The Executive Branch | The Presidency


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  • Welcome
  • The Executive Branch | The Presidency

    1. 1. GOV4AThe Government of the USScott Thomas | May 2013
    2. 2. Exam success isnot a lottery!Know yourtermsKnow theArticlesKnow theExamples
    3. 3. Session 4The Executive Branchof the US
    4. 4. The Executive BranchConstitution & ExecutiveBranchPresidential PowerLimitations & ConstraintsPower and Influence:CabinetEXOPFederal Bureaucracy &Federal Agencies
    5. 5. Executive & The ConstitutionFound in Article 2All executive power isvested in one PresidentCommander in ChiefCabinet not a requirementElectoral College outlined Term limits added viaamendments
    6. 6. Some Key PresidentsGeorge Washington• First President• Bill of Rights• Two term conventionAbraham Lincoln• Abolished Slavery• President during Civil WarFranklin D Roosevelt• Longest serving 12 years• The New DealRichard M Nixon• Watergate• New FederalismRonald Reagan• Iran-Contra Affair• Robert Bork – SC NomineeBill J Clinton• Failed Impeachment• Failed Healthcare Reform
    7. 7. Some Key Presidents• 9/11• Anti terror legislation• Education & AIDS• War on Terror• 2008 Financial CrisisGeorge WBush• Obamacare• Gun Control• Immigration Reform• Osama Bin Laden• BailoutsBarack HObama
    8. 8. Role of the PresidentHead of StateChief DiplomatChief LegislatorCommander in ChiefChief Executive
    9. 9. Increasing Role of the PresidentOnly national politicalinstitution that can actquickly and decisively intimes of crisisOnly nationally electedpolitician – claim amandateEBBS AND FLOWSCrisis – Flows towards POTUSPeace – Congress Reasserts itself
    10. 10. Powers of the President• Propose Legislation– Bush – No Child Left Behind• Submit the Annual Budget• Sign Legislation• Veto Legislation– Bush Stem Cell Research• Act as Chief Executive• Nominations Chief• Commander in Chief• Negotiate Treaties• Pardon
    11. 11. Power of VetoPresidents can veto legislation, i.e. not make itlawStandard VetoSends it back to CongressPocket VetoDoesn’t sign within last 10 days of CongressLine Item VetoPower to veto certain parts of legislation, ruledunconstitutional by Clinton v New York 1998
    12. 12. The Power to PersuadeWhy only persuade:Cabinet is not a reward toCongress due to the separationof powersLack of an honours system inthe US unlike the UKCan’t remove the whipWho Persuades: VP EXOP (Office ofLegislative Affairs) Party Leadership Interest GroupsNeustadt:Presidential Power is the Power toPersuade
    13. 13. The President PersuadesSometimes the Presidents wades into thepersuasion personallyPhone CallsBudget Vote 1993 Clinton rang Marjorie MargoliesMezvinsky to get her to cast her voteSupport LegislationCampaign in DistrictOnly if Popular!!!!
    14. 14. Vice President of the United States
    15. 15. Vice PresidentFirst Vice President’s were the people who came secondin a Presidential RaceThe role as moved on since its formation in the earlydays
    16. 16. Modern VP CandidatesVPs chosen through a JointTicket SystemA balance ticket is oftencrucial in electionsBalance can be in the formof Experience, Ideology, Age,Region.Are race and gender nowimportant as well?
    17. 17. Enumerated Powers of the VPPresiding Officer of the Senate• Votes in Senate Deadlocks• Cheney voted to protect Bushs $1.6bn tax cutAnnounces Electoral College Votes• January 2001 – Al Gore announces his own defeatFirst in line of Succession• If President dies, resigns or is removed from office• Has happened a total of 9 timesActing President• 25th Amendment: Cheney was President for 2 hours whilst Bushwas sedated
    18. 18. However... Powers have IncreasedSince Eisenhower the Vice Presidencyhas been a breeding ground forPresidentsMany distinguished politicians battle forthe role– Bush Senior, Joe BidenPresidents give VP more responsibilityand some become advisorsVPs now see daily intelligence briefingsand all have an office in the West Wing
    19. 19. Additional PowersVPs are now a majorspokesperson for theadministration– Gore: Environment– Cheney: Foreign PolicyThe VP is a majorfundraiserVPs can play the‘Washington Insider’guiding POTUS
    20. 20. Cheney as Vice PresidentPortfolio Contained theIron Issues Economic Issues Security Issues Energy Issues Party CaucusThe Most Powerful VicePresident in History The President and I have a differentunderstanding
    21. 21. Biden as Vice PresidentLess powerful relativelythan CheneyFocus on Foreign PolicyWashington Insider Senate JudiciaryCommittee 36 years as a Senator He was the Second poorest member ofCongress
    22. 22. The US Cabinet15 Heads of Department+ Vice President+ Director of OMBNo constitutionalrequirementStateJohn KerryTreasuryJack LewDefenseChuck HagelAttorney GeneralEric HolderThe advisory group selected by the President to aid him in making decisions andcoordinating the work of the Federal Government. Membership is at the pleasure ofthe President
    23. 23. Frequency of MeetingsVaries between President toPresident.Reagan in his first year held 36MeetingsMeeting number tends todecline towards an electionyear as election demands eatinto his timeGeorge W Bush’s MeetingsYear Frequency2001 92002 52003 82004 62005 52006 62007 42008 52009 1
    24. 24. Functions of the CabinetFor the PresidentTeam SpiritConsensualInformationGatheringDebateBig PictureSee allDepartments
    25. 25. Functions of the CabinetFor the CabinetGet to knowResolveDisputesContactPointsCatch thePresidentIncreasedStanding
    26. 26. Cabinet Synoptic LinksUK:Cabinet members sit in the legislatureCabinet posts are part of the PM’spowers of PatronageMPs want to be in CabinetCollective Ministerial ResponsibilityUSA:Cabinet members must only be in theexecutiveNot a reward, more of a final postingbefore retirementNo Collective Ministerial Responsibility
    27. 27. Federal BureaucracySimilar to the UK CivilService the FederalBureaucracy is the backbone of the USGovernment.They carry out policy andwork out the finer detailsof the bills passed byCongress2.7millionemployees$13.8 billionpayroll11% ofemployees inDCRoughly 900DepartmentsUnelected, Administrative Body in the Executive Branch, set out into departmentsagencies and commissions. They carry out policy on a day to day basis.
    28. 28. Federal BureaucracyExecutiveDepartmentsDepartmentof theTreasuryExecutiveAgenciesFederalBureau ofInvestigationIndependentRegulatoryCommissionsFederalElectionCommissionGovernmentCorporationsUnited StatesPostal Service
    29. 29. Problems with the BureaucracyClientelism• Agencies serve the interests of those the are supposed to be overseeing• Lap Dogs rather than WatchdogsImperialism• Agencies seek to expand their own power at the expense of otheragencies• Turf BattlesIncrementalism• Agencies may act slowly and cautiously, with a nature to resist change• Argument very similar to the UK Civil Service
    30. 30. Iron TrianglesStrong relationship betweenthree political bodies• Interest Groups• CongressionalCommittees• AgencyGenerally considered ashaving a negative impact onpolicy
    31. 31. Iron Triangles ExampleDepartment ofDefenseDefenseCommitteesDefenseContractorFavours and Less RegulationSupport Dept.
    32. 32. Executive Office of the President
    33. 33. Executive Office of the PresidentFormed in 1939 as a resultof the BrownlowCommittee“The PresidentNeeds Help”Expansion of FederalGovernmentTop staff agencies in the White House that give the presidentadvice and support in his role. It focuses on coordination,personnel management and advice giving
    34. 34. Executive Office of the PresidentOffice ofManagement andBudgetNational SecurityCouncilWhite House Office(The West Wing)
    35. 35. White House OfficeMost trusted advisors and aidesChief ofStaffPressSecretaryDirector ofCommunicationsCabinetSecretary
    36. 36. White House Office Liaison between President and FederalBureaucracy and Cabinet Liaison between President and Congress Screening of Telephone calls Screening of Documents Advisory Role Draw up Presidential Schedule ‘Lightening Conductors’
    37. 37. Remember this is just the Public Schedule,WHO will create a more private one
    38. 38. White House Office StaffPresident chooses them‘Honest Brokers’Staff should be following the Presidents Agenda,Not their own, like Sununu may have beenShould not be in the media spotlight
    39. 39. The Chief of StaffHead of EXOPMost Crucial Role‘Deputy President’Gate Keeper to the OvalProtect the interests of the President and advisehim accordinglyA Chief of Staff’s power is will depend on howstrong they areDenis McDonough
    40. 40. The Chief of StaffBob Halderman• Richard NixonJohn Sununu• George H W BushMack Mclarty• William J ClintonLeon Panetta• William J ClintonAndrew Card• George W BushRahm Emanuel• Barack Obama
    41. 41. Office of Management and BudgetCreated by Nixon in 1970Oversees the spending by allFederal departments andagenciesAdvises the President on theallocation of Federal FundsDirector is the only Senateconfirmed position withinEXOP.
    42. 42. National Security CouncilHeaded by National SecurityAdvisorNixon politicised the way inwhich worked, runningForeign Policy throughKissinger from the WestWingClinton returned it to itshonest broker role
    43. 43. EXOP v CabinetFrom EXOP Perspective Regard Cabinet as toodistant and disloyalfrom the PresidentFrom Cabinet Perspective See EXOP as too closeand too loyal to thePresidentLarge rivalries existed during theNixon Years as EXOP ran ForeignPolicy with Henry Kissinger asNational Security Advisor instead ofthe State Department
    44. 44. Why?
    45. 45. Why?US StateDepartmentWhite House1.7 Mile Journey between the twoNSA – 30 seconds from the Oval
    46. 46. An Imperial President?Term Originates from the1970s by SchlesingerFocuses on abuse ofpower by Johnson andNixonEXOP becomes the Courtof an Emperor
    47. 47. Why?Executive branch dominates over the otherbranchesPresidents craft Foreign Policy as Commander inChief and use the vagueness of the Constitutionto go to WarJohnson and Nixon personified this
    48. 48. Evidence1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution giving Johnson a‘blank cheque’ for Vietnam WarNixon – Wire tapping, bombing of Laos andCambodia, executive privilege claims
    49. 49. Imperilled PresidencyHowever it can be imperilledPresident Ford is a good example• Lack of Party leadership in Congress• Unable to control Federal BureaucracyA principal weakness in the presidency isthe inability of the White House tomaintain control over the large federalbureaucracy.G . Ford
    50. 50. ‘Bifurcated’ presidencyIt can be argued that the presidency is almost liketwo separate roles, with different levels of power:• Foreign policy – almost unchecked power• Domestic policy – hugely constrained byCongress• So is Congress ‘too effective’ a check and balancedomestically, yet too weak on foreign issues?Clinton was easily able to send troops toBosnia and Kosovo, whilst he couldn’t passhis healthcare bill
    51. 51. However!There are contrasting examplestoo;• Foreign policy – Congress driedup funds for the Vietnam conflictunder Ford (power of the purse)• Domestic policy – FDR was ableto pass much legislation in the1930s (New Deal), as wasJohnson (Great Society)
    52. 52. George W BushYes NoPresidential Authority – Only response inWar on TerrorCongress refuses to extend Patriot ActMany in Administration saw Congress asbelow the White House in NationalDefencePassing of Anti Terror Legislation (PatriotAct)
    53. 53. Executive Synoptic LinksUK Fusion of Powers vs US Separation of PowersImportance of CabinetUK PM stronger domestically than US PresidentUS President stronger on foreign policy than UK PMUK PM has bigger sticks and tastier carrotsUS Term limits vs no limits on PM tenureUK PMs can be presidential whereas US President’s can beimperial
    54. 54. Exam success isnot a lottery!Know yourtermsKnow theArticlesKnow theExamples
    55. 55. Answer the question, the wholequestion and nothing but thequestion