1.2 world population – changes in population characteristics unfinished

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1.2 world population – changes in population characteristics unfinished

  1. 1. World Population – Changes in Population Characteristics By the end of this lesson you will: • Have re-capped the vital rates and key words • Have completed a timed induction assessment • Considered the implications of fertility and mortality as changing population characteristics
  2. 2. Re-Cap Key Word Test • SCATTER GRAPHS!! – Peer Mark in 2mins • 1) Net Migration • 2) Infant mortality rate • 3) Natural increase/decrease • 4) Fertility rate • 5) Death rate • 6) What word represents ‘the number of people entering a country to settle, per hundred population already resident, per year. It is usually expressed as a percentage’ • 7) Migration change • 8) Birth rate • 9) Emigration rate • 10) Life expectancy
  3. 3. Re-Cap Population Change Sum • Look at the following figures for country C during the 2001-02 decade: • Mean annual number of births = 647,000 • Mean annual number of deaths = 755,000 • Mean annual number of immigrants = 350,000 • Mean annual number of emigrants = 110,000 • Now calculate the mean population change per year • Answer = 66000 per year
  4. 4. Fertility • Normally exceeds mortality and migration = GROWTH • Main determinant of population growth • Yet fertility varies vastly i.e Niger vs Austria • Causes of variation = • Relationship with death rate to counter infant mortality • Tradition = culturally important to bear a lot of children • Education = women do not see themselves as having any other role than child-bearing • Young age structures means women in some countries have children earlier than others • Religion has an impact on contraception usage • Political influences sometimes dictate the fertility of women (pro- natalist vs anti-natalist)
  5. 5. Explosion/Implosion • There are over 7billion people in the world • Late 1900s population was doubling every 30years • This was called an explosion • 1996 earth scan predictions suggest that world population will peak at around 10.6billion in 2080 then decline • This is because fertility rates have declined faster than expected • Explosion to Implosion
  6. 6. Growth in LEDcs • Have the fastest levels of population growth • Average growth rate (excluding China) is 1.8% • Africa and middle east = 2.3% • Birth rates are now declining however • India is approaching China as the most populous country • 0.9% growth per year for India 0.4% growth for China per year • Traditional Hindi belt in the north contributing the most • Islamic world is below the replacement level of 2.1
  7. 7. Growth in MEDcs • Growth has been slow for many decades • In the next 40years Germany’s population could fall by 20% • By 2016 there is predicted there will be 88nations in the ‘under 2.1 club’ • China’s fertility rates are now under 2.1 but it will take 40 years to have a declining population • USAs fertility is relatively high compared to other MEDCs • Japan has set aside money to stop the fall in fertility • European countries have put in place incentives to encourage fertility
  8. 8. Mortality • Highest death rates are in the LEDCs • Sub-Saharan Africa – Liberia, Niger • Infant mortality rate is a prime indicator of socio- economic development • Sierra-Leone has an infant mortality rate of 163 • The higher the medical infrastructure the lower the mortality rate • Economic development means higher life expectancy • AIDS has a major impact on mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa
  9. 9. Plenary • A) outline the usefulness of infant mortality rate as an indicator of development • Define what it is • Could be indications of what? • Is useful because of what? • B) outline the usefulness of fertility rates as an indicator of development • Define what it is • Could be indications of what? • Is useful because of what?

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