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Sem 1 Ch 11


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Sem 1 Ch 11

  1. 1. CCNA 1 v3.0 Module 11 TCP/IP Transport and Application Layers .
  2. 2. Introduction to Transport Layer <ul><li>Five basic services : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmenting upper-layer application data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing end-to-end operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transporting segments from one end host to another end host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring data reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing flow control </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Reliability
  4. 4. Flow Control <ul><li>Avoids the problem of a host at one side of the connection overflowing the buffers in the host at the other side </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures the integrity of the data </li></ul>
  5. 5. Session Establishment <ul><li>One function of the transport layer is to establish a connection-oriented session between similar devices at the application layer. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Session Maintenance and Termination <ul><li>Congestion can occur during data transfer </li></ul><ul><li>1- A high speed computer might generate traffic faster than a network can transfer </li></ul><ul><li>2- If many computers simultaneously send datagrams to single destination, that destination can experience congestion, although no single source caused a problem </li></ul><ul><li>To terminate, the sending host sends a signal that indicates the end of the transmission, which is acknowledged by the receiver. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Three-Way Handshake
  8. 8. Windowing <ul><li>A method of controlling the amount of information transferred end to end </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be measured in terms of the number of packets or the number of bytes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Window Size <ul><li>TCP window sizes are variable during the lifetime of a connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger window sizes increase communication efficiency. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Acknowledgment <ul><li>Positive acknowledgment requires a recipient to communicate with the source, sending back an acknowledgment message when it receives data . </li></ul><ul><li>Sender keeps a record of each data packet that it sends and expects an acknowledgment . </li></ul>
  11. 11. TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment
  12. 12. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>The protocols that use TCP include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP (File Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. TCP Segment Format
  14. 14. UDP <ul><li>The protocols that use UDP include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS (Domain Name System) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. UDP Segment Format
  16. 16. TCP and UDP Port Numbers <ul><li>Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass information to the upper layers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers below 1024 are considered well-known ports numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers above 1024 are dynamically assigned ports numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registered port numbers are those registered for vendor-specific applications. Most of these are above 1024. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. TCP and UDP Port Numbers
  18. 18. TCP/IP Application Layer
  19. 19. Introduction to Application Layer
  20. 20. Responsibilities of TCP/IP Application Layer <ul><li>Identifying and establishing the availability of intended communication partners </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronizing cooperating applications </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing agreement on procedures for error recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling data integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation, encoding and dialog control </li></ul>
  21. 21. Application Layer Examples <ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transport Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Network Management Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul>
  22. 22. DNS <ul><li>The Domain Name System (DNS) is a system used for translating names of domains into IP addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more than 200 top-level domains on the Internet, examples of which include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.us – United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.uk – United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.edu – educational sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.com – commercial sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.gov – government sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.org – non-profit sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.net – network service </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. FTP and TFTP <ul><li>FTP is a reliable, connection-oriented service that uses TCP to transfer files between systems that support FTP. </li></ul><ul><li>TFTP is a connectionless service that uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TFTP is used on routers to transfer configuration files and Cisco IOS images. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TFTP is designed to be small and easy to implement. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. HTTP
  25. 25. SMTP <ul><li>E - mail servers communicate with each other using the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) to send and receive mail. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Telnet <ul><li>Telnet client software provides the ability to log in to a remote Internet host that is running a Telnet server application and then to execute commands from the command line. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Telnet uses TCP thence is connection oriented.