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# (148065320) dijistra algo

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### (148065320) dijistra algo

1. 1. Lecture 10: Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm CLRS 24.3 Outline of this Lecture Recalling the BFS solution of the shortest path problem for unweighted (di)graphs. The shortest path problem for weighted digraphs. Dijkstra’s algorithm. Given for digraphs but easily modified to work on undirected graphs. 1
2. 2. Recall: Shortest Path Problem for Graphs Let be a (di)graph. The shortest path between two vertices is a path with the shortest length (least number of edges). Call this the link-distance. Breadth-first-search is an algorithm for finding shortest (link-distance) paths from a single source ver- tex to all other vertices. BFS processes vertices in increasing order of their distance from the root vertex. BFS has running time . 2
3. 3. Shortest Path Problem for Weighted Graphs Let function weights. If be a weighted digraph, with weight mapping edges to real-valued , we write for . The length of a path is the sum of the weights of its constituent edges: length The distance from to , denoted , is the length if there is a length of the minimum path path from to ; and is otherwise. length( distance from to is 3
4. 4. Single-Source Shortest-Paths Problem The Problem: Given a digraph with non-negative edge weights and a distinguished source , vertex, determine the distance and a shortest path from the source vertex to every vertex in the digraph. Question: How do you design an efficient algorithm for this problem? 4
5. 5. Single-Source Shortest-Paths Problem Important Observation: Any subpath of a shortest path must also be a shortest path. Why? Example: In the following digraph, The subpath est path. length( distance from is a shortis also a shortest path. to is Observation Extending this idea we observe the existence of a shortest path tree in which distance from to source is length of shortest path from vertex in original tree. source to vertex 5
6. 6. Intuition behind Dijkstra’s Algorithm Report the vertices in increasing order of their distance from the source vertex. Construct the shortest path tree edge by edge; at each step adding one new edge, corresponding to construction of shortest path to the current new vertex. 6
7. 7. The Rough Idea of Dijkstra’s Algorithm Maintain an estimate of the length the shortest path for each . vertex of Always and equals the length of a known path ( if we have no paths so far). Initially and all the other values are set to . The algorithm will then process the vertices one by one in some order. The processed vertex’s estimate will be validated as being real shortest distance, i.e. paths and updating Here “processing a vertex allmeans finding necfor ” if new essary. The process by which an estimate is updated is called relaxation. When all vertices have been processed, for all . 7
8. 8. The Rough Idea of Dijkstra’s Algorithm Question 1: How does the algorithm find new paths and do the relaxation? Question 2: In which order does the algorithm process the vertices one by one? 8
9. 9. Answer to Question 1 Finding new paths. When processing a vertex , the algorithm will examine all vertices . For each vertex , a new path from to is found (path to + new edge). from Relaxation. If the length of the new path from to is shorter than , then update to the length of this new path. Remark: Whenever we to a finite value, set there exists a path of that length. Therefore (Note: If . , then further relaxations cannot change its value.) 9
10. 10. Implementing the Idea of Relaxation Consider an edge from a vertex to whose weight is . Suppose that we have already processed so that we know and also computed a current estimate for . Then There is a (shortest) path from There is a path from to to with length with length . . Combining this path from to with the edge another path from to with length , we obtain . If , then we replace the old with the new shorter path . Hence we update path (originally, s ). w d[v] v u d[u] 10
11. 11. The Algorithm for Relaxing an Edge Relax(u,v) if ( ) ; ; Remark: The predecessor pointer mining the shortest paths. is for deter- 11
12. 12. Idea of Dijkstra’s Algorithm: Repeated Relaxation Dijkstra’s algorithm operates by maintaining a sub- vertices, set of , for which we know the true distance, that is . Initially , the empty set, and we set for all others vertices . One by and to add to . one select vertices from we The set can be implemented using an array of vertex colors. Initially all vertices are white, and we set black to indicate that . 12
13. 13. The Selection in Dijkstra’s Algorithm Recall Question 2: What is the best order in which to process vertices, so that the estimates are guaranteed to converge to the true distances. That is,the verticesthe algorithm select next? vertex among how does of to process which Answer: We use a greedy algorithm. For each ver, we have computed a distance estex in . The next vertex processed is always a timate for which is minimum, that is, vertex we take the unprocessed vertex that is closest (by our estimate) to . Question: How do we implement this selection of vertices efficiently? 13
14. 14. The Selection in Dijkstra’s Algorithm Question: How do we perform this selection efficiently? Answer: We store the vertices of queue, where the key value of each vertex in a priority is . [Note: if we implement the priority queue using a heap, we can perform the operations Insert(), time.] Extract and Decrease Key(), each in Min(), 14
15. 15. Review of Priority Queues A Priority Queue is a data structure (can be implemented as a heap) which supports the following operations: insert( ): Insert with the key value in . u = extractMin(): Extract the item with the minimum key value in . decreaseKey( . - ): Decrease ’s key value to Remark: Priority Queues can be implementad such that each operation takes . See CLRS! time 15
16. 16. Description of Dijkstra’sAlgorithm Dijkstra(G,w,s) % Initialize for (each ) ; white; ; NIL; (queue with all vertices); while (Non-Empty( )) Extract-Min for (each if ( % Process all vertices ; ) % Find new vertex ) % If estimate improves ; Decrease-Key ; relax ; black; 16
17. 17. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Example: 1 b inf inf c 7 0 s 3 8 2 4 5 2 a inf inf 5 d Step 0: Initialization. s 0 ni a c d nil W l b nil W nil W nil W W Priority Queue: s 0 a b c d 17
18. 18. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Example: 1 b 7 inf c 7 0 s 3 2 8 4 5 2 a 2 inf 5 Step 1: As update information. , work on s 0 n il B Priority Queue: d a and c d s s W W a b nil W and nil W b c d 18
19. 19. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Example: 1 b 5 10 c 7 0 s 3 2 8 4 5 2 a 2 7 5 Step 2: After Step 1, priority queue. As and update information. has the minimum key in the , work on , , s 0 n il B Priority Queue: d a c d s a B W b b a W a W c d 19
20. 20. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Example: 1 b 5 6 c 7 0 s 3 2 8 4 5 2 a 2 7 5 Step 3: After Step 2, priority queue. As update information. has the minimum key in the , work on , and s 0 n il B Priority Queue: d a b c d s a b a B B W W c d 20
21. 21. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Example: 1 b 5 6 c 7 0 s 3 2 8 4 5 2 a 2 Step 4: After Step 3, ority queue. As information. Priority Queue: 5 7 d has the minimum key in the pri-, work on and update s a b c d 0 n s a b a il B B B W B d 21
22. 22. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Example: 1 b 5 6 c 7 0 s 3 2 8 4 5 2 a 2 Step 5: After Step 4, ority queue. As information. Priority Queue: 7 5 d has the minimum key in the pri-, work on and update s 0 n il B . a b c d s a b a B B B B We are done. 22
23. 23. Dijkstra’s Algorithm Shortest Path Tree: The array is used to build the tree. b 5 0 s , where 1 6 c 3 2 a 2 7 5 d Example: s 0 nil a b c d s a b a 23
24. 24. Correctness of Dijkstra’s Algorithm Lemma: When a vertex queue), . is added to (i.e., dequeued from the Proof: Suppose to the contrary that at some point Dijkstra’s algorithm first attempts to add a vertex to for which . By our observations about relaxation, . Consider the situation just prior to the insertion of . Consider the true shortest path from to . Because and , at some point this path must fi rst take a jump out of . Let be the edge taken by the path, where and ( it may be and/ ). that or u S s x y 24
25. 25. Correctness of Dijkstra’s Algorithm – Continued We now prove that when processing , so . We have done relaxation (1) Since is added to earlier, by hypothesis, (2) Since is subpath of a shortest path, by (2) (3) By (1) and (3), Hence So (because we suppose ). Now observe that since appears midway on the path from , and all subsequent edges are non-negative, we have to , and thus Thus , which means would have been added to , befto be in contradiction to our assumption that is the next vertex added to . ore 25
26. 26. Proof of the Correctness of Dijkstra’s Algorithm By the lemma, into , that is when we set when is added black. At the end of the algorithm, all vertices are in then all distance estimates are correct. 26 ,
27. 27. Analysis of Dijkstra’s Algorithm: The initialization uses only time. Each vertex is processed exactly once so Non-Empty() and Extract-Min() are called exactly once, e.g., inner loop for (each The times in total. ) is called once for each edge in the graph. Each call of the inner loop does work plus, possibly, one operation. Decrease-Key Recalling that all of the priority queue operations retime we have that the quire algorithm uses time. 27