General Optometry


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General Optometry

  1. 1. Your Eyes <ul><li>The Optometrist? </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>Common eye diseases & conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Caring for your eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Getting more information! </li></ul>
  2. 2. What Does an Optometrist Do? <ul><li>Examines eye health, vision levels and coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnoses diseases and ocular conditions of the eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps manage eye conditions and monitors treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides assistance with vision training and other lifestyle modifications. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Anatomy of the Eye
  4. 4. Anatomy of the Eye
  5. 5. Nearsightedness <ul><li>Nearsighted people typically see well up close, but have difficulty seeing far away. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Farsightedness <ul><li>Farsighted people typically see well far away, but have difficulty seeing up close. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Astigmatism <ul><li>With Astigmatism the cornea likely oval shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur along with nearsightedness and farsightedness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Presbyopia (Short Arm Syndrome) <ul><li>Normally begins after age 40. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs and Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty seeing clearly for close work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Print seems to have less contrast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue and eyestrain when reading </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Correcting Your Vision <ul><li>Glasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trifocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Correcting Your Vision <ul><li>Contact Lens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laser Surgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LASIK </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Lasik Surgery <ul><li>A special instrument called a keratome is used to gently lift a flap of corneal tissue, then laser is used to reshape the cornea.   </li></ul>
  12. 12. Common Eye Conditions
  13. 13. Computer Vision Syndrome <ul><li>Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is a term that describes eye-related problems and the other symptoms caused by prolonged computer use. </li></ul><ul><li>These problems are more noticeable with computer tasks than other near work because letters on the screen are formed by tiny dots called pixels, rather than a solid image.  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tips When Using the Computer <ul><li>Take frequent breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Blink </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid sources of glare on screen </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain proper distance from screen </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain good lighting, brightness & contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure your glasses are right for the task </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dry Eyes Condition <ul><li>One of the most common problems treated by eye doctors. Over 10 million Americans have clinically significant dry eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Tears are comprised of three layers .  </li></ul><ul><li>Tears keep the eye moist, creates a smooth surface for light to pass through the eye, nourishes the front of the eye, and provides protection from injury and infection. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dry Eye Condition <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact Lenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dry Eye Condition <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Itching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred vision that improves with blinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive tearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased discomfort after periods of reading, watching TV, or working on a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dry Eye <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial lubricants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctal occlusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cataracts <ul><li>Clouding of natural lens of eye </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause… age </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cataracts
  21. 21. Cataracts
  22. 22. Age Related Macular Degeneration <ul><li>A degenerative condition of the macula (the central retina ). </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause of vision loss in North America in those 50 or older, and its prevalence increases with age. </li></ul>
  23. 23. AMD <ul><li>Caused by hardening of the arteries that nourish the retina depriving the sensitive retinal tissue of oxygen and nutrients that it needs to function and thrive, resulting in deteriorated central vision. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Dry Macular Degeneration
  25. 25. Glaucoma <ul><li>Caused by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) </li></ul><ul><li>Left untreated, an elevated IOP causes irreversible damage to the optic nerve and retinal fibers resulting in a progressive, permanent loss of vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Early detection and treatment can slow the progression of the disease .  </li></ul>
  26. 26. Glaucoma
  27. 27. Diabetic Retinopathy <ul><li>Occurs in people with diabetes. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual symptoms vary from blurred vision (depending on sugar levels), flashing lights, to loss of vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAINTAIN AND STABILIZE BLOOD SUGARS! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser surgery </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Diabetic Retinopathy
  29. 29. Caring for Your Eyes <ul><li>Why get your eyes checked yearly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make sure you ensure clear, comfortable vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make sure your eyes are healthy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just because you see well, doesn’t mean your eyes are well! </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Eye Examination <ul><li>History: Your optometrist will ask you about any vision problems that you are experiencing, your personal and family eye and health history, your medications, and any special visual demands of your occupation or hobbies. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Eye Examination <ul><li>Visual Acuity: </li></ul><ul><li>Checks your level of vision with an eye chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Binocular Vision: </li></ul><ul><li>Determines how well your eyes work together in coordinated movement. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Eye Examination <ul><li>Ocular Health: </li></ul><ul><li>This is a painless examination that checks the external and internal structure of your eye. It also checks for signs of ocular conditions as well as chronic conditions that may affect your eyes. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Eye Examination <ul><li>Refraction: </li></ul><ul><li>Determines the prescription that will give you the best possible vision </li></ul>
  34. 34. How Do I Become an Optometrist? <ul><li>You must complete an Honors Bachelor’s Degree in university with emphasis in math and science. </li></ul><ul><li>You must complete a 4-year Degree of Optometry program. </li></ul><ul><li>You must write a national examination and apply to a provincial College for registration. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Why Become an Optometrist? <ul><li>Work and help people of all ages. </li></ul><ul><li>A chance to problem solving and help improve people’s lifestyle and well-being. </li></ul>
  36. 36. What Can You Do? <ul><li>Don’t smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Eat your vegetables, especially dark leafy greens and yellows. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to do some exercise if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit your eye doctor regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit your family doctor regularly. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Taking Care of Your Eyes From Birth to Your Golden Years
  38. 38. Vision and Eye Health <ul><li>Vision is one of our most important senses but unfortunately, it is often taken for granted. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Vision and Eye Health <ul><li>Regular eye care is essential to maintain a lifetime of clear vision and healthy eyes. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Eye Care Providers Who’s Who <ul><li>Optometrists (Doctors of Optometry) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary eye health care providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experts in the examination, diagnosis and treatment of vision problems and eye diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can prescribe glasses and contact lenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can refer patients to specialists if necessary </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Eye Care Providers Who’s Who <ul><li>Ophthalmologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physicians who have completed an ophthalmology residency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically treat advanced eye diseases and conditions and can perform surgery. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opticians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technicians who prepare and dispense eyeglasses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can fit contact lenses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not perform eye exams. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. What is an eye examination? <ul><li>An eye health exam involves many steps including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual acuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye coordination and focusing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye pressure measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External eye examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal eye examination </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. What is an eye examination? <ul><li>Additional tests may also be required such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corneal topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binocular vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaging or photography </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Eye Exam vs. Sight Test <ul><li>Some retailers are now offering “Sight Tests”. </li></ul><ul><li>With a “Sight Test”, eye health is not assessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many sight threatening conditions could be missed. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Children’s Vision
  46. 46. Your Baby’s Eyes <ul><li>It’s never too early for your child’s first eye exam!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Children should have their first eye examination at 6 months of age. </li></ul><ul><li>They should be examined again at age 3, before school starts, and then regularly throughout their school years. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Baby Eye Problems <ul><li>Retinopathy of Prematurity </li></ul><ul><li>Neonatal Conjunctivitis </li></ul><ul><li>Blocked Tear Ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Strabismus (Eye Turns, Crossed Eyes) </li></ul><ul><li>Large Refractive Errors (Nearsighted or Farsighted) </li></ul><ul><li>Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Children’s Vision <ul><li>Children may not complain of vision problems because they may believe the way their world looks is normal or they have one eye that sees well and one that doesn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Amblyopia (Lazy Eye) must be detected early in order to be treated effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Any eye infections should be checked by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Our Children’s Vision Crisis <ul><li>Approximately 85% of children begin school without an eye exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is 80% visual – Vision and learning are intimately “linked”. </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 4 children begin Grade 1 with an undiagnosed vision or eye health problem. </li></ul><ul><li>As many as 60% of children identified as having reading difficulties in fact have vision problems. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Our Children’s Vision Crisis <ul><li>Studies reveal that 70% of juvenile delinquents have undiagnosed vision problems. </li></ul><ul><li>A vision screening - at your pediatrician’s office, by a school nurse or elsewhere - does not equal a comprehensive eye exam by an optometrist. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Vision Care for Adults <ul><li>Generally, healthy adults should have an eye health exam every 1 to 2 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Seniors should have an annual eye health exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Some patients with certain conditions may require more frequent exams. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Vision Conditions and Diseases
  53. 53. Types of Refractive Errors <ul><li>Myopia (near-sightedness) </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperopia (far-sightedness) </li></ul><ul><li>Astigmatism (oval or football shaped eye) </li></ul><ul><li>Presbyopia (“arms aren’t long enough to make the newspaper clear”) </li></ul>
  54. 54. Glaucoma <ul><li>A group of diseases characterized by gradual loss of peripheral vision due to damage of the optic nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of eye pressures, peripheral vision and careful examination of the optic nerves are essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments include eye drops or surgery. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Cataract <ul><li>The lens inside the eye gets cloudy with age. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is surgical removal of the cataract and replacement with an artificial lens. </li></ul><ul><li>Cataract surgery is very safe and has excellent outcomes. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) <ul><li>The leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. </li></ul><ul><li>The macula (central retina) becomes damaged and causes distorted central vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition, early detection and monitoring are important. </li></ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry (early) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet (advanced) </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Diabetes & the Eye <ul><li>Diabetes can cause a number of eye problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluctuating vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glaucoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetic Retinopathy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People with diabetes require yearly eye exams, including a dilated retinal examination. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Systemic Diseases & the Eye <ul><li>AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>High Blood Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Herpes Simplex </li></ul><ul><li>(Cold Sores) </li></ul><ul><li>Herpes Zoster (Shingles) </li></ul><ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul> <ul><li>Thyroid Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid Arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>Ankylosing Spondylitis </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Toxicity </li></ul>
  59. 59. Headaches <ul><li>Headaches can indicate an eye problem </li></ul><ul><li>Many headaches around the eye can be due to other facial structures (e.g. Jaw, Sinuses, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ocular Migraines </li></ul><ul><li>Tension Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Idiopathic Headaches </li></ul>
  60. 60. Floaters <ul><li>Opacities in the vitreous (jelly material) of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Very common and are usually not a concern. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if a sudden increase occurs with flashes of light or loss of vision, then urgent examination is required as these can be symptoms of a retinal detachment. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) <ul><li>Inflammation of the thin outer layer of the eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always see an optometrist or ophthalmologist for diagnosis and proper treatment. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Dry Eyes <ul><li>Tears have three layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous, water, and oil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A problem with any one of these can cause dry eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tear production decreases with age. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments include various types of artificial tears and lubricants and punctal plugs. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Vision Correction Options
  64. 64. Contact Lenses <ul><li>Proper fitting, assessment and follow up care are essential for safe, successful contact lens wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Lenses are now available to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism and presbyopia (multifocals). </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different choices of replacement schedules and materials to match different lifestyles. </li></ul><ul><li>Good cleaning habits and maintaining a proper wearing schedule are important to prevent complications. </li></ul> Beware of “over-the-counter” cosmetic contact lenses
  65. 65. Presbyopia Correction Options <ul><li>Separate distance and reading glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Separate glasses for computer and reading </li></ul><ul><li>Bifocal </li></ul><ul><li>Trifocal </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Bifocal/multifocal contact lenses </li></ul>
  66. 66. Laser Eye Surgery <ul><li>RK </li></ul><ul><li>PRK </li></ul><ul><li>LASIK </li></ul><ul><li>The surgeon’s reputation and experience are important. </li></ul><ul><li>As with any type of surgery, risks are present but the success rate has been good. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Harmful Effects of UV <ul><li>UV light exposure may contribute to the development of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pingueculae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pterygium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macular Degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Sunglasses <ul><li>To block UV light, sunglasses should be worn by everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Different prices reflect the quality of the frame, the lens material, optical quality of the lens, and brand name. </li></ul><ul><li>Different tints and polarization options are available. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Eye Protection <ul><li>Remember to protect your eyes at work, in the yard, at the rink and on the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear CSA approved eye protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Many options are now available for prescription safety eyewear. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Conclusion <ul><li>Regular eye exams are an important part of your overall health care regimen. </li></ul><ul><li>Optometrists are your primary eye care providers. </li></ul>
  71. 71. YOUR EYES deserve AN OPTOMETRIST ! From Birth to Your Golden Years