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Mapping Carbonate Bedrock

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Mapping Carbonate Bedrock

  1. 1. Mapping Carbonate Bedrock Surfaces in Glaciated Landscapes
  2. 2. Wisconsin, USA Calumet County
  3. 3. Flow Characteristics of fractured carbonate Aquifers • Dense and ubiquitous fracture network – little surface runoff – water easily infiltrates to subsurface • Recharge – exceedingly rapid – carries surface contaminants to the water table • Flow within the aquifer occurs primarily along bedding plane fractures – Little to no attenuation of contaminants within the aquifer • Flow rates vary from 10’s to 100’s of ft/day
  4. 4. • 14,000 dairy farms • 1.25 million milk cows. • Each cow produces 150 lbs of waste/day
  5. 5. (1.25 million cows) (150 lbs. per day) (365 days) = 34,000,000 tons of waste annually
  6. 6. Roads PLSS Well WCRs DEM WCRs Testing Parcel Well Well Surface Bacteria E. Coli Nitrate Location Geology Elevation Cont. Cont. Cont. Surface Elevation – Bedrock Elevation Safe or Unsafe Depth to Contamination Bedrock Depth to Bedrock AND Contamination
  7. 7. Digital Well Reports Scanned Paper Well Reports
  8. 8. WCRs Data entry pre-1988 WCRs database Geocode by PLSS UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs Geocode by Street Address UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs N Geocode by Parcel UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs
  9. 9. WCRs Data entry pre-1988 WCRs database Geocode by PLSS UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs Geocode by Street Address UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs Geocode by Parcel N UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs
  10. 10. WCRs Data entry pre-1988 WCRs database Geocode by PLSS UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs Geocode by Street Address UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs N Geocode by Parcel UNLOCATED pre-1988 WCRs
  11. 11. 2800+ Geocoded Well Data Points N
  12. 12. pre-1988 post-1988 NAIP image WCRs WCRs NAIP image Drag point to structure Drag point to structure referred to in WCR referred to in WCR pre-1988 WCRs Data enter geology Geology Table Geology Table pre-1988 post-1988 from WCR from data entry WCRs WCRs database Attach Geology Attach Geology post-1988 pre-1988 WCRs WCRs with with geology geology Merge WCRs WCRs geodatabase
  13. 13. pre-1988 post-1988 NAIP image WCRs WCRs NAIP image Drag point to structure Drag point to structure referred to in WCR referred to in WCR
  14. 14. pre-1988 post-1988 NAIP image WCRs WCRs NAIP image Drag point to structure Drag point to structure referred to in WCR. referred to in WCR
  15. 15. pre-1988 post-1988 NAIP image WCRs WCRs NAIP image Drag point to structure Drag point to structure referred to in WCR referred to in WCR
  16. 16. pre-1988 post-1988 NAIP image WCRs WCRs NAIP image Drag point to structure Drag point to structure referred to in WCR referred to in WCR pre-1988 WCRs Data enter geology Geology Table Geology Table pre-1988 post-1988 from WCR from data entry WCRs WCRs database Attach Geology Attach Geology post-1988 pre-1988 WCRs WCRs with with geology geology Merge WCRs WCRs geodatabase
  17. 17. 2339 Well Data Points w/geology N
  18. 18. WCRs geodatabase QUERY: Select minimum bedrock value WCRs with DEM depth to bedrock ADD surface elevation WCRs with surface elevation surface elevation MINUS Bedrock Topography depth to bedrock WCRs with bedrock Bedrock Interpolate elevation Topography
  19. 19. - = Surface Topography Bedrock Topography Surface Topography MINUS Bedrock Topography EQUALS
  20. 20. Depth to Bedrock N Kilometers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 Miles
  21. 21. Depth to Bedrock less than 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 80 100 140 200 250 300 350 N N Bedrock at the land surface Depth to Bedrock Kilometers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 Miles
  22. 22. N Meters 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Feet
  23. 23. N Meters 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Feet
  24. 24. N Meters 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 Feet
  25. 25. N Meters 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 Feet
  26. 26. N Meters 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Feet
  27. 27. N Meters 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Feet
  28. 28. N Kilometers 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 Miles 4-foot contours Calumet County, WI
  29. 29. N Kilometers 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 Miles Quaternary Geology of Calumet County, WI
  30. 30. N Kilometers 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 Miles Depth to Bedrock
  31. 31. N Kilometers 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 Miles Depth to Bedrock and Contaminated Wells
  32. 32. N
  33. 33. N
  34. 34. N
  35. 35. Hart, D. J., et al., 2009
  36. 36. Thank You !

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