Separation of powers Checks and balances Limited government President must lead, bargain, compromise,and persuade
Propose legislation – State of the address..... Submit an annual budget Sign bills into law Veto legislation – bargaining tool Nominations – Supreme Court, executiveappointments Treaties
Popularity of the President eg. size of thePresident’s election victory, opinion polls Divided government – Bush 2006 mid termelections;Obama 2010 United government.................. Filibuster proof majority............ Crises – post 9/11, Patriot Act. Gulf ofTonkin
Tactics – offering pork, nationalTV............ Vice President – tied vote – 2003 350 billiondollar tax cut Use of EXOP – work the corridors andcommittee rooms of Capitol Hill Cabinet eg.Treasury Secretary – tax/fiscalstimulus Party leaders in Congress
United government Popularity of the President Honeymoon period Lame duck Charismatic authority – Clinton. Obama. Congress – reasserts itself –Watergate.Vietnam.
Bennett – ‘A President who uses acombination of formal powers, informalpersuasion, popularity and legislativeskill, and is fortunate enough to be infavourable circumstances, a clear mandateand united government, can hope to getmany proposals through Congress’.