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1-16 1
ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA:
SABAH CASE
Arba’at Hassan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
1-16 2
TERMINOLOGY
►Environmental education (EE) called Alam dan
Manusia (Human and Environment)
►.. introduced in schools...
1-16 3
DEFINITION
►Cerovsky (1971) … “Book of Environmental
Education” defined environmental education as
"...a process of...
1-16 4
►The American Envtl Edu Act (PL 91-516) :“…
good environmental education” criteria should
be
1…an interdisciplinary...
1-16 5
3. Incorporate of formal + informal education
4. Develop conservation ethics (information
programs + resources) out...
1-16 6
The Tbilisi Conference (1977) endorsed goals
for environmental education into 5 categories:
1. Knowledge: ..to gain...
1-16 7
3. Attitudes: ..to acquire a set of values and
feelings of concern to environnment, and
motivations for actively pa...
1-16 8
Level 1: Knowledge
Level 4:
Participations
Level 3: Skills
Level 2: Awareness
Figure A
Environmental
Education Goal...
1-16 9
Fig A: Envtl Edu Goal Levels (Hungerford &
Volk, 1983)
Level I:Level I: Knowledge + Ecological Foundation: …to
prov...
1-16 10
Level III:Level III: Issue Investigation + Evaluation: …to
develop and equip skills necessary (investigate
environ...
1-16 11
Map of Malaysia
1-16 12
MALAYSIA
•Independence in 1957 (Sabah joined in 1963).
•Malaysia… moves aggressively to achieve a status of
“an in...
1-16 13
RESEARCH STUDY
Purpose: …to investigate the attitudes of school
teachers on the goals importance of
environmental ...
1-16 14
• The respondents asked to indicate their perceptions
• Their perceptions were on the 15 variables
• Level of resp...
1-16 15
•
Table C: Environmental Education Goal Statements
1. •Students gain sufficient knowledge of ecology to permit the...
1-16 16
6. •Students gain an understanding of the roles played by differing
human values in solving environmental issues.
...
1-16 17
11. •Students are provided with opportunities to apply, those skills in
investigating and evaluating environmental...
1-16 18
THE RESULTS
4.54
4.61
4.54
4.36
4.33
4.40
4.38
4.33
4.30
4.27
4.32
4.63
4.42
4.43
4.30
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9...
1-16 19
CONCLUSIONS
1. Majority teachers sampled considered goals for EE
were very important.
2. Mean responses to the imp...
1-16 20
RECOMMENDATIONS
The conclusion resulting from the present study suggests these
recommendations.
1. Revise EE goals...
1-16 21
RECOMMENDATIONS
4. The same study should be replicated at all levels:
primary, secondary, college and higher educa...
1-16 22
THANK YOU
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BRISBANE 2007 USQ: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA (SABAH)

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Suggested Objectives of Environmental Education (UNESCO 1977-78) presented at University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Brisbane in November 2007

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BRISBANE 2007 USQ: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA (SABAH)

  1. 1. 1-16 1 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA: SABAH CASE Arba’at Hassan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  2. 2. 1-16 2 TERMINOLOGY ►Environmental education (EE) called Alam dan Manusia (Human and Environment) ►.. introduced in schools’ curriculum in 1982. ►The term has many names: Nature Study, Outdoor Education, Conservation Education, Environmental Management Education, Community Education, and etc. ►UNESCO suggested … the terminology used as a synonym for each; of the five, singly, or in any combination
  3. 3. 1-16 3 DEFINITION ►Cerovsky (1971) … “Book of Environmental Education” defined environmental education as "...a process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts to develop skills and attitudes necessary to understand and to appreciate the inter- relatedness among man, his culture, and biophysical surroundings. It also entailed practice in decision-making and self-formulation of a code behaviour about issues concerning environmental quality"
  4. 4. 1-16 4 ►The American Envtl Edu Act (PL 91-516) :“… good environmental education” criteria should be 1…an interdisciplinary approach, emphasising nature-human interrelationships 2…focus on environmental problems related to the society CRITERIA
  5. 5. 1-16 5 3. Incorporate of formal + informal education 4. Develop conservation ethics (information programs + resources) outside the classroom 5. Involve people of all ages, and 6. A participant-centred (designs+allows involve- ment in the choice of issues + the problem-solving solutions)
  6. 6. 1-16 6 The Tbilisi Conference (1977) endorsed goals for environmental education into 5 categories: 1. Knowledge: ..to gain a variety of experience + understanding of the problems 2. Awareness: ..to acquire an awareness + sensitivity to environment and its problems GOALS
  7. 7. 1-16 7 3. Attitudes: ..to acquire a set of values and feelings of concern to environnment, and motivations for actively participating in environmental improvement + protection 4. Skills: ..to acquire skills for identifying + solving environmental problems 5. Participation: ..to be actively involved at all levels in working toward resolution of environmental problems.
  8. 8. 1-16 8 Level 1: Knowledge Level 4: Participations Level 3: Skills Level 2: Awareness Figure A Environmental Education Goal Levels (Hungerford & Volk, 1983)
  9. 9. 1-16 9 Fig A: Envtl Edu Goal Levels (Hungerford & Volk, 1983) Level I:Level I: Knowledge + Ecological Foundation: …to provide ecological foundation knowledge to make ecologically sound decisions with respect to environment Level II:Level II: Conceptual Awareness + Values: …to develop a conceptual awareness (i.e.: quality of life+quality of environment, and how the actions on environmental issues be resolved through investigation, evaluation, values, decision-making, and citizenship actions)
  10. 10. 1-16 10 Level III:Level III: Issue Investigation + Evaluation: …to develop and equip skills necessary (investigate environmental issues + evaluate alternative solutions) Level IV:Level IV: Action Skills + Participation: …equip skills to take positive environmental actions (achieve and/or maintain a dynamic equilibrium between quality of life + quality of environment).
  11. 11. 1-16 11 Map of Malaysia
  12. 12. 1-16 12 MALAYSIA •Independence in 1957 (Sabah joined in 1963). •Malaysia… moves aggressively to achieve a status of “an industrial country” by 2020 •Many forests are logged (for factories, highways, residential and shop houses, hydroelectric dams, and other) •A project: “The Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)” is implemented
  13. 13. 1-16 13 RESEARCH STUDY Purpose: …to investigate the attitudes of school teachers on the goals importance of environmental in primary school in Sabah Procedure: 1. Using instrument Alam dan Manusia Teacher Questionnaires (ADMTQ) 2. …a modification of the Environmental Education Curriculum Needs Assessment Questionnaire (EECNAQ) used by Volk's (1983) study in the United States.
  14. 14. 1-16 14 • The respondents asked to indicate their perceptions • Their perceptions were on the 15 variables • Level of responds was based on Likert Scale • The 5-points scale were: 5 = A Complete Extent 4 = A Moderate Extent 3 = A Little Extent 2 = No Extent 1 = Do Not Have Knowledge
  15. 15. 1-16 15 • Table C: Environmental Education Goal Statements 1. •Students gain sufficient knowledge of ecology to permit them to make ecologically sound decisions with respect to both humans and the environment. 2. •Students gain an understanding of the ways in which human social activities (economics, religion, politics, social customs, etc.) influence the environment. 3. •Students gain an understanding of the ways in which individual human behaviours impact on the environment. 4. •Students gain an understanding of a wide variety of environmental issues and both the ecological and social implications of these issues. 5. •Students gain an understanding of the various alternative solutions for solving particular environmental issues in which the ecological and social implications of the solutions are considered.
  16. 16. 1-16 16 6. •Students gain an understanding of the roles played by differing human values in solving environmental issues. 7. •Students develop those skills which will enable them to identify and investigate issues using both primary and secondary sources of information. 8. •Students develop those skills which will enable them to analyse environmental issues and the associated value perspectives with respect to their ecological and cultural implications 9. •Students develop those skills which will enable them to identify alternative solutions for particular issues and to evaluate those solutions with regard to their ecological and cultural implications. 10 . •Students develop those skills which will enable them to identify and evaluate their own value positions related to particular issues and to the solutions proposed for those issues.
  17. 17. 1-16 17 11. •Students are provided with opportunities to apply, those skills in investigating and evaluating environmental issues and their solutions 12. •Students are provided with opportunities to participate in the valuing process in order to examine their own values with respect to both quality of life and quality of the environment. 13. •Students develop those citizenship skills which will enable them to take appropriate action/s (persuasion, consumerism, legal action, political action, ecomanagement, etc.), either individual or group, for the purpose of solving, partially solving, or assisting in solving particular environmental issues. 14. •Students are provided with opportunities to apply citizenship skills in making decisions concerning appropriate environmental action strategies to be used with respect to particular environmental issues. 15. Students are provided with opportunities to take citizenship action on one or more environmental issues.
  18. 18. 1-16 18 THE RESULTS 4.54 4.61 4.54 4.36 4.33 4.40 4.38 4.33 4.30 4.27 4.32 4.63 4.42 4.43 4.30 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 GOAL STATEMENTS MEANRESPONSES
  19. 19. 1-16 19 CONCLUSIONS 1. Majority teachers sampled considered goals for EE were very important. 2. Mean responses to the importance of goals ranged from "the moderate " (4.27) to the "complete extent," (4.63). 3. Grand means for goal statement 11 range from 3.98 - 4.78. 4. Majority respondents indicated toward higher end of the scale (4.34); only 2% said they “do not have knowledge.”
  20. 20. 1-16 20 RECOMMENDATIONS The conclusion resulting from the present study suggests these recommendations. 1. Revise EE goals by the Ministry of Education and the Curriculum Development Centre 2. Incorporate additional goals into the national curriculum. Special emphasis should be placed on those goals in Level III (Investigation and Evaluation Level) and Level IV (Environmental Action Skills of Training and Application). 3. The Ministry of Education should conduct regular training and in-service courses, workshops, seminars, and the like to upgrade and update the teachers' skills and evaluation methods as well as to develop new teaching and learning techniques.
  21. 21. 1-16 21 RECOMMENDATIONS 4. The same study should be replicated at all levels: primary, secondary, college and higher educational institutions to present a total picture of environmental education needs and accomplishments. 5. Replace or substitute the Alam Dan Manusia with a similar subject in the school curriculum to provide knowledge, awareness, and skills to students and citizens
  22. 22. 1-16 22 THANK YOU

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