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Lesson 1 health – global patterns of mortality of morbidity


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Lesson 1 health – global patterns of mortality of morbidity

  1. 1. Health – Global Patterns of Mortality of Morbidity By the end of this lesson you will have: • Been introduced to the spec for this topic • Considered what you already know about world health • Investigated global patterns of mortality and morbidity
  2. 2. Specification • • • • • • • • • • Global patterns of health, morbidity and mortality: health in world affairs. The study of one infectious disease (e.g. malaria, HIV/ AIDS) its global distribution and its impact on health, economic development and lifestyle. The study of one non-communicable disease (e.g. coronary disease, cancer) its global distribution and its impact on health, economic development and lifestyle. Food and health – malnutrition, periodic famine, obesity. Contrasting health care approaches in countries at different stages of development. Health matters in a globalising world economy – transnational corporations and pharmaceutical research, production and distribution; tobacco transnationals. Regional variations in health and morbidity in the UK. Factors affecting regional variations in health and morbidity – age structure, income and occupation type, education, environment and pollution. Age, gender, wealth and their influence on access to facilities for exercise, health care, and good nutrition. A local case study on the implications of the above for the provision of health care systems.
  3. 3. Guestimate Quiz • • • • • • • • • • 1) Define health 2) What does the W.H.O stand for? 3) How might you measure one’s health? 4) What is the largest killing disease in the world? 5) What is the largest killing disease in the UK? 6) Approx. how much money does the UK donate to world health each year? 7) Which area of the UK have the lowest levels of health? 8) What is a vaccination? 9) What is a virulent disease? 10) How might health be linked to the environment?
  4. 4. Guestimate Quiz • 1) Your physical, mental, and social well-being and the absence of disease • 2) World Health Organisation • 3) Infant mortality, mortality, comparison, life expectancy • 4) Non-communicable diseases – cancer, heart and lung • 5) Coronary heart disease • 6) It’s very difficult to tell as there are so many charities as well as government foreign aid • 7) The East Midlands (Manchester has highest rates of deaths due to smoking) • 8) Taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease • 9) A disease which is extremely harmful • 10) Climate, waste disposal, natural disasters
  5. 5. Why health geography? • As with population, human geographers need to assess the birth/death rates of the world population • Death rates are naturally connected with world health • World health is often unbalanced • Health geography can make an important contribution to future global and national plans and policies. They can: • Advise • Analyse • Monitor • Investigate
  6. 6. Key Words • Mortality • Morbidity • Attack rate • For instance, if there are 70 people taken ill out of 98 in an outbreak, the attack rate is 70/98~=0.714 or about 71.4%. • Case-mortality rate
  7. 7. Global Patterns of Health - Morbidity • Morbidity = illness and the reporting of disease • In the UK it is done on the census as ‘to what extent would you categorise your health?’ • Certain illnesses by law must be reported • In poorer countries this could be yellow fever or influenza • In the UK there are ‘notifiable diseases’ such as cryptosporidium • ‘The new Regulations for clinical notifications came into force on 6 April 2010...there is a requirement to notify cases of other infections or contamination which could present a significant risk to human health.’ Taken from the ‘Public Health England’ website
  8. 8. Global Patterns of Health - Morbidity • • • • There are two ways of measuring morbidity A) Prevalence B) Incidence Different types of diseases can vary depending on the type of disease • The two main categories are • A) Infectious • B) Non-communicable Task • Look at the global distribution map. Decide whether it is infectious or non-communicable. Describe and comment on the trends you are noticing. Why do you think the distributions are as they are?
  9. 9. Answers • Heart Disease: Non-communicable • Relatively more common in wealthier countries • Unhealthy lifestyle (access to more produced food) • Lack of exercise • Smoking • More elderly population • However, poorer countries still have high incidence rates
  10. 10. Answers • • • • • • • • • Aids: Infectious disease There’s higher AIDS rates in poorer countries Particularly sub-saharan Africa and India Reasons can be malnutrition Lack of clean water Overcrowding Poor access to health care Limited contraception Climate
  11. 11. Answers • • • • • Breast Cancer: Non-Communicable Old age Lifestyle/technology Unhealthy lifestyle – drinks, smoking, drugs Obesity
  12. 12. Answers • Malaria: Infectious disease • Higher in poorer and warmer countries • The tropical climate makes the virus possible at any time • Transmitted by mosquitos • Less access to drugs, treatments and nets • TASK: complete question 3 & 4 on page 1/2 using an atlas. Read the information on influenza on page 2, define the terms on page 3
  13. 13. Global Patterns of Health - Mortality • Mortality rate is how many people die in a population over a period of time • They are used to compare global patterns of health • You must differentiate between: • Crude death rates • Infant mortality rate • Life expectancy rates • Diseases have a large effect on mortality rates • Mortality rates obviously are connected with morbidity rates and the ability to treat morbidity • The risk of dying from morbidity is higher in poorer countries because of malnutrition and poorer access to health care
  14. 14. Health in world affairs • Health is a global affair • Diseases travel and move between countries i.e. the Spanish Flu and the Plague • So countries must work together to prevent diseases from spreading • The World Health Organisation (WHO) work with governments to help prevent disease • Polio is the main example of how the WHO facilitated richer countries to help poorer countries
  15. 15. Practice Questions • • • • 1. Define health 2. How can you measure health? 3. What is morbidity? 4. How does influenza vary globally? • 5. Use the map to outline and comment on the global pattern of Brest Cancer morbidity (6marks)