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==== ====For Great Music Tips Check this Out ====Music PortalMusic is a form...
See also: Music genreThe broadest definition of music is organized sound. There are observable patterns to what isbroadly ...
circles. This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influenceof western Europe, as w...
"sound" and "silence."As mentioned above, not only do the aspects included as music vary, their importance varies. Forinst...
audience, who is deriving some aesthetic, social, religious, or ceremonial value from theperformance. Part of the motivati...
bass fingerboard. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, astringed, fretted instrument....
material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed, not preconceived.According to the analysis o...
churches, with the audience sitting quietly in seats.On the other hand, other types of music such as jazz, blues, soul, an...
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The Complete Definition of the Music


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The Complete Definition of the Music

  1. 1. ==== ====For Great Music Tips Check this Out ====Music PortalMusic is a form of art that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. It is normallyexpressed in terms of pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which includes tempoand meter), and the quality of sound (which includes timbre, articulation, dynamics, and texture).Music may also involve complex generative forms in time through the construction of patterns andcombinations of natural stimuli, principally sound. Music may be used for artistic or aesthetic,communicative, entertainment, or ceremonial purposes. The definition of what constitutes musicvaries according to culture and social context.If painting can be viewed as a visual art form, music can be viewed as an auditory art form.Allegory of Music, by Filippino LippiAllegory of Music, by Lorenzo LippiContents1 Definition2 History3 Aspects4 Production 4.1 Performance4.2 Solo and ensemble4.3 Oral tradition and notation4.4 Improvisation, interpretation, composition4.5 Composition//[edit] Definition as seen by []Main article: Definition of music
  2. 2. See also: Music genreThe broadest definition of music is organized sound. There are observable patterns to what isbroadly labeled music, and while there are understandable cultural variations, the properties ofmusic are the properties of sound as perceived and processed by humans and animals (birds andinsects also make music).Music is formulated or organized sound. Although it cannot contain emotions, it is sometimesdesigned to manipulate and transform the emotion of the listener/listeners. Music created formovies is a good example of its use to manipulate emotions.Greek philosophers and medieval theorists defined music as tones ordered horizontally asmelodies, and vertically as harmonies. Music theory, within this realm, is studied with the pre-supposition that music is orderly and often pleasant to hear. However, in the 20th century,composers challenged the notion that music had to be pleasant by creating music that exploredharsher, darker timbres. The existence of some modern-day genres such as grindcore and noisemusic, which enjoy an extensive underground following, indicate that even the crudest noises canbe considered music if the listener is so inclined.20th century composer John Cage disagreed with the notion that music must consist of pleasant,discernible melodies, and he challenged the notion that it can communicate anything. Instead, heargued that any sounds we can hear can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, onlysound,"[3]. According to musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990 p.47-8,55): "The borderbetween music and noise is always culturally defined--which implies that, even within a singlesociety, this border does not always pass through the same place; in short, there is rarely aconsensus.... By all accounts there is no single and intercultural universal concept defining whatmusic might be."Johann Wolfgang Goethe believed that patterns and forms were the basis of music; he stated that"architecture is frozen music."[edit] History as seen by []Main article: History of musicSee also: Music and politicsFigurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran NationalMuseum.The history of music predates the written word and is tied to the development of each uniquehuman culture. Although the earliest records of musical expression are to be found in the SamaVeda of India and in 4,000 year old cuneiform from Ur, most of our written records and studiesdeal with the history of music in Western civilization. This includes musical periods such asmedieval, renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic, and 20th century era music. The history ofmusic in other cultures has also been documented to some degree, and the knowledge of "worldmusic" (or the field of "ethnomusicology") has become more and more sought after in academic
  3. 3. circles. This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influenceof western Europe, as well as the folk or indigenous music of various other cultures. (The termworld music has been applied to a wide range of music made outside of Europe and Europeaninfluence, although its initial application, in the context of the World Music Program at WesleyanUniversity, was as a term including all possible music genres, including European traditions. Inacademic circles, the original term for the study of world music, "comparative musicology", wasreplaced in the middle of the twentieth century by "ethnomusicology", which is still considered anunsatisfactory coinage by some.)Popular styles of music varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period. Differentcultures emphasised different instruments, or techniques, or uses for music. Music has been usednot only for entertainment, for ceremonies, and for practical & artistic communication, but alsoextensively for propaganda.As world cultures have come into greater contact, their indigenous musical styles have oftenmerged into new styles. For example, the United States bluegrass style contains elements fromAnglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and some African-American instrumental and vocal traditions,which were able to fuse in the US multi-ethnic "melting pot" society.There is a host of music classifications, many of which are caught up in the argument over thedefinition of music. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or "art"music), and popular music (or commercial music - including rock and roll, country music, and popmusic). Some genres dont fit neatly into one of these "big two" classifications, (such as folk music,world music, or jazz music).Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music.While most classical music is acoustic and meant to be performed by individuals or groups, manyworks described as "classical" include samples or tape, or are mechanical. Some works, likeGershwins Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music. Many current musicfestivals celebrate a particular musical genre.There is often disagreement over what constitutes "real" music: late-period Beethoven stringquartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop-era Jazz, rap, punk rock, and electronica haveall been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced.[edit] Aspects as seen by []Main article: Aspects of musicThe traditional or classical European aspects of music often listed are those elements givenprimacy in European-influenced classical music: melody, harmony, rhythm, tone color or timbre,and form. A more comprehensive list is given by stating the aspects of sound: pitch, timbre,loudness, and duration.[1] These aspects combine to create secondary aspects includingstructure, texture and style. Other commonly included aspects include the spatial location or themovement in space of sounds, gesture, and dance. Silence has long been considered an aspectof music, ranging from the dramatic pauses in Romantic-era symphonies to the avant-garde use ofsilence as an artistic statement in 20th century works such as John Cages 433."John Cageconsiders duration the primary aspect of music because it is the only aspect common to both
  4. 4. "sound" and "silence."As mentioned above, not only do the aspects included as music vary, their importance varies. Forinstance, melody and harmony are often considered to be given more importance in classicalmusic at the expense of rhythm and timbre. It is often debated whether there are aspects of musicthat are universal. The debate often hinges on definitions. For instance, the fairly commonassertion that "tonality" is universal to all music requires an expansive definition of tonality.A pulse is sometimes taken as a universal, yet there exist solo vocal and instrumental genres withfree, improvisational rhythms with no regular pulse;[2] one example is the alap section of aHindustani music performance. According to Dane Harwood, "We must ask whether a cross-cultural musical universal is to be found in the music itself (either its structure or function) or theway in which music is made. By music-making, I intend not only actual performance but also howmusic is heard, understood, even learned." [3][edit] ProductionMain article: Music industryMusic is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religiousor ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Amateur musicianscompose and perform music for their own pleasure, and they do not attempt to derive their incomefrom music. Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organizations,including armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or filmproduction companies, and music schools. As well, professional musicians work as freelancers,seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings.Although amateur musicians differ from professional musicians in that amateur musicians have anon-musical source of income, there are often many links between amateur and professionalmusicians. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians. In communitysettings, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety ofensembles and orchestras. In some rare cases, amateur musicians attain a professional level ofcompetence, and they are able to perform in professional performance settings.A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and musicthat is performed for the purpose of being recorded and distributed through the music retail systemor the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance infront of an audience is recorded and distributed (or broadcast).[edit] PerformanceMain article: PerformanceChinese Naxi musiciansSomeone who performs, composes, or conducts music is a musician. Musicians perform music fora variety of reasons. Some artists express their feelings in music. Performing music is anenjoyable activity for amateur and professional musicians, and it is often done for the benefit of an
  5. 5. audience, who is deriving some aesthetic, social, religious, or ceremonial value from theperformance. Part of the motivation for professional performers is that they derive their incomefrom making music. Not only is it an income derived motivation, music has become a part of life aswell as society. Allowing one to be motivated through self intrinsic motivations as well, as a sayinggoes "for the love of music." As well, music is performed in the context of practicing, as a way ofdeveloping musical skills.[edit] Solo and ensembleMany cultures include strong traditions of solo or soloistic performance, such as in Indian classicalmusic, and in the Western Art music tradition. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strongtraditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance mayrange from improvised solo playing for ones enjoyment to highly planned and organizedperformance rituals such as the modern classical concert or religious processions.Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with no more than one of each type ofinstrument, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. A performer is called a musicianor singer, and they may be part of a musical ensemble such as a rock band or symphonyorchestra.[edit] Oral tradition and notationMain article: Musical notationMusical notationMusic is often preserved in memory and performance only, handed down orally, or aurally ("byear"). When the composer of music is no longer known, this music is often classified as"traditional". Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to makechanges to the original source material, from quite strict, to those which demand improvisation ormodification to the music. In the Gambia, West Africa, the history of the country is passed aurallythrough song.When music is written down, it is generally notated so that there are instructions regarding whatshould be heard by listeners, and what the musician should do to perform the music. This isreferred to as musical notation, and the study of how to read notation involves music theory,harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historicalperformance methods.Written notation varies with style and period of music. In Western Art music, the most commontypes of written notation are scores, which include all the music parts of an ensemble piece, andparts, which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz,and blues, the standard musical notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords,lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the music. Nonetheless, scores and parts are alsoused in popular music and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz "big bands."In popular music, guitarists and electric bass players often read music notated in tablature, whichindicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or
  6. 6. bass fingerboard. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute, astringed, fretted instrument.Generally music which is to be performed is produced as sheet music. To perform music fromnotation requires an understanding of both the musical style and the performance practice that isassociated with a piece of music or genre. The detail included explicitly in the music notationvaries between genres and historical periods. In general, art music notation from the 17th throughto the 19th century required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge aboutperforming styles.For example, in the 17th and 18th century, music notated for solo performers typically indicated asimple, unornamented melody. However, it was expected that performers would know how to addstylistically-appropriate ornaments such as trills and turns.In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may give a general instruction such as toperform the music expressively, without describing in detail how the performer should do this. Itwas expected that the performer would know how to use tempo changes, accentuation, andpauses (among other devices) to obtain this "expressive" performance style.In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit, and used a range of markingsand annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece. In popular musicand jazz, music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody,harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the performanceconventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces.For example, the "lead sheet" for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes.The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to "flesh out" this basic structureby adding ornaments, improvised music, and chordal accompaniment.[edit] Improvisation, interpretation, compositionMain articles: Musical composition, Musical improvisation, and Free improvisationMost cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving musical material, or composition,as held in western classical music. Even when music is notated precisely, there are still manydecisions that a performer has to make. The process of a performer deciding how to performmusic that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation.Different performers interpretations of the same music can vary widely. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the musicof others or folk music. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time anda given place is referred to as performance practice, where as interpretation is generally used tomean either individual choices of a performer, or an aspect of music which is not clear, andtherefore has a "standard" interpretation.In some musical genres, such as jazz and blues, even more freedom is given to the performer toengage in improvisation on a basic melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic framework. The greatestlatitude is given to the performer in a style of performing called free improvisation, which is
  7. 7. material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed, not preconceived.According to the analysis of Georgiana Costescu, improvised music usually follows stylistic orgenre conventions and even "fully composed" includes some freely chosen material (seeprecompositional). Composition does not always mean the use of notation, or the known soleauthorship of one individual.Music can also be determined by describing a "process" which may create musical sounds,examples of this range from wind chimes, through computer programs which select sounds. Musicwhich contains elements selected by chance is called Aleatoric music, and is often associated withJohn Cage and Witold Lutosławski.[edit] CompositionMusical composition is a term that describes the composition of a piece of music. Methods ofcomposition vary widely from one composer to another, however in analyzing music all forms --spontaneous, trained, or untrained -- are built from elements comprising a musical piece. Musiccan be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised; composed on the spot. Themusic can be performed entirely from memory, from a written system of musical notation, or somecombination of both. Study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination ofmethods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broadenough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and Africandrummers.What is important in understanding the composition of a piece is singling out its elements. Anunderstanding of musics formal elements can be helpful in deciphering exactly how a piece isconstructed. A universal element of music is how sounds occur in time, which is referred to as therhythm of a piece of music.When a piece appears to have a changing time-feel, it is considered to be in rubato time, an Italianexpression that indicates that the tempo of the piece changes to suit the expressive intent of theperformer. Even random placement of random sounds, which occurs in musical montage, occurswithin some kind of time, and thus employs time as a musical element.[edit] Reception and audition as seen by FaceYourArt.comMain article: Hearing (sense)Concert in the Mozarteum, SalzburgThe field of music cognition involves the study of many aspects of music including how it isprocessed by listeners.Music is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings ranging from being alone toattending a large concert. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures andsocioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what typesof music are viewed as a "high culture" and "low culture." "High culture" types of music typicallyinclude Western art music such as Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and modern-era symphonies,concertos, and solo works, and are typically heard in formal concerts in concert halls and
  8. 8. churches, with the audience sitting quietly in seats.On the other hand, other types of music such as jazz, blues, soul, and country are often performedin bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and expressthemselves by cheering. Until the later 20th century, the division between "high" and "low" musicalforms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced"art music" from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls.However, in the 1980s and 1990s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between "high"and "low" musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality ofthe different types of music. Rather, they argued that this distinction was based largely on thesocioeconomic standing or social class of the performers or audience of the different types ofmusic.For example, whereas the audience for Classical symphony concerts typically have above-average incomes, the audience for a hip-hop concert in an inner-city area may have below-average incomes. Even though the performers, audience, or venue where non-"art" music isperformed may have a lower socioeconomic status, the music that is performed, such as blues,hip-hop, punk, funk, or ska may be very complex and sophisticated.Deaf people can experience music by feeling the vibrations in their body, a process which can beenhanced if the individual holds a resonant, hollow object. A well-known deaf musician is thecomposer Ludwig van Beethoven, who composed many famous works even after he hadcompletely lost his hearing. Recent examples of deaf musicians include Evelyn Glennie, a highlyacclaimed percussionist who has been deaf since the age of twelve, and Chris Buck, a virtuosoviolinist who has lost his hearing.Further information: psychoacousticsArticle Source: ====For Great Music Tips Check this Out
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