The Politics AssociationAS Government and PoliticsPowerpoint Presentation - 3 Elections in the UK
UK Elections – how many chances to vote? Borough Council County Parish Elections Council Elections ElectionsMayoral ParliamentaryElections Elections (General Elections)European Scottish NorthernParliament Parliament, Ireland Elections Welsh Assembly Assembly
Can he vote? NO YES•Member of the House of •Over 18Lords •On the electoral register•Detained under Mental •Commonwealth citizen,Health Act Rep. Of Ireland citizen –•In prison resident in UK•Conviction of corrupt / •UK citizens living abroadillegal electoral practice in up to 2o yearslast five years.
Which means . . .He can’t vote . . . But Kylie can . . .
It’s useful to know a bit of the history…• 1832 – Great Reform Act•1867 – Second Reform Act By the end of the 19th•1884/5 – Third Reform Act century only 28% of the adult population had the opportunity to vote. Property became less an less important as a None of the 19th century qualification to vote. reforms gave women the vote.
and in the 20th century . . . Representation of the ‘Votes for Women’ People Act 1918 •Electorate rises from 7.7m to 21.4m.•Women had been campaigning •All men over 21 and women over 30since 1867. given vote.•Suffragettes and Suffragists Equal Franchise Act 1928organised campaigns in thelate 19th and early 20th •Women given vote on same terms as men.centuries. •5m new voters created.•The campaign was disrupted Representation of theby World War One, yet thepolitical argument appeared to People Act 1949 •Business & undergraduate voteshave been won. abolished. •6 month residence qualification removed. Minimum voting age lowered to 18 in 1969.
Who can stand for Parliament?• Aged 21 or over?• A British citizen? You also need . . .• Bankrupt? •Nomination papers •£500 deposit• A member of the judiciary?• In prison? • Strict spending limits. •Election spending is• A vicar? audited.• Member of the Lords? •Neill Report (1988) - recommended cap on• Police officer? election spending.• In the army?• A civil servant?• Local government officer? Lord Neill
The UK electoral system It works like this• A simple plurality system (2001 Election) known as ‘first past the Labour post’. 10.7 million votes.• 650 single member 42% of votes cast. constituencies send one 413 seats. MP each to Westminster. Conservatives• Candidate with largest 8.4 million votes. number of votes in a 33% of votes cast. constituency wins. 166 seats.• Party with greatest Liberal Democrats number of seats in 4.8 million votes Parliament wins. 19% of votes cast. 52 seats.
Local & European ElectionsLocal elections European elections• Same electoral system as • Held to elect Members of Parliament. the European Parliament• Councillors elected for 4 (MEPs). year terms. • UK has 87 MEPs.• Different councils elect • Elections every 5 years. councillors at different • ‘Closed list’ system. times. • Lords, clergy may stand.• Turnout - poor (35% in • Possible to stand in 2002) a major issue for country NOT your home local politics. state.• Some experiments with • Turnout poor (24% in postal & online voting. 1999).
Scottish Parliament Elections• First elected in 1999• Elected by Additional Member System• 129 MSPs• 73 Constituencies• 73 MSPs – elected by simple majority• 56 MSPs – elected in regions by closed list• Each voter casts two votes• 1999 – Conservatives win NO seats in constituencies yet gained 18 seats through closed list top-up in regions.• 1999 election – no overall majority – Scottish Parliament is therefore a coalition.• 2007 election – SNP minority govt• 2011 – SNP majority govt
Welsh Assembly• First elected in 1999• Elected by AMS• 60 MWAs - 40 constituencies• 40 MWAs elected in constituencies by simple majority• 20 MWAs elected in regions using closed list• Each voter casts two votes• 1999 – Conservatives won 1 seat in constituencies topped-up to 8 through the regions• 1999 election – no overall majority• Lib-Lab coalition• 2007 Lab – PC coalition• 2011 Lab minority govt
Northern Ireland Assembly• Product of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement• Assembly has 108 members• Elected in June 1998 by STV• Turnout 69% - higher than Scotland & Wales• Governing Executive – 12 assembly members• Assembly has been suspended• 2011 – DUP and Sinn Fein remain largest parties