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Communicating
on the Web

This talk at: http://joind.in/10392
About Me
● Developer at ServerGrove
● All around nerd
● Systems Administrator for
7 years
● @aramonc in all the places
CAN’T COMMUNICATE
WELL WITHOUT
COMMON GROUND
HYPERTEXT
TRANSFER PROTOCOL
●
●
●
●

Designed side by side with HTML
Before were the bulletin boards
Question & Answer style 2 way communication
M2M communication method composed of text
documents
THE CLIENT
The client is any application that initiates
an HTTP communication
THE SERVER
Servers are any application that receives a request
and terminates with a response
HTTP IS STATELESS
STATELESS IS THE
OPPOSITE OF
STATEFUL
● Stateless, in this context, is short term memory
● Stateless communication allows for
○ distributed system
○ load balancing
○ manage state separately
● Makes caching more difficult
● Makes real time apps more difficult
● Application is responsible for preserving state
SHORT/LONG POLLING
● Used to update client side application state in
“real time” applications
● Usually initiated by JavaScript
● Can be initiated by any client side technology
like Objective C.
● Short polling initiates short lived connections
to check if state changed
● Long polling initiates long lived connections
until state changes
THE REQUEST
GET https://www.google.com/ HTTP/1.1
:version: HTTP/1.1
:method: GET
:scheme: https
:host: www.google.com
user-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_5)
AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/31.0.1650.57
Safari/537.36
accept-encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch
accept-language: en-US,en;q=0.8,es-419;q=0.6,es;q=0.4
accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,
application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8
cookie: OGP=-3904011:; HSID=A0hmwhHriSEJzPSI;
SSID=AKHSzv76RXaggJwJ;
APISID=PXmCmOabqgrdcm_z/A7eIE7i4enNC0Hn0;
THE REQUEST
● Human readable text document
● Composed of the request, a set of headers, and
an optional content body
● Headers are key value pairs separated by a colon
& terminated by a new line
● Headers describe the request and offer additional
metadata
THE REQUEST LINE
GET https://www.google.com/ HTTP/1.1
● The request is the first line of the document
● Composed of 3 parts
● From the right: HTTP version
○ Let’s the server know which headers it can
expect
THE REQUEST
GET https://www.google.com/ HTTP/1.1
http://server/path/?query=string
●
●
●
●

URL (Universal Resource Locator)
Every request is for a resource
Like interacting with a bank teller
Composed of the scheme, the host, the path,
and optionally a query string
THE REQUEST
GET https://www.google.com/ HTTP/1.1
● A verb indicating what you would like to do with
the resource
● Withdraw money, create a new account, deposit
money, or even rob the bank
COMMON METHODS
GET, POST, PUT, DELETE
HEAD, OPTIONS
●
●
●
●
●

Also called verbs
Describe the intent of the request
CRUD is most common
Small subset
Some, like patch, still in draft form
COMMON HEADERS
user-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X
10_8_5) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko)
Chrome/31.0.1650.57 Safari/537.36
●
●
●
●

Describes the client
Set by the client
Can be changed programmatically
Mozilla/5.0 compatible hold over from
Netscape years
COMMON HEADERS
accept-encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch
accept-language: en-US,en;q=0.8,es-419;
q=0.6,es;q=0.4
accept-charset: utf-8
accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,
application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8
ACCEPT FAMILY
● Describes the type of content the client can
understand
● accept headers is a list of MIME types
● ;q= indicates preference level
COMMON MIME TYPES
●
●
●
●
●
●
●

text/html
text/css
text/javascript
text/xml
text/plain
application/json
application/rss+xml

●
●
●
●
●
●
●

multipart/form-data
image/jpeg
image/gif
image/png
audio/mpeg
video/mpeg
video/x-flv
COMMON HEADERS
cookie: SSID=AKHSzv76RXaggJwJ;
● Describes the contents of a cookie file set by
a previous connection to the same host
● Used to persist data across HTTP
connections
● Stored in files locally or in memory in the
client process
NOT SO COMMON
authorization: Basic QWpIlc2FtZQ==
● Describes login credentials to password
protected URLs
● Two methods, Basic and Digest
● Digest more secure, but more complicated to
set up
● If not included, response is to request a set of
credentials
● Best if used in combination with TLS/SSL
NOT SO COMMON
x-hello: world
hello: world
●
●
●
●
●

x- used to describe a custom header
Deprecated by one of the latest RFCs
Still used by some APIs
New form is not to use the xFuture proof
REQUEST BODY
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=AaB03x
--AaB03x
Content-Disposition: form-data;
name="submit-name"
Larry
--AaB03x
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="files";
filename="file1.txt" Content-Type: text/plain
... contents of file1.txt ...
--AaB03x--
REQUEST BODY
● Optional content for POST, PUT, etc requests
● Typically used to send data from HTML forms
● Form data formatted as key value pairs with no
boundary
● Multipart is most complicated
● Form data is separated by boundaries &
terminated by the boundary plus -● File uploads need to be done with multipart
● Content-Type is a MIME type describing the
contents of the file
● Could be base64 representation of binary data
THE RESPONSE
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
status: 200 OK
version: HTTP/1.1
content-encoding: gzip
content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
date: Wed, 20 Nov 2013 01:48:58 GMT
set-cookie: PREF=ID=26af7b02617ef537:U=9bc26b9e4;
expires=Fri, 20-Nov-2015 01:48:58 GMT; path=/;
domain=.google.com
COMMON HEADERS
content-encoding: gzip
content-type: text/html;
charset=UTF-8
● The content body can be anything from binary, to
json, to html
● The content returned is described by the contenttype & content enconding
● Related to the accept-header
COMMON HEADERS
set-cookie:
PREF=ID=26af7b02617ef537:
U=9bc26b9e4; expires=Fri, 20-Nov2015 01:48:58 GMT; path=/;
domain=.google.com
●
●
●
●
●

Sets or overrides a cookie in the client’s system
Cookie content
Optional expiration date
Path & Domain cookie applies to
Localhost is not a valid domain. When testing it’s
preferable not to set the domain
THE RESPONSE
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
● Only thing required to be sent back
● Sometimes the only thing sent back
● Apache always sends back all the SHOULD
headers
STATUS CODES
200 OK, 404 NOT FOUND,
500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR
STATUS CODE FAMILIES
●
●
●
●
●

1xx: Informational Messages
2xx: Success Messages
3xx: Redirection Messages
4xx: Client Error
5xx: Server Error

● Specific codes convey specific messages
● Sometimes sending the status code is enough
to communicate a message
1XX STATUS CODES
● 100 CONTINUE
● 101 SWITCHING PROTOCOL
● Not very common
● Perfect for use with polling techniques for
asynchronous tasks
2XX STATUS CODES
● 201 CREATED
● 202 ACCEPTED
3XX STATUS CODES
●
●
●
●

301 MOVED PERMANENTLY
302 FOUND
304 NOT MODIFIED
305 USE PROXY
4XX STATUS CODES
●
●
●
●

401 NOT AUTHORIZED
402 PAYMENT REQUIRED
403 FORBIDDEN
429 TOO MANY REQUESTS
5XX STATUS CODES
● 501 NOT IMPLEMENTED
● 502 BAD GATEWAY
● 503 SERVICE UNAVAILABLE
NOT JUST STANDARD
418 & 420
● 418 is I AM A TEAPOT, IETF April Fool’s
Joke
● 420 used by Twitter for a while to indicate too
many connections
WHY DOES ANY
OF IT MATTER?
FORMS
● POST request are marginally more secure,
but not really
● Requests that carry content can carry more
content on the body than on the query string
● Forms can send both query strings and
content
● Can submit forms through
XMLHTTPRequests with extra headers
BETTER SECURITY
● Use of Auth headers
● Use of custom headers
○ Server can reply with CSRF Tokens
○ Client can send OAuth Tokens
● Still not as secure as using SSL, but better than
nothing at all.
APIs
● Not just about HyperMedia, all is
important
● Well documented
● URLs that point to actual resources
● Use of Request methods & Headers
● Use of proper Response codes
● Standard communication without
vendor sponsorship
WHAT WE LEFT OUT
●
●
●
●

Caching
Proxies
Load balancing
TLS
THE FUTURE
● New RFCs and specifications
○ Patch method
○ New status codes
○ HTTP 2.0
● SPDY
○ Experimental protocol for a faster web
○ Pronounced speedy
○ Implementation before standardization
○ claims of 64% page load reduction over
HTTP in lab tests
○ Many concurrent connections over one TCP
channel
RESOURCES
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●

http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/tools-and-tips/http-theprotocol-every-web-developer-must-know-part-1/
http://net.tutsplus.com/sessions/http-succinctly/
http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/List_of_HTTP_status_codes#1xx_Informational
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_media_type
http://www.nczonline.net/blog/2009/05/05/http-cookiesexplained/
http://www.chromium.org/spdy/spdy-whitepaper
http://http2.github.io/
http://xkcd.com/869/
http://blog.servergrove.com/2013/12/16/talking-http/
THANK YOU
http://joind.in/10392

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