Presenter:  Jenny Chen  陳瑩珍 Instructor:  Dr. Hsiao-Tung Hsu December 26, 2008
<ul><li>Holak, S. L., & Havlena, W. J. (1998). Feelings, fantasies, and memories: An examination of the emotional componen...
<ul><li>I.  Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>II. Purposes of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>III. Method </li></ul><ul><li>IV. R...
<ul><li>“ a positively valenced complex feeling, emotion, or mood produced by reflection on things (objects,  persons , ex...
<ul><li>Direct – involves memories of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect – fantasies about a remote time or  place </li><...
<ul><li>Consumers are encouraged by marketers to experience nostalgic feelings through the use of nostalgic themes and ima...
<ul><li>Dimensional Approach </li></ul><ul><li>- measures underlying  dimensions  in an emotional space (pleasure-arousal-...
<ul><li>Break down the complex affective reactions derived from nostalgic experience into more basic components of emotion...
<ul><li>62 respondents provided written accounts, describing up to three nostalgic experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>164 desc...
164 nostalgic experiences 4 judges 18-item PAD index 4 judges 40-item index based on the standardized emotional profile (S...
Mean of each scale item was examined to assess the relative strength of the discrete emotions. The ratings on each scale i...
The ratings of each set of four judges were then aggregated by averaging the ratings on each item to increase the reliabil...
The dimensionality of each set of emotion ratings was assessed using exploratory principal components analysis with varima...
<ul><li>1.  The positive emotions of warmth, joy, gratitude, affection, and innocence tend to associate in nostalgic exper...
<ul><li>2.  A connection between sadness and desire was observed .  </li></ul>
<ul><li>3.  Pleasure exhibits a strong positive relationship with nostalgic intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>4.  Dominance dis...
<ul><li>5.  The presence of a number of varied emotions in the more intense nostalgic experiences. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Portray the product as a means of recapturing enough of the past to avoid an overwhelming feeling of loss. </li></...
<ul><li>Products and messages appealing to needs involving belongingness or affiliation may be particularly appropriate su...
<ul><li>Interesting method – rating the descriptions by the judges </li></ul><ul><li>Bias? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of the d...
<ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul>
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Research Method - Oral Presentation I I (Quantitative Research)

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Research Method - Oral Presentation I I (Quantitative Research)

  1. 1. Presenter: Jenny Chen 陳瑩珍 Instructor: Dr. Hsiao-Tung Hsu December 26, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Holak, S. L., & Havlena, W. J. (1998). Feelings, fantasies, and memories: An examination of the emotional components of nostalgia. Journal of Business Research, 42 (3), 217-226. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>II. Purposes of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>III. Method </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Results and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>V. Reflection </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ a positively valenced complex feeling, emotion, or mood produced by reflection on things (objects, persons , experiences, ideas) associated with the past.” </li></ul><ul><li> (Holak and Havlena, 1998, p.218) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Direct – involves memories of the past </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect – fantasies about a remote time or place </li></ul><ul><li>A feeling or mood that may result in preferences for things that tend to produce nostalgic responses. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Consumers are encouraged by marketers to experience nostalgic feelings through the use of nostalgic themes and images in advertising, the marketing of nostalgic products, and the utilization of consumer products to capture or create nostalgia through fantasies or memories. </li></ul><ul><li> (Havlena and Holak, 1991) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dimensional Approach </li></ul><ul><li>- measures underlying dimensions in an emotional space (pleasure-arousal-dominance, PAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical Approach </li></ul><ul><li>- examines the range of emotional experience in terms of a limited number of discrete emotions </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Break down the complex affective reactions derived from nostalgic experience into more basic components of emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden the general understanding of the nature and role of affect in consumer behavior and provide insights into the specific character of nostalgia that may be applied to the analysis and development of advertising and products. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>62 respondents provided written accounts, describing up to three nostalgic experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>164 descriptions of nostalgia experiences were collected from a diverse group of students and nonstudents. </li></ul><ul><li>Each respondent also completed the form of Holbrook Nostalgia Index – measures emotion based on PAD. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 164 nostalgic experiences 4 judges 18-item PAD index 4 judges 40-item index based on the standardized emotional profile (SEP)
  11. 11. Mean of each scale item was examined to assess the relative strength of the discrete emotions. The ratings on each scale item were standardized to reduce systematic response biases in coding toward one position on the scales.
  12. 12. The ratings of each set of four judges were then aggregated by averaging the ratings on each item to increase the reliability of the content analysis ratings and reducing the impact of random error. The reliability of each index was assessed by examining coefficient alpha.
  13. 13. The dimensionality of each set of emotion ratings was assessed using exploratory principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the relative importance of the emotions to the strength of nostalgia and identify the emotions or dimensions that appear particularly related to nostalgia.
  14. 14. <ul><li>1. The positive emotions of warmth, joy, gratitude, affection, and innocence tend to associate in nostalgic experience. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>2. A connection between sadness and desire was observed . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>3. Pleasure exhibits a strong positive relationship with nostalgic intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Dominance displays a negative association with nostalgia. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>5. The presence of a number of varied emotions in the more intense nostalgic experiences. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Portray the product as a means of recapturing enough of the past to avoid an overwhelming feeling of loss. </li></ul><ul><li>a. if the consumption of the product can actually allow him or her to recapture much of the original feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>b. if the original experience is remembered as moderately pleasant. </li></ul><ul><li>c. if the original reference is less directly connected to the individual. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Products and messages appealing to needs involving belongingness or affiliation may be particularly appropriate subjects for nostalgia. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Interesting method – rating the descriptions by the judges </li></ul><ul><li>Bias? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of the detailed information of the 62 respondents and the judges </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Thanks for your attention! </li></ul>

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