. 67. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 67676767 10. EXPLORATION-DISCOVERY10. EXPLORATION-DISCOVERY • Purpose: promote students self- guided learning, curiosity, desire to know and freedom to explore • Use: often, wide, spontaneous • Teacher dominance: low • Student: actively involved • Group size: 1-30 • Activity: inquiry, problem solving, exploration Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  68. 68. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 68686868 10. EXPLORATION-DISCOVERY10. EXPLORATION-DISCOVERY •Purpose: promote students self-guided learning, curiosity, desire to know and freedom to explore •Use: often, wide, spontaneous •Teacher dominance: low •Student: actively involved •Group size: 1-30 •Activity: inquiry, problem solving, exploration Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  69. 69. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 69696969 11. VIRTUAL LEARNING OBJECTS (VLO)11. VIRTUAL LEARNING OBJECTS (VLO) • Purpose: support learning using computer, internet, digital & web-based resources • Use: ICT era very frequent • Teacher dominance: medium • Student: actively involved • Group size: 1-30 • Activity: animation of cell replication; seed germination; mitosis; meiosis Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 6969 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  70. 70. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 70707070 11. VIRTUAL LEARNING OBJECTS (VLO)11. VIRTUAL LEARNING OBJECTS (VLO) Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 7070 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  71. 71. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 71717171 ASSIGNMENTASSIGNMENT • In a group of 2 persons, choose ONE method of teaching Biology for Form 4 or 5 (for a topic of your group’s choice) • Use double period of teaching using either the laboratory, classroom, or nature outdoor. • Select most suitable teaching-learning aids (if needed) relevant to your topic • Present your teaching, either by applying the experimentation, demonstration, group work, or outdoor nature. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 7171 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG
  72. 72. Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 72727272 GOOD LUCK & THANK YOU Sunday, January 3, 2016Sunday, January 3, 2016 7272 SEK MEN DATO HARUN, TANJONG KARANG

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