Lesson 1 health – global patterns of mortality of morbidity
Health – Global Patterns of
Mortality of Morbidity
By the end of this lesson you
• Been introduced to the
spec for this topic
• Considered what you
already know about world
• Investigated global
patterns of mortality and
Global patterns of health, morbidity and mortality: health in world affairs.
The study of one infectious disease (e.g. malaria, HIV/ AIDS) its global
distribution and its impact on health, economic development and lifestyle.
The study of one non-communicable disease (e.g. coronary disease, cancer) its
global distribution and its impact on health, economic development and
Food and health – malnutrition, periodic famine, obesity.
Contrasting health care approaches in countries at different stages of
Health matters in a globalising world economy – transnational corporations
and pharmaceutical research, production and distribution; tobacco
Regional variations in health and morbidity in the UK.
Factors affecting regional variations in health and morbidity – age structure,
income and occupation type, education, environment and pollution.
Age, gender, wealth and their influence on access to facilities for exercise,
health care, and good nutrition.
A local case study on the implications of the above for the provision of health
1) Define health
2) What does the W.H.O stand for?
3) How might you measure one’s health?
4) What is the largest killing disease in the world?
5) What is the largest killing disease in the UK?
6) Approx. how much money does the UK donate to
world health each year?
7) Which area of the UK have the lowest levels of
8) What is a vaccination?
9) What is a virulent disease?
10) How might health be linked to the environment?
• 1) Your physical, mental, and social well-being and the
absence of disease
• 2) World Health Organisation
• 3) Infant mortality, mortality, comparison, life expectancy
• 4) Non-communicable diseases – cancer, heart and lung
• 5) Coronary heart disease
• 6) It’s very difficult to tell as there are so many charities as
well as government foreign aid
• 7) The East Midlands (Manchester has highest rates of
deaths due to smoking)
• 8) Taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a
• 9) A disease which is extremely harmful
• 10) Climate, waste disposal, natural disasters
Why health geography?
• As with population, human geographers need to assess
the birth/death rates of the world population
• Death rates are naturally connected with world health
• World health is often unbalanced
• Health geography can make an important contribution
to future global and national plans and policies. They
• Attack rate
• For instance, if there are 70 people taken ill out of 98 in an
outbreak, the attack rate is 70/98~=0.714 or about 71.4%.
• Case-mortality rate
Global Patterns of Health - Morbidity
• Morbidity = illness and the reporting of disease
• In the UK it is done on the census as ‘to what extent would
you categorise your health?’
• Certain illnesses by law must be reported
• In poorer countries this could be yellow fever or influenza
• In the UK there are ‘notifiable diseases’ such as
• ‘The new Regulations for clinical notifications came into
force on 6 April 2010...there is a requirement to notify
cases of other infections or contamination which could
present a significant risk to human health.’ Taken from the
‘Public Health England’ website
Global Patterns of Health - Morbidity
There are two ways of measuring morbidity
Different types of diseases can vary depending on the type
• The two main categories are
• A) Infectious
• B) Non-communicable
• Look at the global distribution map. Decide whether it is
infectious or non-communicable. Describe and comment
on the trends you are noticing. Why do you think the
distributions are as they are?
• Heart Disease: Non-communicable
• Relatively more common in wealthier countries
• Unhealthy lifestyle (access to more produced
• Lack of exercise
• More elderly population
• However, poorer countries still have high
Aids: Infectious disease
There’s higher AIDS rates in poorer countries
Particularly sub-saharan Africa and India
Reasons can be malnutrition
Lack of clean water
Poor access to health care
Breast Cancer: Non-Communicable
Unhealthy lifestyle – drinks, smoking, drugs
• Malaria: Infectious disease
• Higher in poorer and warmer countries
• The tropical climate makes the virus possible at
• Transmitted by mosquitos
• Less access to drugs, treatments and nets
• TASK: complete question 3 & 4 on page 1/2 using
an atlas. Read the information on influenza on
page 2, define the terms on page 3
Global Patterns of Health - Mortality
• Mortality rate is how many people die in a population over
a period of time
• They are used to compare global patterns of health
• You must differentiate between:
• Crude death rates
• Infant mortality rate
• Life expectancy rates
• Diseases have a large effect on mortality rates
• Mortality rates obviously are connected with morbidity
rates and the ability to treat morbidity
• The risk of dying from morbidity is higher in poorer
countries because of malnutrition and poorer access to
Health in world affairs
• Health is a global affair
• Diseases travel and move between countries i.e.
the Spanish Flu and the Plague
• So countries must work together to prevent
diseases from spreading
• The World Health Organisation (WHO) work with
governments to help prevent disease
• Polio is the main example of how the WHO
facilitated richer countries to help poorer
1. Define health
2. How can you measure health?
3. What is morbidity?
4. How does influenza vary globally?
• 5. Use the map to outline and comment on
the global pattern of Brest Cancer morbidity