W H I C H I S M O R E I M P O R T A N T T O T H EP R E S I D E N T ?The Cabinet and EXOP
Cabinet Cabinet tends to be used to ensure that the work ofthe executive branch is directed and drawn together Membership includes........... It generally plays only a limited role – it meetsinfrequently and President may overrule it Cabinet members may not have a close relationshipwith the President Unlike British PM not totally reliant on their support
EXOP Consists of personal aides/different components NSC,OMB and WHO NS adviser used in different ways – Kissingerspearheaded foreign policy initiatives with China duringNixon; Clinton’s advisers eclipsed by secs of state –Christopher and Albright Can play a more significant role – why? ‘staffers’ in EXOP more likely to be long term associates Cabinet members torn between their loyalty to thePresident, departments and interest groups Closer proximity
Evaluation points Presidents have used EOP and Cabinet in differentways – Nixon overdependent on his closest aides –Watergate affair Significance of Cabinet depends upon individualstyle of Presidents – Eisenhower collective decisionmaking Reagan used Cabinet councils – 6-11 cabinetmembers to advise & develop policy
Evaluation points Some Cabinet members have played an importantrole in shaping policy eg. James Baker Secretary ofState 1989-93 close relationship with Bush snr; Riceand Rumsfeld. Importance of bilateral meetings President is the sole source of political authority andCabinet has no formal role. Use of it is at thePresident’s discretion Rallying and mobilising support for particularpolicies
Evaluation points David Mervin ‘ Presidents have the gravestdifficulties as it is gaining control of a notoriouslyfractious political system, without the expertise andassistance of the EOP they would helpless and theUS would be truly ungovernable’.