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ECTEL 2010, September 28, 2010 – http://matel.mature-ip.eu Motivation,Affective Aspects,and Knowledge Maturing Andreas Schmidt Christine KunzmannFZI Research Center for Information Technologies
Motivation iskeyforknowledgework “Knowledge workers are those people who have taken responsibility for their work lives. They continually strive to understand the world around them and modify their work practices and behaviors to better meet their personal and organizational objectives. No one tells them what to do. They do not take No for an answer. They are self motivated.”  David Gurteen
Emotionsandaffectiveaspects, too. Anxiety Joy Stress Frustration
But so far, theperspectivehasbeen limited e.g., incentivesystems
Andwhataboutemotions… 	… theyshould not bepartof professionallife, … shouldthey?
Research hasbeenfragmented. CSCW Knowledge Management HR Development Psychology HCI Economics Sensor engineering Eachwith different ideasof man, researchmethodologies, …
But thereare promising approaches …
Management & HR: Dan Pink - Drive Motivation 1.0 largely based on our biological drive We eat to sate our hunger, we drink to slake our thirst.  Motivation 2.0 rewards & punishments, carrots & sticks Motivation 2.1 flexible schedules, a little bit more autonomy, socially responsible businesses Motivation 3.0 Autonomy  - desiretobeself-directed Mastery – desiretogetbetter Purpose – a reasonforexisting
 Enterprise 2.0 Collaborationbehaviorandeffectsofsocialdynamics Identifying different personalitytypes Web 2.0 andbasicneeds, e.g., Deci & Ryan: experiencingautonomy experiencingcompetence experiencingsocialrelatedness
Leveraging bio-sensors Capture activity-leveland stress level Reflect on emotional reactions Learnaboutdecisionbehavior physio-economics
..and a lotmore Wewantto bring themtogether!
Motivation in knowledgematuringprocesses Research on Motivation in the MATURE IP http://mature-ip.eu
Knowledgematuring …
Motivation iskey MATURE wantstoleveragebottom-upactivitiesandguidethemtowards a sharedgoals knowledgematuringisgoal-orientedlearning on a collectivelevel Barriershinderingknowledgematuring Lack ofcreativity Nosharingofinformation & knowledge Lack ofdisseminationtowardsthe wider organisation Lack ofwillingnesstoadoptchangestotheworkenvironment
Why is motivation so difficult to address? Thereareplentyofmodelsfor human motivation in different fields Theyhelptodescribe a givensituation, but theyareoflittleusefordecidingwhatto do in a (socio-technical) learningsupportsystems. Frequentlyonlyfocussed on the individual (psychology) Ortoonarrow in theirunderstandingof human needs Problem: motivationis a genericphenomenon, but canonlybeaddressed in a context-specificway.
[object Object]
empiricalstudies
analysisframework
Developcontext-specificsolutions
participatorydevelopmentapproach,[object Object]
Analysis framework
Interview study: Motivational barriers
Interview study: additional barriers 35 codes/categories of barriers out of 473 additional comments organisational culture (20%) Lack of individual autonomy Lack of formalization and guidance (opposite of ind. autonomy) Lack of collaboration Personal interdependencies (e.g. lack of skills of employees) Lack of resources (16%) Personal interdependency (11%) Organisational structure (5%)
Howcanwemake technologymoreawareofmotivationalaspects?
Development methodology
Methodology for incorporating motivation into the design of learning support Immersion of technical developers in the workplace reality as part of ethnographically informed studies  guided by the model as presented  for creating a rich  understanding of the context Derivation of personas a precise description of a user’s characteristics what he/she wants to accomplish with an explicit consideration of the three aspects of the model  MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks
Examplepersona (extract) 	”Silke has high personal standards and aims at continuously learning to improve her work practice. To that end, she regularly reflects about how tasks were carried out and what could have been done better or worse. ... Her sense of perfection also applies to her everyday task management. She plans her tasks and appointment each day meticulously, and prepares each meeting with elaborate notes. … Clear structures within the applications are crucial as she lacks deep knowledge about computers.”
Methodology (2) Development of use case descriptions for those personas  direct interaction of developers and users (or their representatives) with an explicit section on interventions targeted to motivational aspects or context conditions 4.	Deriving functional and non-functional requirements from those descriptions 5. Formative evaluation of early prototypes  with end users if possible: different motivational measures are compared to each other in order select the most effective one. MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks
Concretemeasures Design forimmediate individual (orsmallgroup) benefits Do not design fortheaverageuser, takeintoaccount different personalitiesandtheirmotivation Incorporatedifferentiatedfeedback „thankyou“ messages, recommendnextsteps socialranking
Conclusions

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Motivation, affective aspects, and knowledge maturing

  • 1. ECTEL 2010, September 28, 2010 – http://matel.mature-ip.eu Motivation,Affective Aspects,and Knowledge Maturing Andreas Schmidt Christine KunzmannFZI Research Center for Information Technologies
  • 2. Motivation iskeyforknowledgework “Knowledge workers are those people who have taken responsibility for their work lives. They continually strive to understand the world around them and modify their work practices and behaviors to better meet their personal and organizational objectives. No one tells them what to do. They do not take No for an answer. They are self motivated.” David Gurteen
  • 4. But so far, theperspectivehasbeen limited e.g., incentivesystems
  • 5. Andwhataboutemotions… … theyshould not bepartof professionallife, … shouldthey?
  • 6. Research hasbeenfragmented. CSCW Knowledge Management HR Development Psychology HCI Economics Sensor engineering Eachwith different ideasof man, researchmethodologies, …
  • 7. But thereare promising approaches …
  • 8. Management & HR: Dan Pink - Drive Motivation 1.0 largely based on our biological drive We eat to sate our hunger, we drink to slake our thirst. Motivation 2.0 rewards & punishments, carrots & sticks Motivation 2.1 flexible schedules, a little bit more autonomy, socially responsible businesses Motivation 3.0 Autonomy - desiretobeself-directed Mastery – desiretogetbetter Purpose – a reasonforexisting
  • 9. Enterprise 2.0 Collaborationbehaviorandeffectsofsocialdynamics Identifying different personalitytypes Web 2.0 andbasicneeds, e.g., Deci & Ryan: experiencingautonomy experiencingcompetence experiencingsocialrelatedness
  • 10. Leveraging bio-sensors Capture activity-leveland stress level Reflect on emotional reactions Learnaboutdecisionbehavior physio-economics
  • 11. ..and a lotmore Wewantto bring themtogether!
  • 12. Motivation in knowledgematuringprocesses Research on Motivation in the MATURE IP http://mature-ip.eu
  • 14. Motivation iskey MATURE wantstoleveragebottom-upactivitiesandguidethemtowards a sharedgoals knowledgematuringisgoal-orientedlearning on a collectivelevel Barriershinderingknowledgematuring Lack ofcreativity Nosharingofinformation & knowledge Lack ofdisseminationtowardsthe wider organisation Lack ofwillingnesstoadoptchangestotheworkenvironment
  • 15. Why is motivation so difficult to address? Thereareplentyofmodelsfor human motivation in different fields Theyhelptodescribe a givensituation, but theyareoflittleusefordecidingwhatto do in a (socio-technical) learningsupportsystems. Frequentlyonlyfocussed on the individual (psychology) Ortoonarrow in theirunderstandingof human needs Problem: motivationis a genericphenomenon, but canonlybeaddressed in a context-specificway.
  • 16.
  • 20.
  • 23. Interview study: additional barriers 35 codes/categories of barriers out of 473 additional comments organisational culture (20%) Lack of individual autonomy Lack of formalization and guidance (opposite of ind. autonomy) Lack of collaboration Personal interdependencies (e.g. lack of skills of employees) Lack of resources (16%) Personal interdependency (11%) Organisational structure (5%)
  • 26. Methodology for incorporating motivation into the design of learning support Immersion of technical developers in the workplace reality as part of ethnographically informed studies guided by the model as presented for creating a rich understanding of the context Derivation of personas a precise description of a user’s characteristics what he/she wants to accomplish with an explicit consideration of the three aspects of the model MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks
  • 27. Examplepersona (extract) ”Silke has high personal standards and aims at continuously learning to improve her work practice. To that end, she regularly reflects about how tasks were carried out and what could have been done better or worse. ... Her sense of perfection also applies to her everyday task management. She plans her tasks and appointment each day meticulously, and prepares each meeting with elaborate notes. … Clear structures within the applications are crucial as she lacks deep knowledge about computers.”
  • 28. Methodology (2) Development of use case descriptions for those personas direct interaction of developers and users (or their representatives) with an explicit section on interventions targeted to motivational aspects or context conditions 4. Deriving functional and non-functional requirements from those descriptions 5. Formative evaluation of early prototypes with end users if possible: different motivational measures are compared to each other in order select the most effective one. MATURE - Continuous Social Learning in Knowledge Networks
  • 29. Concretemeasures Design forimmediate individual (orsmallgroup) benefits Do not design fortheaverageuser, takeintoaccount different personalitiesandtheirmotivation Incorporatedifferentiatedfeedback „thankyou“ messages, recommendnextsteps socialranking
  • 31. Conclusions – whatwe‘velearnt so far Addressingmotivationalaspectsischallenging multiple factors, individual differences challengesofinterdisciplinarywork Understanding real-worldcontextesandtargetpersonsismostimportant Eitherthroughimmersion in workplacereality Orcaptured in narratives Individual motivationdeeplyinterlinkedwithteamandorganizationalculture
  • 32. Andreas SchmidtDepartment Manager / Scientific Coordinator MATUREFZI Research Center for Information Technologies, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 10-14 Karlsruhe, GERMANY (http://fzi.de/ipe)andreas.schmidt@fzi.de, http://andreas.schmidt.name Christine KunzmannFZI & Kompetenzorientierte PersonalentwicklungAnkerstr. 47, 75203 Königsbach-Stein, GERMANY, http://kompetenzen-gestalten.decontact@christine-kunzmann.de Outlook & Contact Open forassociate partners! MATURE IP – http://mature-ip.eu Identifyingandovercomingbarrierstoknowledgematuring in organizations http://mature-ip.eu/files/2009-11_Motivation.pdfhttp://mature-ip.eu/results/representative-study
  • 33. Acknowledgements: Picture: poisson rouge sautant d'un aquarium © Simon Coste #543847 – fotolia.com Othersfromhttp://sxc.hu http://www.sxc.hu/photo/319939_6613 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/143622_4281 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1156284_39977081 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1169790_27775290 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1275937_97948668 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/462280_61402643 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/61022_7814