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# Thermodynamics

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M.THIRUNAVUKKARASU
Sr. LECTURER
Bharathiyar college of Engineering and Technology at karaikal

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### Thermodynamics

1. 1. THERMODYNAMICS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The word is come from Greek </li></ul><ul><li>Thermo – Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics - power </li></ul>
2. 2. Thermodynamics systems <ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary, </li></ul><ul><li>Surroundings </li></ul>
3. 4. System,Boundary, Surroundings System -A thermodynamics system is defined a definite space or area on which the study of Energy Transfer and Energy conversions is made Boundary –The system and surrounding are separated by boundary. It may be fixed or movable or imaginary.It will not occupy any volume or mass in space
4. 5. Surroundings - Anything outside the system which affects the behaviour of the system is known as surroundings Control volume – A specified large number thermal device has mass flow in and out of a system called as control volume Control surface – Both mass and Energy can cross the boundary of a control volume which is called control surface
5. 6. Open,Closed,Isolated Systems
6. 7. Classification of thermodynamics systems open, closed, Isolated systems Open system - One in which Both Energy and                         mass cross the boundaries of the                          system.  Closed system - One in which mass does not                           cross boundaries of the                           system, though energy may                           do so.  Isolated system - one in which neither mass nor                             energy crosses the boundaries                            of the system.
7. 8. Thermodynamics property <ul><li>Property - It is defined as any measurable or observable </li></ul><ul><li>               characteristics of the substance when the system </li></ul><ul><li>               remains in equilibrium state.(ie) pressure, temp, </li></ul><ul><li>               density, volume, Energy, specific volume </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive property - One whose value does not depend on the </li></ul><ul><li>                              mass of the system, like  </li></ul><ul><li>                              temperature,pressure,density, </li></ul><ul><li>                              specific volume, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>                               (or)  These properties are Independent on </li></ul><ul><li>                               the mass of the system, these properties </li></ul><ul><li>                               remain same  </li></ul><ul><li>                        </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive property - One whose value depends on the mass of </li></ul><ul><li>                                the system, like volume, total Energy, etc </li></ul>
8. 9. Control volume, control surface, universe,Temp <ul><li>Control volume - A specified large number thermal device has </li></ul><ul><li>                          mass flow in and out of a system called as </li></ul><ul><li>                         Control volume. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Control surface - Both mass and energy can cross the </li></ul><ul><li>                           boundary  of a control volume which is </li></ul><ul><li>                           called control surface </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Universe – A system and surrounding together comprise a </li></ul><ul><li>                  universe </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature - It is defined as a measure of velocity of fluid </li></ul><ul><li>                      particles. It is A property which is used to </li></ul><ul><li>                      determine the degree of hotness or coldness or </li></ul><ul><li>                       the level of heat intensity of a body </li></ul>
9. 10. TEMPERATURE
10. 13. Adiabatic system <ul><li>Adiabatic system - An adiabatic system is one </li></ul><ul><li>which is thermally insulated </li></ul><ul><li>from its surroundings.It can </li></ul><ul><li>ever,exchange work with its </li></ul><ul><li>surroundings.If it does not, it </li></ul><ul><li>becomes an isolated system </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Phase – A phase is a quantity of matter which is </li></ul><ul><li>homogeneous throughout in chemical </li></ul><ul><li>composition and physical structure. </li></ul>
11. 14. PHASE CHANGES
12. 19. Homogeneous,Heterogeneous systems <ul><li>Homogeneous system - A system which consists of a single </li></ul><ul><li>                                    phase is termed as homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>                                    system (i.e.) mixture of air and water </li></ul><ul><li>                                    vapour, water plus nitric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous system - A system which consists of two or </li></ul><ul><li>                                        more phases is called a  </li></ul><ul><li>                                        heterogeneous system (ie) </li></ul><ul><li>                                        water plus steam, ice pluse </li></ul><ul><li>                                         water,water plus oil. </li></ul>
13. 20. Thermodynamics Equilibrium <ul><li>Thermal Equilibrium - The temperature of the system does not </li></ul><ul><li>                                 change with time and has same value at all </li></ul><ul><li>                                 points of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Equilibrium - There are no unbalanced forces within </li></ul><ul><li>                                     the system or between the surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>                                     The pressure in the system is same at all </li></ul><ul><li>                                     points and does not change with respect </li></ul><ul><li>                                     to time. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Equilibrium - No chemical reaction takes place in the </li></ul><ul><li>                                  system and the chemical composition </li></ul><ul><li>                                 which is same throughout the system does </li></ul><ul><li>                                   not vary with time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  The following three types of equilibrium states must be achieved is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>called thermodynamics equilibrium. </li></ul></ul>
14. 21. Zeroth law of Thermodynamics <ul><ul><li>When a body 'A' is in thermal equilibrium with a body 'B' and also separately with a body 'C' , then B and C will be in thermal wquilibrium with each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     This is known as the Zeroth law of </li></ul><ul><li>thermodynamics. It is the basis of </li></ul><ul><li>temperature measurement. </li></ul>
15. 22. First Law of Thermodynamics <ul><li>The first The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle to heat and thermodynamic process </li></ul>
16. 23. SPECIFIC HEAT
17. 24. INTERNAL ENERGY
18. 27. Heat Engine Cycle
19. 30. Pressure-volume work
20. 31. Sign conventions in thermodynamics
21. 32. ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
22. 33. ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
23. 34. ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
24. 35. ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
25. 36. ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
26. 37. Bomb Calorimeter