What if? • form construction •the 情意認知 •Ritual •form and spaceWhat wow? techniques 功能操作 characteristics of form , meaning, and culture. 社會文化What work?» 問題解決： ˃ TRIZ Theory of Inventive Problem Solving» 語意象徵： ˃ 六書造形方法18種應用要領 ˃ STM法（Synaptic Trigger Mechanisms）» 行為情境： ˃ AFFORDANCE ˃ 無意識設計
J.J. Gibsons Concept of Affordances –Linking Perception and Action » "The affordances of the environment are what it offers the animal, what it provides or furnishes, either for good or ill. The verb to affo rd is found in the dictionary, but the noun affordance is not. I have made it up. I mean by it something that refers both to the environ ment and the animal in a way that no existing term does. It implies the complimentarity of the animal and the environment." ([Gib79], p. 127) » "... If you know what can be done with a graspable object, what it c an be used for, you can call it whatever you please. ... The theory of affordances rescues us from the philosophical muddle of assuming fixed classes of objects, each defined by its common features and t hen given a name. ... But this does not mean you cannot learn how to use things and perceive their uses. You do not have to classify an d label things in order to perceive what they afford." ([Gib79], p. 13 4)
Researching user culture Gaver, Dunne and PacentiCultural Probes 文化探針
Common dilemma: How to understand context»Designers have the need to understand ”local cultures”, so that the product will not be inadequate orirrellevant»But you don’t want the users to limit the design»The users can only suggest solutions they know =no innovation
Purpose of probes»To provoke inspirational answers from the users»Aiming for experimental designbased on dialogue»Like surgical or astronomical probes
methode»Create objects (the probes) which provoke answers»Allow the users to use their senses – use images,sounds etc.»NOT A QUESTIONAIRE!!!»Questions range from straight forward to poetic
Ideas for collection objects»Disposable cameraes (or images from the mobilephones) followed by a shotlist ˃ What you will wear today ˃ The first person you see today ˃ Something desirable ˃ Something boring ˃ Difficult situations»Map to fill in routes»Diaries»Postcards
Not an ordinary investigation»No need for precise analysis or thoroughly controlled methodologies»Purpose is to discover new cultural forms»Result: Inspiration NOT information»An impressionistic presentation of the users preferences and cultural consideration
User centered design inspiration»The point is for the designer to get an idea on what the users can feel and experience in relation to a product»(But is also very effective as a way of explaining the design to your customer)
The probes»When returned should not be analysed»Looked and read through to get inspiration»For getting ideas for design
Critique of the method»It is used to gather information
More arguments against»” Designing for pleasure demands a different approach from designing for utility.”»The problem is there has been a strong tendency to rationalize the Probes.
Who interpretsThe Probes simultaneously make the strangefamiliar and the familiar strange p. 6
BEYOND THIS, HOWEVER, THE PROBES EMBODIED AN APPROACH TO DESIGN THAT RECOGNIZES AND EMBRACES THE NOTION THAT KNOWLEDGE HAS LIMITS.IT’S AN APPROACH THAT VALUES UNCERTAINTY, PLAY, EXPLORATION, AND SUBJECTIVE INTERPRETATION AS WAYS OF DEALING WITH THOSE LIMITS.
An example»A probe on the outdoors Link»The result Link»The design Link
Your turn:»MMD is looking for an interiour design for the school»First assignment ˃ Each one of you find 5 images online, which illustrates a nice environ ment. ˃ Then take you mobile phone and photograph places which are ugly, u ncosy right now at the school. At least 3 ˃ Also use the mobile phone to photograph 3 situations, where peoples seem to be having a good time at the school ˃ Write 6 single words about a good environment ˃ Which movie environment would you like to walk around in, and why?
Your turn/2»Second assignment ˃ You get the material from one of the other students. ˃ You look through the material ˃ Create a photoshop collage that illustrates the inspiration/conclusio n – you got from the answers ˃ Remember that YOU decide ˃ Show us a good idea for a class room design