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  1. 1. Death Rituals in Ancient Egypt: A Pathfinder Anubis, Egyptian God of Death, prepares mummification Introduction Scope &Schema Subject Headings Encyclopedias Dictionaries Journal Databases Abstracts & Indexes Media & Images IntroductionAncient Egyptians believed in providing their dead with a well-functioning body in theafterlife. Because the Egyptians valued life after death, they had important rituals toprotect their bodies. They believed that their soul was called Ka and Ka was released from
  2. 2. the body at the time of death. In order for Ka to rest and stay in the body at night, the bodyhad to be preserved or mummified. The mummies of dead Egyptians were placed inanthropoid (man-shaped) coffins, which were decorated with a likeness of the deceased. Thecoffins were then placed in a protective stone sarcophagus. The viscera (internal organs) ofthe body were placed in canonic jars. Rituals included the ceremonies of the priests,sacrifices and magic incantations and spells. These rituals were believed to be essential toboth the living and the dead. Once the soul was in the afterlife it was believed that Anubis,Egyptian God of Death, was responsible for directing Ka either to Osiris, or Ammit. Thesouls who were found to be pure were led to Osiris, which equaled a pleasant eternalafterlife. The souls who were not pure were led to Ammit, an eternal hell. Sarcophagus Canopic JarsMummy Scope and SchemaThis pathfinder is meant for USF college students to begin their search for information onthe death rituals of ancient Egyptians. There is an extensive amount of research on thetopic, ranging from embalming and mummification, to why the Egyptians found preparationfor the afterlife important. The below information is a gateway to retrieving further researchand can be found at the University of South Florida Main Library.
  3. 3. The best way to start your search is to browse WorldCat’s catalog for the following callnumbers. The subject headings and keywords below can be used to search the index sectionof the books below. Further browsing can be found in the journal database section. Reference Collection Circulating Collection DT58 .E53 1999 DT62.M7 D8513 2006 DT58 .W55 2005 DT62.M7 G47 1997 DT58 .S55 1995 DT56.9 .D39 1994 DT58 .B96 1991 DT62.T6 R53 2005 DT58 .O94 2001 v.1 –v.3 DT62.T6 S64 1982 Subject HeadingsSubject headings are vocabulary words used to classify materials (AKA: descriptors).You can use subject headings to improve the accuracy and efficiency of your searching. Burial customs—Ancient Egypt Death—Ancient Egypt Death rituals—Egypt Funeral arts—history--Egypt Funeral customs—history--Egypt Funeral rites and ceremonies--Egypt Mortuary rituals--Egypt Mummification--Egypt Sarcophagus—history--Egypt Helpful keywords: Afterlife Anubis-God of the dead Book of the dead Judgment of the dead
  4. 4. Osiris-God of the afterlife EncyclopediasBard, K. A., & Shubert, S. B. (1999). Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt. London; New York: Routledge.Reference 1st floor [DT58 .E53 1999]Bunson, M. (1991). The encyclopedia of ancient Egypt. New York: Facts on File Publications.Reference 1st floor [DT58 .B96 1991]Redford, D. B. (2001). The oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Reference 1st floor [DT58 .O94 2001 v.1 –v.3] DictionariesDavid, A. R., & David, A. E. (1992). A biographical dictionary of ancient Egypt.Online: NetLibrary [DT76]Nicholson, P. T., & Shaw, I. (1995). The dictionary of ancient Egypt. New York: Harry N.Abrams.Reference annex [DT58 .S55 1995]Wilkinson, T. A. H. (2005). The Thames & Hudson dictionary of ancient Egypt. London: Thames& Hudson.Reference 1st floor [DT58 .W55 2005 ]
  5. 5. Journal DatabasesAccessed through USF’s library website by database titles below:*Use subject headings & keywords for best search results Academic Search Premier EBSCO Host First Search: Anthropology Plus Wilson Web: Humanities Full Text JSTOR: Anthropology, Archeology, History, & Religion Abstracts and IndexesAcademic Search PremierBaines, J., & Lacovara, P. (2002). Burial and the dead in ancient Egyptian society: Respect,formalism, neglect. Journal of Social Archaeology, 2(1), 5-36. o Death was as socially important as the realm of the living. Preservation of the body was essential for conventional conceptions of an afterlife - often envisaged to take place away from the tomb. Vast amounts were invested in royal and elite monuments and embalming practices.Living death. (2010). London Review of Books, 32(1), 10-12. o The article presents an analysis of what death might have been in faraway places. Egyptologist Jan Assmann, at the beginning of his 2005 book "Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt," suggested that death is the origin and the centre of culture, and when it comes to the importance of death, Egypt is an extreme example.EBSCO HostBarth, A. (2009). Sliced mummy. Discover, 30(4), 16-16.
  6. 6. o This article includes an abridged version of ancient Egyptian images and information on death, rituals and recitations.Galvin, J. (2005). Abydos: Life and death at the dawn of Egyptian civilization. National Geographic, 207(4), 106-121. o Discusses the burial ceremonies in the early Egyptian empire, which may have included human sacrifice. The excavations were at Abydos, where Egyptian kings were buried. The evidence leads to human sacrifice.Meskell, L. (1999). Archeologies of life and death. American Journal of Archaeology, 103 (2), 181. o Presents a study on the mortuary and ritual practices in Egypt.The mummys curse! (2004). Skeptic, 10(4), 102-104. o Presents rumors on the sense of ancient ritual and mystery surrounding the tomb of Tutankhamen. Issue on the supernatural forces protecting the tomb; Origin of the legend of the curse; Relation of the death of the canary, which Howard Carter brought in exploring the tomb, with the curse.Riggs, C. (2002). Facing the dead: Recent research on the funerary art of Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt. American Journal of Archaeology, 106(1), 85. o Examines research on funeral practices in ancient Egypt as of January 2002. Facts on exhibitions of Egyptian funeral practices; Discussion on mummy portraits; Information on the chronology of the funeral practicesHW Wilson WebLesko, L. H. (2007). Death and salvation in ancient Egypt. The American Historical Review, 112(3), 962. o This article includes an abridged version of ancient Egyptian information on death, rituals and recitations. HandbooksDavid, A. R. (1998). Handbook to life in ancient Egypt. New York: Facts on File.Circulating Collection [DT83 .D23 1998]
  7. 7. Fleming, S. J. (1980). The Egyptian mummy: Secrets and science. University Museumhandbook, 1. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.Circulating Collection [DT62.M7 E35 1980] Media& ImagesBrier, B. and Teaching Company. (Directors). (1999). The history of ancient Egypt.[Video/DVD] Chantilly, VA: Teaching Co.Media Resources/DVD [DT83.A2 B75 1999 pt.1-4]Discovery Communications, I., Learning Channel, & Summer Productions. (1997). AncientEgypt. [Videorecording]. Bethesda, MD: Discovery Communications.Media Resources/ Videocassette [DT61 .A54 1997 ]Morgan, J., Gwyn, J., Davies, W. V., Friedman, R. F., Madoc, P., Mole, B., Haddock, K., ... Discovery Communications, Inc. (2009). Ancient Egypt unearthed. Discovery classics collection. United States: Discovery Communications Inc.Media Resources/DVD: Request available through interlibrary loanWaterston, S., Gardner, R., & Time Life Video & Television. (1995). Egypt: Quest for immortality. {Video recording}Time Lifes Lost civilizations, [1]. Alexandria, VA: Time- Life Video & Television.Media Resources/Videocassette [CB311 .L67 1995 v.1 ]
  8. 8. Rituals Found in the Book of the Dead
  9. 9. Egyptian Religion Osiris