American historical review


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American historical review

  1. 1. American Historical ReviewConference by Dr. I. Ankikwicz. I. American isolationismIsolationism refers to United States’ longstanding unwillingness to becomeinvolved in European alliances and wars. Isolationists held the view that UnitedStates’ perspective on the world was different from that of European societiesand that the USA could advance the cause of freedom and democracy bymeans other than war.-Thomas Jefferson complainThe United States terminated its alliance with France, after which the U.S.sthird president, Thomas Jefferson, admonished in his inaugural address,"peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling allianceswith none." Jefferson preferred the United States "to practice neither commercenor navigation, but to stand, with respect to Europe, precisely on the footing ofChina," clearly recognized after he had become president the necessity ofdevelopment commerce and other forms of international intercourse”-The USA is the least important and respected of all nations with embassies inParis-Manifest Destiny and territorial growth of the USAThe United States, after the Civil War, was really flourishing; it was a period oftremendous economic growth. Most of the people who were in the powerby thattime believed that this was the time for the U.S. to expand itself overseas,it isimportant to say that not all of them approve this idea, since for many businessmen it was cheaper to buy products, etc.; instead of declaring war to mostcountries.Most of the territories they were interested in were Spanish colonies, forinstance the first settlers of Texas were the Spanish missionaries and most ofthese territories became U.S. possessions. For example, the territory of Texaswas part of the Spanish Empire for more than a century, so for more than a
  2. 2. decade Texas was a Republic but it had to change its status and adapt to avery different domain. Then it happen mostly the same with the other colonies.-Mexico later II. Monroe´s Doctrine 1823America in 19th Century: At that time the U.S. became independent and it wasno longer interested on the European Countries, but on its own progress andeconomic development.-New spirit on the 1980sEuropean claim by Britain, France and GermanyU.S. positions Senator Orville 1893“A policy of isolation did well enough when we were an embargo nation, buttoday things are different”-Cuba and other Spanish possessionsThe idea of waging a war against Spain starts over Cuba. Spain ruled Cuba,and there were Americans who felt that Spain should be expelled. In 1895 therewas a continuity of several rebellions against Spanish rule in Cuba as a part ofa war of Independence declared by the Cubans since 1868.-American newspaper propaganda William Randolph Hearst and JosephPulitzerOn 1898 the warship Maine was split in two by an enemy´s infernal machineUSA and Spain at War (Cuba and Philippines)In the case of Cuba they convinced them that it was time that they were finallyan independent nation free from the Spanish domination and that they were thebest option to accomplish the final end of a very prolonged war.One hundred years ago, the United States was actively involved in thedecidedly less splendid struggle to subdue the movement for independence inthe Philippines. The Philippines as many other territories become a strategic
  3. 3. and economic cause to the United States. All these countries were going tobecome a market for USA´s manufactured products. In the thirties thePhilippines became independent, but with strings attached. The notion ofspecial economic ties with the United States still kept it very dependent on theU.S.-Annexation of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Hawaii (1898), Panama (1904), andcontrol over Cuba (since the Cuban’s sense of been independent was not to beannexed to another empire)III. Excuse for the American EmpireSurely the Spanish War has not been a grab for empire, but a heroic effort tofree the oppressed and teach millions of ignorant, debased human beings.The U.S. intervene in Latin America whenever it thought necessary since it hadeconomic and political control over most Latin American countries at that time.-Follow-up American soldiers in Nicaragua, Haiti, The Dominican Republic, etc.IV. War World I-Woodrow Wilson impartial in thought and in actionWilson as president of the USA led the country during the hard years of WWIand as a part of his personality of great intellect and respectable statesmanwhen it was the beginning of this war in 1914, Wilson proclaimed that thecountry should remain neutral with the effort to avoid war, even though thestates also participated and became a close allied of Great Britain.-May 1915 British passenger ship Lusitania.The British liner Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine with a loss ofalmost 1,200 lives including 124 Americans.-Zimmermann´s telegram,March 1917-April 1917 American Congress declares war to Germany
  4. 4. -Wilson Fourteen points Speech is the US Senate.-America tried to stay away from war conflicts.-Idea of nation, of organization. V. War World IIGreat Depression (Black Thursday, 24 November, 1929 and terrifying Tuesday,29 November, 1929)These three dates denoted the starting points of the collapsed in the economyand the stock market; that subsequently initiated one of the most terrible epochsof depression in the USA history.Terror in the world in the 30sVoice of isolation in America (Neutrality Acts of 1930s passed by Congress)The idea of isolationism was due to that most Americans did not want toparticipate in another war as in Europe was moving into another war and thistime the Americans considered that there were more internal problems due tothe depression and did not want to get involved and focused on domesticproblems.-Suspension of Neutrality Acts per retime conscription in US, military suppliesfor Britain, Lend Pan-December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor-Conferences Teheran Nov, 1943-Febrary, Yalta 1945-Potsdam,July, 1945VI. TheColdWarMany have seen the Cold war as a continuity of the preiviuos war since itincluded several conflicts mainly between the Comunist nations mainly led bythe Soviet Union and the democratic nations led by the United States since
  5. 5. there was many different political and ideological ideas between these twonations. In this war countries like Spain remain neutral.-Iron Curtain-A Bomb and H-Bomb-Thurman’s doctrine of containment-Marshall Plan 1947-1950 53 Korea-Airlift Berlin 1948-Nato 1945, U.S. military potential-Dulles brink manship policy-Cuba 1961/62-Space Race Russian Sputnik(1957) and Gagarin 1961 vs. U.S. landing on theMoon 1969-Vietnam War-Détente-1989/90 the end on the Cold WARVII. Post-Cold War America-U.S. Economic PowerThe Cold War was in many ways a continuation of the battles of World War II.The discourse of a world sharply divided into opposing camps, one representingfreedom and the other slavery, was reinvigorated in the worldwide struggleagainst Communism.
  6. 6. Tamara Gutiérrez Espinosa 3rd Grade