Research investigation and exploration of
Guided By: Keyur Sorathia, Asst. Prof

Apurva Gupta
10020509

Mehul Agarwal
10020525
Scientific Discovery
Phase 1 – Literature Survey

Adventure
Phase 2 – Analysis, Identification of research
area & research...
Scientific
Discovery
(Literature Research)
TANGIBLE
Anything and everything which we can touch and feel
“A Tangible User Interface gives physical form to digital
information and computation, salvaging the bits from the bottom
...
The TUI timeline
past works in TUI

Tangible Bits by Ishii
TUI = Graspable Object +
Ambient Media

Emerging framework for
...
Classification Scheme
TUI Domain and context

Spatial, Relational or
Constructive

Prototype (Evaluation
and deployment)

Iconic or Symbolic and...
Project Classification
v
Adventure
(Critical Analysis)
Analysis
Chemicable

Tangible Rings

TUIs have been mostly used in field of
Entertainment, Play and Edutainment and Problem
Solving...
Chemicable

Dirty Tangible Interfaces

Urp (Iconic)

Iconic representation is increasing in projects and
whereas use of Sy...
Tangible Rings (Spatial)

Spatial properties are explored in many projects.
This can be also due to spatial advantage of T...
Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile)

Visual is more preferred medium for Output
whereas tactile is preferred more for feedbac...
Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile)

Tangible Rings (Visual)

Music Cubes (Audio)

UnitedPulse (Tactile)

Haptic Cues (Audio ...
Research Areas
Feedback modalities in TUI system
•
•

Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile)

Tangible Rings (Visual)

Haptic Cues (Audio + Tac...
Relation between no. of task and TUI handle (tool)
•
•
•

Tangible Tiles

Ninja Tracks

Urp
Impact and importance of gestures in Tangible Interfaces.

Slurp (Eyedropper Gesture)

Tangible Rings (Lens Gesture)

Musi...
GUI specific task (Copy-Paste or Undo) for Tangible Interfaces
•
•
•
How the TUI system differ for novice user or experienced user?

Can the same system perform easy to complex tasks or do we...
Feedback modalities in TUI system
•
•

Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile)

Tangible Rings (Visual)

Haptic Cues (Audio + Tac...
Feedback and Output Modalities
Visual is more preferred medium for Output
whereas tactile is preferred more for feedback.
Almost 25% of projects read did...
Statement From Research Papers
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Using Data obtained from analysis of projects
and Points from the theoretical papers
Effectiveness of materiality as feedback modality over
tactile, audio, etc.
PneUI

Inherent Feedback v/s Augmented Feedbac...
Examples of Material Feedback
v
Checking if the rice is cooked
Toothpaste
Fresh Fruit
Coconut
Piggy Bank
Batman’s Cape
Current Research in Material modality
InForm
Invisible Helmet
PneUI
PneUI
PneUI
Jamming User Interface (Transparent Haptic Lens)
Radical Atoms
Radical Atoms

“Radical Atoms” is vision of human interactions with the future dynamic physical materials that
are transfo...
Radical Atoms

Digital information has physical manifestation so that we can
interact with it.
Evil
(Experimentation)
Hypothesis and Experimentation
Environment
•
•

Contextual
deployment
Controlled lab

Users
•
•
•
•
•

Tasks
•
•

Tasks which justify change
in texture
T...
Material Properties
Color
Rigidity (If the object is stiff or soft)
Sound of object (wood and steel differ in sound)
Textu...
Aim of the Experiment:
1.
•
•
•

2.
•
3.

Investigation of (feedback) influence on overall performance on
Task completion ...
Ho: Feedback has no influence on overall performance with respect to task
completion. [1]
H1: Feedback represented through...
Feedback Serial task
•
•
•
•

Gain Energy

•

•
•
•

Burst Bubble

Rainbow zone
•
•
Hierarchal task navigation.

A

•

B

•
•
•

D

•
•
•
•
•

•
•

C

E

F

G
Timeline
January:
Development of Experiment
February:
Experimentation
March-April: Analysis and Paper Publication
Log on to:

medium.com/interaction-modalities
to watch the whole show
References
Research Exploration of Tangible User Interfaces
Research Exploration of Tangible User Interfaces
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Research Exploration of Tangible User Interfaces

  1. 1. Research investigation and exploration of
  2. 2. Guided By: Keyur Sorathia, Asst. Prof Apurva Gupta 10020509 Mehul Agarwal 10020525
  3. 3. Scientific Discovery Phase 1 – Literature Survey Adventure Phase 2 – Analysis, Identification of research area & research question Evil Phase 3 – Experimentation, Plan for next semester
  4. 4. Scientific Discovery (Literature Research)
  5. 5. TANGIBLE Anything and everything which we can touch and feel
  6. 6. “A Tangible User Interface gives physical form to digital information and computation, salvaging the bits from the bottom of the water, setting them afloat, and making them directly manipulable with human hands.” -by Hiroshi Ishii
  7. 7. The TUI timeline past works in TUI Tangible Bits by Ishii TUI = Graspable Object + Ambient Media Emerging framework for TUI by Ullmer, Ishii TAC Paradigm MCRpd. Object coupling wiith digital rep. and digital info. Improvise mapping Emphasis on person-product interaction in Interaction frogger Tokens, Containers, Tools by Holmquist Mapping physical object to digital information. Another improved definition by Koleva et al. Graspable Interfaces by Fritzmaurice 1994 96 Shaer et al. 98 2000 02 Themes of TUI by Eva H. et al. 04 06 Monograph by Eva Hornecker et al. 08 10 12 2014
  8. 8. Classification Scheme
  9. 9. TUI Domain and context Spatial, Relational or Constructive Prototype (Evaluation and deployment) Iconic or Symbolic and Metaphors Method of Coupling Input Input Sensing Technology Embodiment Axis Feedback Broader domain of which project is a part of and the specific context in which it is used. Microcontroller, Camera Vision and RFID are 3 major technologies used for TUI projects. Tangible Tools Tokens and Containers Static or Dynamic Binding Embodiment Axis is relation between input and output device. TUI System Direct-Manipulation, Behavioral Specifications or Communication Channels Device and Interaction Language used for providing Input Device, modality and type of feedback Output Device and modality used for providing output
  10. 10. Project Classification v
  11. 11. Adventure (Critical Analysis)
  12. 12. Analysis
  13. 13. Chemicable Tangible Rings TUIs have been mostly used in field of Entertainment, Play and Edutainment and Problem Solving and Planning Dirty Tangible Interfaces Tern Slingshot Music Mixing Interface LumiTouch Tangible Tiles
  14. 14. Chemicable Dirty Tangible Interfaces Urp (Iconic) Iconic representation is increasing in projects and whereas use of Symbolic representation is more or less constant. Ninja Tracks (Symbolic)
  15. 15. Tangible Rings (Spatial) Spatial properties are explored in many projects. This can be also due to spatial advantage of TUIs over GUI. But there are very few projects that use all the three (Spatial, Relational and Cognitive) capabilities of TUIs. Siftables (Relational) Tangible Triangles (Constructive)
  16. 16. Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile) Visual is more preferred medium for Output whereas tactile is preferred more for feedback. Almost 25% of projects read did not have any kind of feedback. Tangible Rings (Visual) Music Cubes (Audio) UnitedPulse (Tactile) Haptic Cues (Audio + Tactile) CurlyBot (Visual + Tactile) Music Mixing (Visual + Audio) Smell and taste were not chosen as feedback or output modality in any of the papers read.
  17. 17. Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile) Tangible Rings (Visual) Music Cubes (Audio) UnitedPulse (Tactile) Haptic Cues (Audio + Tactile) CurlyBot (Visual + Tactile) Music Mixing (Visual + Audio) Output- Visual followed by equal preference of auditory and tactile. Feedback- Tactile, Visual and then auditory. Combination of Visual + Auditory was preferred for Output while combination of Tactile + Auditory was preferred for feedback.
  18. 18. Research Areas
  19. 19. Feedback modalities in TUI system • • Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile) Tangible Rings (Visual) Haptic Cues (Audio + Tactile)
  20. 20. Relation between no. of task and TUI handle (tool) • • • Tangible Tiles Ninja Tracks Urp
  21. 21. Impact and importance of gestures in Tangible Interfaces. Slurp (Eyedropper Gesture) Tangible Rings (Lens Gesture) Music Cubes (Shake Gesture)
  22. 22. GUI specific task (Copy-Paste or Undo) for Tangible Interfaces
  23. 23. • • •
  24. 24. How the TUI system differ for novice user or experienced user? Can the same system perform easy to complex tasks or do we need to make modifications based on the level of experience of the user. Comparing TUI and GUI on following parameters: Computational, Work load, Task Complexity, Ergonomics, Entry threshold for the system, Contexts, Technological literacy of the user (as defined by innovation adoption curve) For above mentioned Is TUI better than GUI, or a hybrid solution makes a better option? Input and output of a system could be co-located and coincident or spaced differently in time and space. Study could be undertaken to understand how does concurrence of input/output space affects users perception, experience etc.
  25. 25. Feedback modalities in TUI system • • Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile) Tangible Rings (Visual) Haptic Cues (Audio + Tactile)
  26. 26. Feedback and Output Modalities
  27. 27. Visual is more preferred medium for Output whereas tactile is preferred more for feedback. Almost 25% of projects read did not have any kind of feedback. Smell and taste were not chosen as feedback or output modality in any of the papers read. Output- Visual followed by equal preference of auditory and tactile. Feedback- Tactile, Visual and then auditory. Combination of Visual + Auditory was preferred for Output while combination of Tactile + Auditory was preferred for feedback. Slurp (Audio + Visual + Tactile) Tangible Rings (Visual) Music Cubes (Audio) UnitedPulse (Tactile) Haptic Cues (Audio + Tactile) CurlyBot (Visual + Tactile) Music Mixing (Visual + Audio)
  28. 28. Statement From Research Papers • • • • • • • • •
  29. 29. Using Data obtained from analysis of projects and Points from the theoretical papers
  30. 30. Effectiveness of materiality as feedback modality over tactile, audio, etc. PneUI Inherent Feedback v/s Augmented FeedbackHow does user performance change? Slingshot Music Cubes Reactable Music Mixing (Advanced User) Importance of Feedback for first time user v/s experienced user?
  31. 31. Examples of Material Feedback v
  32. 32. Checking if the rice is cooked
  33. 33. Toothpaste
  34. 34. Fresh Fruit
  35. 35. Coconut
  36. 36. Piggy Bank
  37. 37. Batman’s Cape
  38. 38. Current Research in Material modality
  39. 39. InForm
  40. 40. Invisible Helmet
  41. 41. PneUI
  42. 42. PneUI
  43. 43. PneUI
  44. 44. Jamming User Interface (Transparent Haptic Lens)
  45. 45. Radical Atoms
  46. 46. Radical Atoms “Radical Atoms” is vision of human interactions with the future dynamic physical materials that are transformable, conformable and informable. Radical Atoms should fulfill the following three requirements: • Transform its shape to reflect underlying computational state and user input; • Conform to constraints imposed by the environment and user input; and • Inform users of its transformational capabilities (dynamic affordances).
  47. 47. Radical Atoms Digital information has physical manifestation so that we can interact with it.
  48. 48. Evil (Experimentation)
  49. 49. Hypothesis and Experimentation
  50. 50. Environment • • Contextual deployment Controlled lab Users • • • • • Tasks • • Tasks which justify change in texture Task which is symbolic Experimentation New users / conditioned users Illiterate-rural / Educatedurban Age group Gender Past experience Tests • • Parameters • • • • Time of task completion Time between 2 tasks Preference of the user Error rates in task execution • • Effectiveness of change in material properties as output modality over audio/visual output modality Time taken for user to understand the meaning of the output Effect of change in users (any point under the users mentioned above) Effect of change in environment (controlled / contextual)
  51. 51. Material Properties Color Rigidity (If the object is stiff or soft) Sound of object (wood and steel differ in sound) Texture Shape • Dimensional (changing length/breadth/height) • Organic (cube ---> amoeba-like shape) Smell of the object Weight State (Liquid/solid/gas) Temperature Colour Rigidity Sound of object Texture Dimensional Change Organic Change Smell of Object Weight State Change Temperature
  52. 52. Aim of the Experiment: 1. • • • 2. • 3. Investigation of (feedback) influence on overall performance on Task completion time Error Rates Satisfaction Understanding how well the user understands the task Task completion time User preference of feedback modalities Mode of the Experiment: 5 point Likert Scale
  53. 53. Ho: Feedback has no influence on overall performance with respect to task completion. [1] H1: Feedback represented through visual modality has better performance rates than feedback through physical manifestation . [2] H2: Feedback represented through visual feedback will have a higher user preference than physical manifestation. [2] 1. 2. Hausen, D., Wagner, C., Boring, S., & Butz, A. (2013, April). Comparing modalities and feedback for peripheral interaction. In CHI'13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1263-1268). ACM. Shimojo, S., & Shams, L. (2001). Sensory modalities are not separate modalities: plasticity and interactions. Current opinion in neurobiology, 11(4), 505-509.
  54. 54. Feedback Serial task • • • • Gain Energy • • • • Burst Bubble Rainbow zone • •
  55. 55. Hierarchal task navigation. A • B • • • D • • • • • • • C E F G
  56. 56. Timeline January: Development of Experiment February: Experimentation March-April: Analysis and Paper Publication
  57. 57. Log on to: medium.com/interaction-modalities to watch the whole show
  58. 58. References

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