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Phases of federalism


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Phases of federalism

  1. 1. Dual FederalismStates exercisedmost politicalpowerFocus onstates’rightsScope offederalgovernmentmainly:Money War PeaceTrueFederalism?
  2. 2. Co-operativeFederalismThe New Deal set up‘Alphabet Agencies’ likethe WPA which with $4.8billion from Congress in1935, employed at least8.5 million people at anaverage of $2 a day for 8years.Triggered by the Wall StreetCrash and the GreatDepressionFederal and stategovernmentscooperated to solvethe problems facingUS society relatingto:• Transport (1966)• Health (1953)• Education (1953)• Poverty (1965)• National Security (1949)Coincided with 4Democrat Presidents:• Franklin D Roosevelt• Harry Truman• John F Kennedy• Lyndon B Johnson
  3. 3. Dual Federalism v Co-operativeFederalismLayer Cake:relationship betweenthe federalgovernment and thatof its states, wherethe powers andpolicy assignments ofthe governmenthierarchy ("layers" ofgovernment) areclearly spelled outand distinct from oneanother.Marble Cake:formerlydistinct divisionofresponsibilitiesbetween stateand federalgovernmenthas blurred.Which cakerepresents which era?
  4. 4. New FederalismCoincided with 4Republican Presidents:• Richard Nixon• Gerald Ford• Ronald Reagan• George H Bush“...federal government didnot create the states, thestates created the federalgovernment”Term was coined by NixonReturn of certainpowers andresponsibilities fromthe federalgovernment to thestate governments -decentralisation Attempt to reversegrowth of federalgovernment undersuccessive Democratpresidents View on rightthat New Deal andGreat Society hadfailed to remedynations ills Growing distrustof ‘Washingtonpoliticians’ Coincided witha ‘conservative’Supreme Court