Sem 1 Ch 5


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sem 1 Ch 5

  1. 1. CCNA 1 v3.0 Module 5 Cabling LANs and WANs .
  2. 2. Objectives
  3. 3. LAN and Physical Layer
  4. 4. LAN and Physical Layer
  5. 5. Ethernet Media and Connector Requirements
  6. 6. Connection Media
  7. 7. UTP Implementation 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Male component
  8. 8. UTP Implementation Female component JACK
  9. 9. UTP Implementation Back view of Jack
  10. 10. UTP Implementation
  11. 11. UTP Implementation
  12. 12. UTP Implementation
  13. 13. DEVICE CONNECTIONS THROUGH UTP <ul><li>Straight-through cable for: </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to Router </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to PC/Server </li></ul><ul><li>Hub to PC/Server </li></ul><ul><li>Crossover Cable for: </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to switch </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to Hub </li></ul><ul><li>Hub to Hub </li></ul><ul><li>Router to Router </li></ul><ul><li>PC to PC </li></ul><ul><li>Router to PC </li></ul>
  14. 14. Repeaters
  15. 15. 5-4-3 RULE <ul><li>Between any two nodes on the network, there can only be a maximum of five segments, connected through four repeaters/Concentrators, and only three of the five segments may contain user connections. </li></ul><ul><li>REASON </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet protocol requires that any signal sent over the LAN must reach every part of LAN within a specified time. Rule ensures this condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeater takes some time to process. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much latency increases late collisions making LAN less efficient. </li></ul>
  16. 16. HUBS <ul><li>Passive – A passive hub serves as a physical connection point only. It does not boost or clean the signal and does not need electrical power. </li></ul><ul><li>Active – An active hub needs power to repeat the signal before passing it out the other ports. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent – Intelligent or smart hubs are active hubs with a microprocessor chip and diagnostic capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a Concentrator or Multiport Repeater . </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Devices attached to a hub receive all traffic traveling through the hub. </li></ul><ul><li>The more devices there are attached to the hub, the more likely there will be collisions . </li></ul><ul><li>A collision occurs when two or more workstations send data over the network wire at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>All data is corrupted when that occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Every device connected to the same network segment is said to be a member of a collision domain . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bridges
  19. 19. <ul><li>There are times when it is necessary to break up a large LAN into smaller, more easily managed segments. </li></ul><ul><li>This decreases the amount of traffic on a single LAN and can extend the geographical area past what a single LAN can support. </li></ul><ul><li>The devices that are used to connect network segments together include bridges, switches, routers , and gateways . </li></ul><ul><li>Switches and bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the OSI model. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of the bridge or switch is to make intelligent decisions about whether or not to pass signals on to the next segment of a network. </li></ul><ul><li>They makes these decisions based upon the layer 2 physical address (MAC). </li></ul><ul><li>A switch therefore has two main functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>switch data frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build and maintain tables </li></ul></ul>If placed strategically, a bridge can greatly improve network performance.
  20. 20. <ul><li>If the destination device is on a different segment , the bridge forwards the frame to the appropriate segment. </li></ul><ul><li>If the destination address is unknown to the bridge, the bridge forwards the frame to all segments except the one on which it was received. This process is known as flooding . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Switches
  22. 22. Switches
  23. 23. A switch has many ports with many network segments connected to them. A switch chooses the port to which the destination device or workstation is connected. <ul><li>Ethernet switches are becoming popular connectivity solutions replacing hubs... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces network congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizes bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces collision domain size </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Host Connectivity
  25. 25. Host Connectivity
  26. 26. Peer-to-Peer
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Two computers typically communicate with each other by using request/response protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The requestor takes on the role of a client, and the responder takes on the role of a server. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a peer-to-peer network, networked computers act as equal partners, or peers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As peers, each computer can take on the client function or the server function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended maximum number of peer-to-peer hosts is 10 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each computer control its own resources </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Peer-to-Peer
  29. 29. <ul><li>Peer-to-peer networks are relatively easy to install and operate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No additional equipment is necessary beyond a suitable operating system installed on each computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since users control their own resources, no dedicated administrators are needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As networks grow, peer-to-peer relationships become increasingly difficult to coordinate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A peer-to-peer network works well with 10 or fewer computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their efficiency decreases rapidly as the number of computers on the network increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, individual users control access to the resources on their computers, which means security may be difficult to maintain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The client/server model of networking can be used to overcome the limitations of the peer-to-peer network. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Client/Server
  31. 31. Client/Server <ul><li>In a client/server arrangement, network services are located on a dedicated server . </li></ul><ul><li>The server is a central computer that is continuously available to respond to requests from clients for file , print , application , and other services. </li></ul><ul><li>Most network operating systems adopt the form of a client/server relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, desktop computers are the clients and one or more computers with additional processing power , memory , and specialized software function as servers . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Client/Server <ul><li>easy to create </li></ul><ul><li>no centralized equipment required </li></ul><ul><li>centralized administrator not required </li></ul><ul><li>centralized security </li></ul><ul><li>centralized backups </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced network services </li></ul>
  33. 33. Client/Server
  34. 34. WAN Physical Layer
  35. 35. WAN Serial Connections
  36. 36. WAN Serial Connections
  37. 37. Routers and Serial Connections
  38. 38. Routers and Serial Connections
  39. 41. Routers and DSL Connections
  40. 42. Summary