Information processing


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Information processing

  1. 1. Information processing is a theory of learning that explains how stimuli that enter our memory systems are selected and organized for storage and retrieved from memory.
  2. 2. Sensory memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory
  3. 3.  Is the store that briefly holds incoming stimuli from the environment until they can be processed.  The sensory register, according to gestaltist principles, lets in only those things which we can see, hear, taste, smell, and/or touch; or else fades away.
  4. 4. • A temporary storage that holds information as a person processes it. • Working memory is where we make conscious decisions about how to link new information from the environment to our existing knowledge. • Storage capacity is limited and can only hold a limited number of pieces of information at a time.
  5. 5.  Refers to the amount of mental activity imposed on working memory.  How to reduce cognitive load?  Chunking , Dual Processing, Automaticity
  6. 6.  the process of mentally combining separate items into larger more meaningful units.  Eg. bank acc number 118-27659-4 : group 9 bits of information into 3 bundles. AEEGGIIIILNNNNRRSSTT : LEARNING IS INTERESTING  Make it easier to remember as it has been chunked into 3 units.
  7. 7.  Students learn more if verbal explanations are supplemented with visual representations.  Using words to present information often impose a cognitive load greater than working memory capacity, hence learning is reduced.
  8. 8.  Task automatic  performance of mental operations with little awareness or conscious effort.  EG..using of MS word to write composition. Auto correction of spelling, grammer, punctuation, etc.
  9. 9.  If we dont use short term memory right away, information will be forgotten. Unless we actively transfer our short term memory to long term storage.  THROUGH…  Rehearsal, Encoding, Retrieval
  10. 10. • A process of repeating information over and over again, either aloud or silently through repetition. • Can be used to hold information in working memory until used, if rehearsed enough, it can be transferred to long-term memory. • Simple, but inefficient method of transferring information from working to long term memory.
  11. 11.  The process of representing information in long term memory.  Information can be represented either visually or verbally when students construct schemas that relate ideas to each other.  Making information as meaningful as possible  Teachers can encourage meaningful encoding by promoting four processes.
  12. 12.  1. Organization : Impose order and connections in new information  2. Imagery : Form mental pictures of topics - Dual- coding theory: a theory suggesting that long term memory contains 2 distinct memory systems: one for verbal information and one that stores images.
  13. 13.  3. Elaboration : is the process of increasing the meaningfulness of information by creating additional links in existing knowledge or by adding new information. (prior knowledge)  4. Activity: Put learner in the most active role possible in making connections
  14. 14. • Develop lessons around examples, applications, and problems to be analyzed instead of definitions and other content to be memorized. • Implement lessons with questioning instead of relying on lectures and explanations • Ask questions that require students to apply their understanding rather than simply recall information. • Use hands-on activities and group work
  15. 15.  The process of clustering related items of content into categories that illustrate relationships.  More organized, make it more meaningful, learn more efficiently.
  16. 16.  Charts & Matrices: Useful for organizing lagre amounts of information into categories.  Hierarchies: Effective when new information can be subsumed under existing ideas.  Outlines: Useful for representing the organizational structure in a body of written material.  Others: Models, graphs, maps,etc
  17. 17.  A permanent information store Descriptions of long term memory Declarative knowledge: knowledge of facts Procedural knowledge: Knowledge of how to perform tasks
  18. 18. • Interference : the loss of information because something learned either before or after detracts from understanding • Interference increases when breadth of content coverage is emphasized over-in-depth understanding • Reduce interference: emphasizing the relationships between topics using review and comparison / to teach closely related ideas together
  19. 19.  Retrieval failure: inability to retrieve information to pull it from long-term memory into short-term memory for further processing  Learners dont literally lose information when they forget, instead they cant retrieve it  Meaningfulness and practice is the key to retrieval
  20. 20.  Linking of water cycle to states of matter to help pupil interlink topics.  The water cycle sees water shift states between solid, liquid and gas
  21. 21.    long term memory contains 2 distinct memory systems: one for verbal information and one that stores images.  Using interactive diagram to teach ( caters to both visual & auditory learners)  Bloom Cognitive Taxonomy – Knowledge & Comprehension
  22. 22.  Evaluation  Synthesis  Analysis  Application  Comprehension  Knowledge
  23. 23.  is the process of increasing the meaningfulness of information by creating additional links in existing knowledge or by adding new information. (prior knowledge) Diagram 1 Diagram 5 Diagram 4 Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 6
  24. 24.  Conduct a simple Science experiment to illustrate water cycle & states of matter  Experiment in the science lab  Caters to kinesthetic & visual learners
  25. 25.  Materials: saucepan; two large aluminum cooking pans and plenty of ice cubes.  1. Place a few ice cubes in the saucepan. Let the students look at them and touch them while they are still solid. (Cloud)  2. Heat the ice cubes slowly. Students can observe how matter changes from a solid to a liquid state. (Rain - Sea)  3. After the cubes melt, allow the water to boil. Explain to the students that steam is water in its gaseous state. (heat from the sun, evaporation)  4. Place more cubes in the aluminum pan and hold it over the steaming saucepan. As the water droplets form on the bottom of the pan, ask students what form the droplets of water are in. (Water vapor – from liquid to gaseous state)  5. Collect the condensing droplets by slanting the first aluminum pan and letting the droplets run into the second aluminum pan.  6. An area of discussion – What happens to the water vapor if it keep in a low temperature area (eg. Fridge , freezing) form ice cube (cloud) condensation  Cloud becomes rain, rain becomes sea, sea becomes water vapor, water vapor becomes cloud