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Industrial Revolution Powerpoint

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Industrial Revolution Powerpoint

  1. 1. A Revolution in Transportation and Energy Sources By Hannah Huan, Cialina Ngo, Sara Obeiter, and Lindsey Oh
  2. 2. Steam Power <ul><li>During the Industrial Revolution: </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced water & muscle power </li></ul><ul><li>Engines that pumped water out of flooded mineshafts </li></ul><ul><li>In 1769, built the first steam-powered vehicle </li></ul>http://www.cottontimes.co.uk/stephensono.htm Ultimate Train: A Celebration of the World's Greatest Trains
  3. 3. Newcomen Steam Engine http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/v10n1/images/de_ridder1.jpg
  4. 4. Steam Engine James Watt <ul><li>1763-1773: </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Newcomen steam engine </li></ul><ul><li>Pump water from their mines </li></ul><ul><li>1781: rotary-motion steam engine </li></ul><ul><li>Power different types of machinery </li></ul>http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~klio/sci/steam-engine.jpg http:// www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SCwatt.htm
  5. 5. James Watt <ul><li>Scottish Instrument maker, engineer, and inventor </li></ul><ul><li>Born on Jan. 19, 1736 and died on Aug. 25, 1819 </li></ul><ul><li>SI unit of Power was named after Watt </li></ul>http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9076296/James-Watt http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9382421
  6. 6. Watt Steam Engine <ul><li>Improved version of Newcomen steam engine </li></ul><ul><li>Separate condenser </li></ul><ul><li>Sun-and-planet gear </li></ul><ul><li>- Double-acting engine </li></ul><ul><li>- Automatic control speed </li></ul><ul><li>- Pressure gauge </li></ul>
  7. 7. Richard Trevithick <ul><li>Lived from 1771-1833 </li></ul><ul><li>English Engineer and Inventor </li></ul><ul><li>Victim to many business mishaps </li></ul><ul><li>Died in poverty just when the Railroad Age began </li></ul>http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790eddce822971f2e5c69cdb9846af7eae83f93a000f168d022234a5c4ec340e3a08dc89f11d2fc958ed7fa8992c8bd8c3e9&fmt=C
  8. 8. High- Pressure Engine <ul><li>Designed the first efficient railway locomotive </li></ul><ul><li>Improved stationary steam engine that used high pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving a iron-rolling mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propelling a barge with paddles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powering the world’s first steam dredgers and a threshing machine </li></ul></ul>http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790eddce822971f2e5c69cdb9846af7eae83f93a000f168d022234a5c4ec340e3a08dc89f11d2fc958ed7fa8992c8bd8c3e9&fmt=C
  9. 9. George Stephenson <ul><li>1781-1848 </li></ul><ul><li>English inventor and railroad engineer </li></ul><ul><li>One of England’s leading railroad engineers </li></ul>http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790eddce822971f2e5c658f64399541e8af2562b55a56d0f818611d5d5389fa65324182ec0d4b17870aa7577d21b542154e9&fmt=C
  10. 10. Stephenson’s Achievements <ul><li>Created the Manchester and Leeds, the North Midland and the Grand Junction railways </li></ul><ul><li>“Blucher” </li></ul><ul><li>“Steam blast” </li></ul><ul><li>“Rocket” </li></ul>http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790eddce822971f2e5c658f64399541e8af2562b55a56d0f818611d5d5389fa65324182ec0d4b17870aa7577d21b542154e9&fmt=C
  11. 11. Railways: Advent <ul><li>1825: first modern railway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockton to Darlington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Stephenson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1830: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liverpool & Manchester Railway </li></ul></ul>Ralph, Philip Lee, Robert E. Lerner, Standish Meacham, Alan T. Wood, Richard W. Hull, and Edward McNall Burns. World Civilizations: Their History and Their Culture . 9th ed. New York: WW Norton & Company, 1997.
  12. 12. Railways: Advent <ul><li>Not a completely new idea </li></ul><ul><li>Response to mines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many powerful steam engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient coal transporting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power and speed </li></ul>Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848 . New York: Random House, Inc., 1962. Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, and Bonnie G. Smith. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures: A Concise History . Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.
  13. 13. Railways: Importance <ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport goods quickly, cheaply, across long distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy materials made moveable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalist investments </li></ul></ul>Ralph, Philip Lee, Robert E. Lerner, Standish Meacham, Alan T. Wood, Richard W. Hull, and Edward McNall Burns. World Civilizations: Their History and Their Culture . 9th ed. New York: WW Norton & Company, 1997.
  14. 14. Railways: Importance <ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded coal, rails, locomotives, carriages, signals, switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased time spent to sell goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker return on capital investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money used to reinvest in manufacturing of more goods </li></ul></ul>Ralph, Philip Lee, Robert E. Lerner, Standish Meacham, Alan T. Wood, Richard W. Hull, and Edward McNall Burns. World Civilizations: Their History and Their Culture . 9th ed. New York: WW Norton & Company, 1997.
  15. 15. Automobiles <ul><li>Nikolaus Otto </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German engineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented gasoline-powered internal combustion engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative to use of steam engine as power source </li></ul></ul>Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, and Anthony Esler. World History: The Modern Era . Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. &quot;Nikolaus August Otto.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 May. 2008 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/434878/Nikolaus-August-Otto >.
  16. 16. Automobiles <ul><li>Karl Benz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1886: patented 1 st automobile (3-wheel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by internal combustion engine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gottlieb Daimler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1887: introduced 1 st 4-wheeled automobile </li></ul></ul>Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, and Anthony Esler. World History: The Modern Era . Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. &quot;Gottlieb Daimler.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 May. 2008 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/149896/Gottlieb-Daimler >. &quot;Karl Benz.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 May. 2008 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/61255/Karl-Friedrich-Benz >.
  17. 17. Automobiles <ul><li>Henry Ford </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Models with speeds up to 25 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1900s: assembly line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. became leader in automobile industry </li></ul></ul>Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, and Anthony Esler. World History: The Modern Era . Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. &quot;Henry Ford.&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 May. 2008 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/213223/Henry-Ford >.
  18. 18. Henry Ford <ul><li>Born July 30, 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>Died April 7, 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Famous for Ford Motor Company’s automobiles and assembly line methods in the factory </li></ul>http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-22463/Henry-Ford
  19. 19. Model T <ul><li>Designed to be practical and affordable by the average American. </li></ul><ul><li>Huge impact in a span of two decades </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated urbanization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assembly-line method </li></ul>http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-22463/Henry-Ford
  20. 20. The Origins of Oil and Natural Gas <ul><li>6000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese – polish swords and armor </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt – preserved mummies polish chariots </li></ul><ul><li>1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting homes and factories </li></ul><ul><li>Whale Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Make candles and fuel for lamps </li></ul><ul><li>Supply running low & price skyrocketed </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm whales – near extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum gas </li></ul><ul><li>Distilled from coal </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming from ponds and streams </li></ul><ul><li>Oil shale retorting </li></ul>http:// www.teachingtools.com/CrudeEnergy/BlackGold.htm
  21. 21. Origins of the Oil Industry Edwin L. Drake <ul><li>Searched for oil (Pittsburg) </li></ul><ul><li>Dug </li></ul><ul><li>Drill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive pipe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Struck Oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided inexpensive lamp fuel & superior lubrication </li></ul></ul>http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/ppet/edwin/page1.asp?secid=31
  22. 22. Major Oil Producers http://www.oilfreefuture.com/oil.pipeline.html
  23. 23. Coal <ul><li>Used for a steam locomotive </li></ul>http:// www.astecindustries.com/images/photos/Coal_Hands.jpg  
  24. 24. Shift from Coal to Oil Fuel <ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Created black fumes </li></ul><ul><li>Oil was more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Fatality rates higher </li></ul>http://www.energybulletin.net/17739.html
  25. 25. http://www.energybulletin.net/17739.html
  26. 26. Shift from Coal to Oil Fuel <ul><li>Mid 1800s – industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. John D. Rockefeller <ul><li>Born July 8, 1839 in New York </li></ul><ul><li>Died May 23, 1937 in Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the Standard Oil Company </li></ul><ul><li>Philanthropist: donated $500 million to causes </li></ul>http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9063982
  28. 28. Standard Oil Company <ul><li>Built an oil refinery near Cleveland in 1863. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1882, Standard Oil was nearly a monopoly on oil business in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Set up the standards for future US business trusts </li></ul>http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9063982
  29. 29. The Arab Oil Embargo of 1973 <ul><li>The price of fuel increased dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>October of 1973- an oil embargo by the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut further into the supply of oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes no gas at gas stations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy remains a large topic in the news </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/25opec/anniversary.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Major Disruptions in Oil Supply http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/25opec/sld001.htm
  31. 31. OAPEC and Petroleum Consumption <ul><li>Stock shares of OAPEC decreased by 25% after 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Following the price increase in 1973, the oil consumption in the US declined for 2 years afterward </li></ul>http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/25opec/sld008.htm
  32. 32. Price Inflation <ul><li>During the past 25 years, the price of gasoline has risen approximately 5% each year </li></ul><ul><li>Not taking inflation into account </li></ul><ul><li>Taking inflation into account, only .25% increase in price each year </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Price of Gasoline http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/25opec/sld004.htm
  34. 34. Changes in Lifestyle <ul><li>People adapted in many different ways to the increased energy cost </li></ul><ul><li>Cars became more fuel efficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The average rate of increase of mpg is 2.7% per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horsepower of cars and small trucks decreased from 1973 to 1983, and then increased again </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The number of homes using oil heat has decreased 23% since 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Energy use dropped 15% from 1978-1983 even though the population increased </li></ul>http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/25opec/sld026.htm
  35. 35. Changes in Lifestyle <ul><li>The efficiency of household appliances, like refrigerators, nearly tripled in the 25 years following the Arab Oil Embargo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 3.84 ft 3 /kwh/day in 1972 to 11.22 ft 3 /kwh/day in 1996 </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Horsepower
  37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>As you can see, oil impacts today’s economy </li></ul>

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