People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management

Andreas Schmidt
Andreas SchmidtProfessor at Kalsruhe University of Applied Sciences
Simone Braun
                                   Andreas Schmidt




People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards
      Collaborative Competence Management

    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies
               Dept. Information Process Engineering
                                 Karlsruhe, GERMANY

                           {braun|aschmidt}@fzi.de
                              http://www.fzi.de/ipe
Agenda


 Motivation
  • Competency-orientation & competence management
  • Current situation & problems


 Collaborative Competence Management
  • Ontology Maturing Process for evolving competence catalogs
  • Tool support


 Conclusions & Outlook



               MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks   2
Competency-Orientation


 Competence Management
   • aligning human resource development with corporate goals
   • identify, secure and make use of employee competencies
   • organizational perspective


 Competencies as abstractions of work-relevant human
  behavior are a promising concept
   • for making skills, knowledge, and abilities manageable and
     addressable
   • for dealing with human potential and performance and their
     development
   • for enabling holistic approaches

    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   3
Competency-Orientation


 Knowledge management
   • Knowledge, skills and abilities are broader than the notion of
     „knowledge“
    work-relevant competency to act


 Training
   • Competencies allow for
     operationalizing learning goals
     and outcomes


 Competence Management
   • Individual competencies can be aggregated into organizational
     competencies
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   4
Current Situation: Competence Management


 Traditionally top-down instruments
 Usually based on a somehow hierarchic structured
  catalog
   • With well-defined semantics  competence ontology
   • For defining requirement and individual competency profiles
 Building of catalog usually one-time activity by a small
  group of experts
    Outdated catalogs
    No continuous improvement
    Often used only for a part of the company and for a single
     purpose
    Separated from individual employee level (competency
     profiles)
                  MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks   5
Current Situation: Competency Profiles


a) External assessment by superiors or formal
   assessment procedures
   • expensive & cumbersome


b) Self-assessment by employees describing their
   competencies themselves
   • often missing motivation, no immediate benefit
   • downplaying or exaggeration of competencies
   • recent or very specialized topics not contained




    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   6
Current Situation: Competency Profiles


 People Tagging as recent approach
   • Transferring the principle of social tagging/bookmarking to
     people; e.g. IBM Fringe Contacts
    employees describe colleagues by tagging with key words
    publicly visible tag cloud characterizes individual employee




    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   7
Current Situation: Competency Profiles


 People Tagging as recent approach
   • Transferring the principle of social tagging/bookmarking to
     people; e.g. IBM Fringe Contacts
    employees describe colleagues by tagging with key words
    publicly visible tag cloud characterizes individual employee


 However..
   • no legitimation and commitment by the organization,
     especially wrt. to the vocabulary
   • no support to leverage bottom-up topics to organizational
     competences vocabulary



    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   8
Collaborative Competence Management


 Combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with
  organizational top-down processes
  • Competence management without an agreed vocabulary (or
    ontology) not possible
  • Making the process of catalog evolving more collaborative and
    embedded in its usage
  • Allow every employee to participate and contribute with low
    usage barriers; i.e. by tagging colleagues
  • Take up and guide these bottom-up developments towards
    organizational goals
  • Likewise, gaining competency profiles not out of self-
    descriptions but collective judgment of others


    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   9
Requirements and Key Issues


 Bottom-up collection of opinions about individual
  competencies
   • empower employees to state their opinion on who has which
     competency in an easy and task-embedded way
 Freedom to evolve competence vocabulary
   • enable employees to modify the used vocabulary
    allows detecting new trends
 Shared vocabulary for comparability
   • competencies as integrating factor in the enterprise have to be
     shared by the whole organization
 Legitimation and commitment by the organization
   • organization must decide to which extent it relies on and binds
     to collective results
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   10
Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving
 Competence Catalogs

 Approaching the problem as collaborative ontology
  construction problem

 Ontology as
   • Formal shared conceptualization for a domain of interest
   • A “good ontology” balances the aspects:
        o Representation of social agreement (“well-defined”, “common
          understanding”)
        o Formalization for enabling automating processes (“machine-
          readable”)
        o Appropriateness for domain and purpose (“useful”)




    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   11
Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving
 Competence Catalogs




 Employees annotate each other with any topic tag
    new topic ideas emerge
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   12
Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving
 Competence Catalogs




 A common topic terminology evolves through the
  collaborative (re-)usage of the topic tags
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   13
Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving
 Competence Catalogs




 special community members begin to organize the
  topic terminology into competencies by introducing
  relations between the topic tags
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   14
Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving
 Competence Catalogs




 Modeling experts add axioms for exploiting
  relationships for reasoning; especially precise
  composition relationships
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   15
Formality Levels & Use Cases


Coexistence of different formality levels :

 Topic tags
   • as weak notions
   • sufficient for basic search and retrieval functionality


 Competency types
   • abstract, without differentiation; e.g Java Programming
   • well-defined competency notion and taxonomic relationships
        o e.g. OO-Programming <broader> Java Programming
   • for basic profile matching (different abstraction levels)
   • for competency gap analysis (by exact matching)
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   16
Formality Levels & Use Cases


 Competencies
  • with levels as instance of a competence type
        o e.g. Java Programming Beginner/Intermediate/Expert
  • for more sophisticated profile matching
        o e.g. different degrees of fulfillment
  • for basic description of learning opportunities objectives


 Competency relationships
  • precise generalization, composition relationships for subsumtion
        o Java Programming <is-a> OO-Programming
        o {Java Pr. Expert, AJAX Beginner} <is-part-of> GWT Pr. Intermediate
  • for more sophisticated competency gap analysis
  • for competency-based selection of learning opportunities
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   17
Tool Support with SOBOLEO


 SOBOLEO is
  • a semantic social bookmarking application
  • combined with task-embedded competence ontology
    development functionality
 Course
  • Users encounter a colleague’s web page
  • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or
    arbitrary topic tags
  • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for
    later consolidation and placement
  • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor
       o e.g. for adding synonyms or structuring with broader/narrower/
         related relations

   FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   18
Tool Support with SOBOLEO


 SOBOLEO is
  • a semantic social bookmarking application
  • combined with task-embedded competence ontology
    development functionality
 Course
  • Users encounter a colleague’s web page
  • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or
    arbitrary topic tags
  • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for
    later consolidation and placement
  • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor
       o e.g. for adding synonyms or structuring with broader/narrower/
         related relations

   FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   19
Tool Support with SOBOLEO


 SOBOLEO is
  • a semantic social bookmarking application
  • combined with task-embedded competence ontology
    development functionality
 Course
  • Users encounter a colleague’s web page
  • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or
    arbitrary topic tags
  • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for
    later consolidation and placement
  • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor
       o e.g. for adding synonyms or structuring with broader/narrower/
         related relations

   FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   20
Tool Support with SOBOLEO


 SOBOLEO is
  • a semantic social bookmarking application
  • combined with task-embedded competence ontology
    development functionality
 Course
  • Users encounter a colleague’s web page
  • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or
    arbitrary topic tags
  • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for
    later consolidation and placement
  • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor for adapting the
    ontology, e.g. adding synonym or structuring with
    broader/narrower/related relations

    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   21
Conclusions & Outlook


 Collaborative competence management provides a
  solution to overcome the hitherto strictly top-down
  competence management approaches
   • covering less formalized topic tags and structures
   • guarantee flexibility, usefulness, and timeliness


 Current & next activities:
   • evaluations how users deal with higher complexity within the
     projects Im Wissensnetz and FP7-IP MATURE
   • visualization and exploitation of recent/specific topics as
     trends from an organizational perspective
   • Investigation of environmental constraints (organizational,
     cultural, social)
    FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   22
Thank you!




                                                      FP7 IP MATURE - http://mature-ip.eu




                                                                                                           Simone Braun
                                                                      FZI Research Center for Information
                                                                                              Technolgies
                                                                                              Simone.Braun@fzi.de
                                                                                                      http://fzi.de/ipe
  FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   23
Different Levels of Formality




  FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe   24
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People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management

  • 1. Simone Braun Andreas Schmidt People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Dept. Information Process Engineering Karlsruhe, GERMANY {braun|aschmidt}@fzi.de http://www.fzi.de/ipe
  • 2. Agenda  Motivation • Competency-orientation & competence management • Current situation & problems  Collaborative Competence Management • Ontology Maturing Process for evolving competence catalogs • Tool support  Conclusions & Outlook MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks 2
  • 3. Competency-Orientation  Competence Management • aligning human resource development with corporate goals • identify, secure and make use of employee competencies • organizational perspective  Competencies as abstractions of work-relevant human behavior are a promising concept • for making skills, knowledge, and abilities manageable and addressable • for dealing with human potential and performance and their development • for enabling holistic approaches FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 3
  • 4. Competency-Orientation  Knowledge management • Knowledge, skills and abilities are broader than the notion of „knowledge“  work-relevant competency to act  Training • Competencies allow for operationalizing learning goals and outcomes  Competence Management • Individual competencies can be aggregated into organizational competencies FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 4
  • 5. Current Situation: Competence Management  Traditionally top-down instruments  Usually based on a somehow hierarchic structured catalog • With well-defined semantics  competence ontology • For defining requirement and individual competency profiles  Building of catalog usually one-time activity by a small group of experts  Outdated catalogs  No continuous improvement  Often used only for a part of the company and for a single purpose  Separated from individual employee level (competency profiles) MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks 5
  • 6. Current Situation: Competency Profiles a) External assessment by superiors or formal assessment procedures • expensive & cumbersome b) Self-assessment by employees describing their competencies themselves • often missing motivation, no immediate benefit • downplaying or exaggeration of competencies • recent or very specialized topics not contained FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 6
  • 7. Current Situation: Competency Profiles  People Tagging as recent approach • Transferring the principle of social tagging/bookmarking to people; e.g. IBM Fringe Contacts  employees describe colleagues by tagging with key words  publicly visible tag cloud characterizes individual employee FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 7
  • 8. Current Situation: Competency Profiles  People Tagging as recent approach • Transferring the principle of social tagging/bookmarking to people; e.g. IBM Fringe Contacts  employees describe colleagues by tagging with key words  publicly visible tag cloud characterizes individual employee  However.. • no legitimation and commitment by the organization, especially wrt. to the vocabulary • no support to leverage bottom-up topics to organizational competences vocabulary FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 8
  • 9. Collaborative Competence Management  Combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes • Competence management without an agreed vocabulary (or ontology) not possible • Making the process of catalog evolving more collaborative and embedded in its usage • Allow every employee to participate and contribute with low usage barriers; i.e. by tagging colleagues • Take up and guide these bottom-up developments towards organizational goals • Likewise, gaining competency profiles not out of self- descriptions but collective judgment of others FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 9
  • 10. Requirements and Key Issues  Bottom-up collection of opinions about individual competencies • empower employees to state their opinion on who has which competency in an easy and task-embedded way  Freedom to evolve competence vocabulary • enable employees to modify the used vocabulary  allows detecting new trends  Shared vocabulary for comparability • competencies as integrating factor in the enterprise have to be shared by the whole organization  Legitimation and commitment by the organization • organization must decide to which extent it relies on and binds to collective results FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 10
  • 11. Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving Competence Catalogs  Approaching the problem as collaborative ontology construction problem  Ontology as • Formal shared conceptualization for a domain of interest • A “good ontology” balances the aspects: o Representation of social agreement (“well-defined”, “common understanding”) o Formalization for enabling automating processes (“machine- readable”) o Appropriateness for domain and purpose (“useful”) FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 11
  • 12. Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving Competence Catalogs  Employees annotate each other with any topic tag  new topic ideas emerge FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 12
  • 13. Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving Competence Catalogs  A common topic terminology evolves through the collaborative (re-)usage of the topic tags FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 13
  • 14. Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving Competence Catalogs  special community members begin to organize the topic terminology into competencies by introducing relations between the topic tags FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 14
  • 15. Ontology Maturing Process for Evolving Competence Catalogs  Modeling experts add axioms for exploiting relationships for reasoning; especially precise composition relationships FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 15
  • 16. Formality Levels & Use Cases Coexistence of different formality levels :  Topic tags • as weak notions • sufficient for basic search and retrieval functionality  Competency types • abstract, without differentiation; e.g Java Programming • well-defined competency notion and taxonomic relationships o e.g. OO-Programming <broader> Java Programming • for basic profile matching (different abstraction levels) • for competency gap analysis (by exact matching) FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 16
  • 17. Formality Levels & Use Cases  Competencies • with levels as instance of a competence type o e.g. Java Programming Beginner/Intermediate/Expert • for more sophisticated profile matching o e.g. different degrees of fulfillment • for basic description of learning opportunities objectives  Competency relationships • precise generalization, composition relationships for subsumtion o Java Programming <is-a> OO-Programming o {Java Pr. Expert, AJAX Beginner} <is-part-of> GWT Pr. Intermediate • for more sophisticated competency gap analysis • for competency-based selection of learning opportunities FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 17
  • 18. Tool Support with SOBOLEO  SOBOLEO is • a semantic social bookmarking application • combined with task-embedded competence ontology development functionality  Course • Users encounter a colleague’s web page • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or arbitrary topic tags • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for later consolidation and placement • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor o e.g. for adding synonyms or structuring with broader/narrower/ related relations FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 18
  • 19. Tool Support with SOBOLEO  SOBOLEO is • a semantic social bookmarking application • combined with task-embedded competence ontology development functionality  Course • Users encounter a colleague’s web page • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or arbitrary topic tags • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for later consolidation and placement • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor o e.g. for adding synonyms or structuring with broader/narrower/ related relations FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 19
  • 20. Tool Support with SOBOLEO  SOBOLEO is • a semantic social bookmarking application • combined with task-embedded competence ontology development functionality  Course • Users encounter a colleague’s web page • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or arbitrary topic tags • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for later consolidation and placement • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor o e.g. for adding synonyms or structuring with broader/narrower/ related relations FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 20
  • 21. Tool Support with SOBOLEO  SOBOLEO is • a semantic social bookmarking application • combined with task-embedded competence ontology development functionality  Course • Users encounter a colleague’s web page • Tagging with concepts from the competence ontology or arbitrary topic tags • Gathering arbitrary topic tags as “prototypical concepts” for later consolidation and placement • Or immediate switch to the ontology editor for adapting the ontology, e.g. adding synonym or structuring with broader/narrower/related relations FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 21
  • 22. Conclusions & Outlook  Collaborative competence management provides a solution to overcome the hitherto strictly top-down competence management approaches • covering less formalized topic tags and structures • guarantee flexibility, usefulness, and timeliness  Current & next activities: • evaluations how users deal with higher complexity within the projects Im Wissensnetz and FP7-IP MATURE • visualization and exploitation of recent/specific topics as trends from an organizational perspective • Investigation of environmental constraints (organizational, cultural, social) FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 22
  • 23. Thank you! FP7 IP MATURE - http://mature-ip.eu Simone Braun FZI Research Center for Information Technolgies Simone.Braun@fzi.de http://fzi.de/ipe FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 23
  • 24. Different Levels of Formality FZI Research Center for Information Technologies Karlsruhe, Germany | Information Process Engineering | www.fzi.de/ipe 24