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Gestalt Therapy - an Introduction

Presentation given in our Managerial Counselling Class at College

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Gestalt Therapy - an Introduction

  1. 1. Gestalt Therapy – an outline Presented by: Abdul Rahim –1 Alok Kumar – 4 Siddhartha Sinha - 43
  2. 2. What is Gestalt? <ul><li>Gestalt: </li></ul><ul><li>A configuration so unified as a whole that its properties cannot be derived from a simple summation of its parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt Therapy: </li></ul><ul><li>  A psychotherapeutic approach that supports the process of developing awareness of the intrinsic nature of one's True Self. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gestalt <ul><li>Max Wertheimer </li></ul><ul><li>Law of prägnanz . </li></ul><ul><li>We try to experience things in as good a gestalt way as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;good&quot; can mean several things, such as regular, orderly, simplistic, symmetrical, etc </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gestalt - design <ul><li>Illustration </li></ul>square parallelogram diamond
  5. 5. Law of Figure-Ground Segregation <ul><li>Figures should stand out from the background in order to be seen. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Law of Closure <ul><li>Objects that are incomplete force the viewer to “fill in the gaps.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Law of Symmetry <ul><li>Asymmetrical objects tend to force the viewer to search for symmetry. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Law of Good Continuation <ul><li>Viewers tend to continue shapes beyond their ending points. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gestalt Therapy
  10. 10. Fritz Perls 1893 - 1970 <ul><li>Berlin-Jewish-lower middle class </li></ul><ul><li>MD in Psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>After WWI-worked in hospital for Brain Damaged Soldiers-realized view humans as a whole rather than sum of discreet parts </li></ul><ul><li>1946-came to USA </li></ul><ul><li>Married Laura Perls in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Founded New York Institute of Gestalt Therapy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gestalt Therapy <ul><li>Existential & Phenomenological ~ it is grounded in the client’s “here and now” </li></ul><ul><li>Initial goal is for clients to gain awareness of what they are experiencing and doing now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes direct experiencing rather than the abstractness of talking about situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than talk about a childhood trauma the client is encouraged to become the hurt child </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Gestalt End Goal <ul><li>Our pressing needs need to be completed. This forms wholes / Gestalts, and is the one constant law of the world to maintain organism integrity </li></ul>
  13. 14. Therapist’s Goal in Gestalt <ul><li>Create experiments for client to assist their self-awareness of what they are doing and how they are doing it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility for choices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Major Principles of Gestalt Therapy <ul><li>Holism - interested in the whole person-emphasis on integration-thoughts, feelings, behaviors, body, & dreams. ORGANISM v OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology (Field Theory) -organism must be seen in its environment or its context as part of a constantly changing filed-relational, in flux, interrelated & in process </li></ul><ul><li>Figure Formation Process - how individual organizes environment from moment to moment </li></ul><ul><li>Organismic self-regulation - restore equilibrium or contribute to growth & change </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Now <ul><li>Our “power is in the present” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing exists except the “now” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The past is gone and the future has not yet arrived </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For many people the power of the present is lost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They may focus on their past mistakes or engage in endless resolutions and plans for the future </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Unfinished Business <ul><li>Feelings about the past are unexpressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These feelings are associated with distinct memories and fantasies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings not fully experienced linger in the background and interfere with effective contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoccupation, compulsive behavior, wariness oppressive energy and self-defeating behavior </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Contact and Resistances to Contact <ul><li>RESISTANCE TO GESTALTEN ~ the defenses we develop to prevent us from experiencing the present full </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five major channels of resistance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introjection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retroflection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deflection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confluence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Introjection-channel of resistance <ul><li>Introjection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to uncritically accept others’ beliefs and standards without assimilating them to make them congruent with who we are </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disown aspects of self by assigning them to environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of distraction-keep difficult to sustain sense of contact with reality </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Confluence-channel of resistance <ul><li>Retroflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing to myself instead of the other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confluence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitting in-absence of conflict-belief all people feel & think same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High need for acceptance, approval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boundary disturbance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dis-ease </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Awareness in Gestalt Therapy <ul><li>Gestalt therapy is not linked to any single therapeutic technique </li></ul><ul><li>May borrow from other “schools” of psychology, provided use promotes awareness in the present moment, the realization of potential, and personal responsibility </li></ul>
  21. 22. Goal of Counseling <ul><li>Awareness, becoming Centered </li></ul><ul><li>Re-own disowned parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish unfinished business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate polarities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of pain </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving up trying to control others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsibility: Response –Able </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather than reactive </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Thank You

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Presentation given in our Managerial Counselling Class at College


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