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Windows Server Virtualization - Hyper-V 2008 R2


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Windows Server Virtualization - Hyper-V 2008 R2

  1. 1. Virtualization in Windows Server 2008 R2 Arlindo Alves Microsoft
  2. 2. Sponsors
  3. 3. Agenda • Hyper-V V2 • Cluster Shared Volumes • Live Migration • Hosted Desktops
  4. 4. Architecture
  5. 5. Hyper-V Architecture Parent Partition User Mode Kernel Mode Ring -1
  6. 6. Hyper-V Architecture
  7. 7. Hyper-V Capabilities • 32-bit (x86) & 64-bit (x64) VMs • Large memory support (64 GB) per VM • SMP VMs (up to 4 cores) • Integrated cluster support for HA & Quick Migration • BitLocker: Seamless, secure data encryption • Live Backup: Volume Shadow Service integration • Pass-through disk access for VMs • Virtual Machine snapshots • New hardware sharing architecture (VSP/VSC/VMBus) • Disk, networking, input, video • Robust networking: VLANs and NLB • DMTF standard for WMI management interface • Support for Full or Server Core installations
  8. 8. Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V • Building on the rock-solid architecture of Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V • Integration with new technologies • Enabling new dynamic scenarios: • Increased Server Consolidation • Dynamic Data Center • Virtualized Centralized Desktop • Customer Driven
  9. 9. Live Migration
  10. 10. Live Migration • #1 Customer Request • Moving a virtual machine from one server to another without loss of service • Workload is unaware of the migration • Maintain TCP connections of the guest OS • Enables new dynamic scenarios • No downtime host servicing • Maintenance Mode with SCVMM R2 • Load Balancing with SCVMM R2 & PRO
  11. 11. Live Migration • Live Migration via Cluster Manager • In box UI • Live Migration via Virtual Machine Manager • Orchestrate migrations via policy • Moving from Quick to Live Migration: • Guest OS limitations?: No • Changes to VMs needed?: No • Changes to storage infrastructure: No • Changes to network infrastructure: No • Update to Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V: Yes
  12. 12. Live Migration Initiate Migration I want to Migrate this VM to another physical machine Client accessing VM SAN • IT Admin initiates a Live Migration to move a VM from one VHD host to another
  13. 13. Live Migration Memory Copy: Full Copy Memory content is copied to new server VM pre-staged SAN • First initial copy is of all in memory content VHD
  14. 14. Live Migration Memory Copy: Dirty Pages Client continues accessing VM Pages are being dirtied SAN • Client continues to access VM, which results in memory being modified VHD
  15. 15. Live Migration Memory Copy: Incremental Copy Recopy of changes Smaller set of changes • Hyper-V tracks changed SAN data, and re-copies over incremental changes • Subsequent passes get faster as data set is smaller VHD
  16. 16. Live Migration Final Transition Partition State copied VM Paused SAN • Window is very small and within TCP connection timeout VHD
  17. 17. Live Migration Post-Transition: Clean-up Client directed to new host Old VM deleted once migration is verified successful • ARP issued to have routing SAN devices update their tables • Since session state is maintained, no reconnections necessary VHD
  18. 18. DEMO • Live Migration Demo
  19. 19. Migration & Storage • Windows Server 2008 R2 Hyper-V • NEW Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) • CSV provides a single consistent file name space; • All Windows Server 2008 R2 servers see the same storage • Easy setup; Uses NTFS • No reformatting SANs • Create one big data store • No more drive letter problems • Existing tools just work
  20. 20. Cluster Shared Volumes • All servers “see” the same storage
  21. 21. Clustering VMs with CSV 1. Install Failover Clustering, Hyper-V from 2008 R2 2. Create & Validate your cluster 3. Enable CSV 4. Add storage to CSV 5. Copy VHD file to CSV storage C:ClusterStorage... 6. Create VM, select CSV Path for VM and files 7. Add the VM to the cluster making it HA 8. Within the VM, configure your application
  22. 22. Individual VM Failover on a LUN Disk Resource Disk Resource SAN Same LUN Solution Today VHD 1 VHD 2 VHD 3
  23. 23. Individual VM Failover on a LUN VMs running on Node 1 are unaffected SAN Coordinator Node Same LUN The Solution (R2) VHD 1 VHD 2 VHD 3
  24. 24. Optimized Capacity Planning • In the past (2008) - 1 LUN for 1 VM • LUN smallest unit of failover • Run out of storage space Free Space • Wasted storage space VHD Used VHD • Storage management challenging Space Wasted Out of Space Space VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD Many LUNs to Manage
  25. 25. Optimized Capacity Planning • The Solution (R2): 1 LUN for many VMs • VM smallest unit of failover • VMs share the pool of unused space • Flexible utilization and easy Free Space management Used VHD VHD Space VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD VHD Free Space VHD VHD VHD VHD
  26. 26. DEMO • Clustered Shared Volumes
  27. 27. Live Migration Best Practices • Cluster Shared Volumes • Not required but, highly recommended • Network Adapters • Cluster Heartbeat/Management • CSV • Virtual Switches • iSCSI • MPIO: Add another • Live Migration & IPSEC • Will impact migration performance
  28. 28. New Processor Feature Support Microsoft Confidential
  29. 29. VM Memory Management • Today, processors provide one level of address translation, but hypervisor needs to manage two Guest Virtual Guest Virtual Guest OS Address Address Shadow page defines GVA-to- tables combine GPA mappings these mappings Guest Physical because the Address processor knows Hypervisor how to perform defines GPA-to- only one level of SPA mappings System System translation Physical Physical Address Address
  30. 30. Shadow Page Tables • Hypervisor maintains a Shadow Page Table • Combines two layers of translation into a single page table • Demand-filled when Child OS touches a page • Flushed any time the Child OS modifies its page tables • Shadow Page Table overhead • Fills and flushes invoke the hypervisor • Can account for up to 10% of total CPU time • Consumes roughly 1MB of memory per VM
  31. 31. Second Level Address Translation (SLAT) • Goes by several names • Intel: Extended Page Tables (EPT) • AMD: Nested Page Tables (NPT)/Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI) • Processor provides two levels of translation • Walks the guest OS page tables directly • No need to maintain Shadow Page Table • No hypervisor code for demand-fill or flush operations • Resource savings • Hypervisor CPU time drops to 2% • Roughly 1MB of memory saved per VM • Benefits Large Memory Workloads • Exchange, SQL, Terminal Services
  32. 32. Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Parking • Overview • Scheduling virtual machines on a single server for density as opposed to dispersion • This allows “park/sleep” cores by putting them in deep C states • Benefits • Enhances Green IT by reducing CPU power consumption
  33. 33. Windows Server 2008 16 LP Server
  34. 34. Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Parking 16 LP Server
  35. 35. Hyper-V Virtual Storage
  36. 36. Hot Add/Remove Storage • Overview • Add and remove VHD and pass-through disks to a running VM without requiring a reboot. • Hot-add/remove disk applies to VHDs and pass-through disks attached to the virtual SCSI controller • Benefits • Enables storage growth in VMs without downtime • Enables additional datacenter backup scenarios • Enables new SQL/Exchange scenarios
  37. 37. Performance • Major Performance Improvements • Dynamic Virtual Hard Disks • 64k Sequential Writes: 3x Faster • 4k Random Writes • 15x Faster • 85% of Native • Fixed Disks • Hyper-V R1: 94% of native • Hyper-V R2: Almost Equal to native
  38. 38. Hyper-V Networking
  39. 39. TCP Offload Support • Overview • TCP/IP traffic in a VM can be offloaded to a physical NIC on the host computer. • Benefits • Reduce CPU burden • Networking offload to improve performance • Live Migration is supported with Full TCP Offload • Major performance improvement on 10 Gb/E
  40. 40. Virtual Machine Queue (VMQ) • Overview • NIC can DMA packets directly into VM memory • VM Device buffer gets assigned to one of the queues • Avoids packet copies in the VSP • Avoids route lookup in the virtual switch (VMQ Queue ID) • Allows the NIC to essentially appear as multiple NICs on the physical host (queues) • Benefits • Host no longer has device DMA data in its own buffer resulting in a shorter path length for I/O (performance gain)
  41. 41. Jumbo Frames • Jumbo Frame Support • Ethernet frames >1,500 bytes • Ad hoc standard is ~9k • Overview • Enables 6x larger payload per packet • Benefits • Reduce CPU utilization of large file transfers • Reduces TCP/IP overhead by up to 84%
  42. 42. Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 Microsoft Confidential
  43. 43. Microsoft Hyper-V Server V2 New Features • Live Migration • High Availability • New Processor Support • Second Level Address Translation • Core Parking • Networking Enhancements • TCP/IP Offload Support • VMQ & Jumbo Frame Support • Hot Add/Remove virtual storage • Enhanced scalability • Enhancements to SCONFIG
  44. 44. Hyper-V Server R1 vs. R2 Microsoft Hyper-V Server Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2008 R2 Processor Support Up to 4 processors Up to 8 processors up to 24 LPs Up to 32 LPs Physical Memory Support Up to 32 GB Up to 1 TB Virtual Machine Memory Up to 32 GB total 64 GB of memory per VM Support (e.g. 31 1 GB VMs or 5 6 GB VMs) Live Migration No Yes High Availability No Yes Management Options Free Hyper-V Manager Free Hyper-V Manager MMC MMC SCVMM SCVMM R2
  45. 45. Hosted Desktops
  46. 46. Terminal Services Virtualization • Overview • TSV - Virtualized “Centralized Desktop” provisioning, access and management solution on top of Hyper-V • Unified user and admin experience for traditional TS (session per user) and TSV (VM per user). • Deployment Scenarios • Temporary (until Logoff) VM per user Assignment • Permanent VM per user assignment • Built-in solution for low complexity deployments • Features and management are tuned for Entry Level deployments. Example: 4 TS/TSVM Servers with few apps.
  47. 47. Connection Broker Infrastructure TS Gateway TS Session Broker TS Users Remote TS Farm Storage Hosted Desktop Users (Remote) Hyper-V Farm Hosted Desktop Users TS Users
  48. 48. Virtualization Management “Virtualization without good management is more dangerous than not using virtualization in the first place.” – TOM BITTMAN, GARTNER VP AND ANALYST, 9 MAY, 2007 Virtualization Will Drive Major Change in IT Infrastructure and Operations in the Next Three Years, Tom Bittman, May 8, 2007
  49. 49. Managing The Server Lifecycle
  50. 50. Virtual Machine Manager 2008 A centralized, heterogeneous management solution for the virtual datacenter • Centralized virtual machine deployment and management for Hyper-V, Virtual Server, and VMware ESX servers • Intelligent placement of Virtual Machines • Fast and reliable P2V and V2V conversion • Comprehensive application and service-level monitoring with Operations Manager • Integrated Performance and Resource Optmization (PRO) • Increase Agility • Rapid provisioning of new and virtual machines with templates
  51. 51. OPATIJA | 20 – 24.4. 2009. Thank you!