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Complete overview of a Mental Health First Aid Program

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Mental Health First Aid program overview

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Complete overview of a Mental Health First Aid Program

  1. 1. Mental Health First Aid TUI University By April Showalter Capstone Integrative Project MHD 599 Mod 5 SLP Dr. Afrooz Afghani June 22, 2009 a public health education program
  2. 2. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) A public health education program <ul><li>Mission of the MHFA Program </li></ul><ul><li>Vision of the MHFA Program </li></ul><ul><li>What is mental illness? </li></ul><ul><li>What is MHFA? </li></ul><ul><li>The goals of MHFA </li></ul><ul><li>MHFA program objectives </li></ul><ul><li>What does MHFA teach? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a need for MHFA? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can benefit from MHFA training? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can MHFA be learned or taught? </li></ul><ul><li>MHFA training objectives part I </li></ul><ul><li>MHFA training objectives part II </li></ul><ul><li>MHFA in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>MHFA certified training sites </li></ul><ul><li>Certified MHFA sites in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria to be a MHFA instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching MHFA electronically </li></ul><ul><li>Who to market MHFA to </li></ul><ul><li>Key coalition partners </li></ul><ul><li>Why have coalition partners? </li></ul><ul><li>Potential MHFA training barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to evaluate MHFA </li></ul><ul><li>Why evaluate the MHFA program? </li></ul><ul><li>What aspects to evaluate and why </li></ul><ul><li>Four levels of evaluation information </li></ul><ul><li>Types of program evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mission of the MHFA Program <ul><li>To help those in society who have a mental health problem or are in a mental health crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener, 2008) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vision of the MHFA Program <ul><li>Better recognition of mental disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>Changed beliefs to a less negative/stigmatizing view of mental disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased social distance from people with mental disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>Increased help and understanding of those with mental disorders, and </li></ul><ul><li>Increased confidence in helping a person with a mental disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener, 2008) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A health condition that changes a person’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or all three and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes the person distress and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in functioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is severe in some cases and mild in others. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals who have a mental illness don’t necessarily look like they are sick, especially if their illness is mild. </li></ul><ul><li>Other individuals may show more explicit symptoms such as confusion, agitation, or withdrawal. </li></ul><ul><li>(BSCS, 2005) </li></ul>What is Mental Illness?
  6. 6. What is MHFA? <ul><li>First Aid for the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Medical First Aid vs. MHFA </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: MHFA is the help provided to a person developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm 2002) </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Goals of MHFA Are To: <ul><li>Preserve life where a person may be a danger to themselves or others </li></ul><ul><li>Provide help to prevent the mental health problem developing into a more serious state </li></ul><ul><li>Promote recovery of good mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Provide comfort to a person suffering a mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm 2002) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Improved recognition of MH problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate stigmas regarding MH problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve public health knowledge of MH. </li></ul><ul><li>Change negative beliefs regarding MH issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase understanding & compassion. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease social distancing people with MH problems have. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the amount of help provided to those with MH problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase confidence in people who want to help those with MH problems. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm, 2002) </li></ul>MHFA Program Objectives
  9. 9. What Does MFHA Teach? <ul><li>MHFA addresses the immediate needs of the most common mental health disorders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidal thoughts and behaviors, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic attacks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-suicidal self injury, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult trauma, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child trauma, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating disorders, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance use disorders and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem drinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm 2002) (Jorm, 2008) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Is There A Need For MHFA? <ul><li>Mental illnesses are extremely common. </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated mental illness is the leading cause of disability and suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide is the 11 th cause of preventable death in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2 million become mentally ill every year in California </li></ul><ul><li>Is often a social problem, costing $ billions </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to: Homelessness, Jail, Crime, Hospitalizations/ER's, Unemployment, Nursing home stays </li></ul><ul><li>(CADMH, 2003) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who Can Benefit From MHFA Training? <ul><li>Parents/Children </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers/Instructors/Educators </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Health Care Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Preachers/Clergy Members </li></ul><ul><li>Paramedics/Firefighters </li></ul><ul><li>Police Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Workers/Counselors </li></ul><ul><li>Managers/Employees </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone! </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener, 2008) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Where Can MHFA Training Be Taught Or Learned? <ul><li>School classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture halls </li></ul><ul><li>Senior centers </li></ul><ul><li>Church & religious organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Community centers </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Business & industrial work sites </li></ul><ul><li>Library & hotel meeting rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Home demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>PTA meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Police & fire stations </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare organizations </li></ul><ul><li>City, county, & state govnmnt offices </li></ul><ul><li>Non-profit agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Law offices </li></ul><ul><li>Private businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener, 2008) </li></ul>
  13. 13. MHFA Traing Objectives Part I <ul><li>Why Mental Health First Aid? </li></ul><ul><li>The MHFA action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health problems in America </li></ul><ul><li>What are mental health problems? </li></ul><ul><li>How common are mental health problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Disability caused by mental health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful resources </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm, 2002) </li></ul>
  14. 14. MHFA Training Objectives Part II: The Disorders <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suicidal thoughts & behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobic Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bipolar Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotic Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizoaffective Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug Induced Psychosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panic Attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Non Suicidal Self Injury (NSSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Child Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Eating Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Use Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannabis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecstasy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Drinking </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm, 2002)(Jorm, 2008) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>the signs & the symptoms of each MH disorder; </li></ul><ul><li>the potential causes of each MH disorder; </li></ul><ul><li>the risk factors for each MH disorder; </li></ul><ul><li>treatment options for each MH disorder; </li></ul><ul><li>action steps on how to help and/or get help; </li></ul><ul><li>where to get outside help; </li></ul><ul><li>when to get outside help; </li></ul><ul><li>other resources about MH disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kitchener and Jorm 2002) </li></ul>MHFA Training Objectives Part II: The Disorders
  16. 16. Since Coming to the U.S. in 2008, the MHFA Program Has: <ul><li>Presence in more than 24 states, </li></ul><ul><li>50 MHFA instructors, </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1300 people trained, </li></ul><ul><li>More than 80 community trainings to date, and </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,000,000 media impressions in the first year </li></ul><ul><li>(Browning-McNee, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>(Browning-McNee, 2009) </li></ul>
  17. 17. MHFA certified training sites include: <ul><li>C ommunity mental health centers </li></ul><ul><li>Addictions centers, </li></ul><ul><li>State departments of health, </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals, </li></ul><ul><li>Federally qualified health centers, </li></ul><ul><li>Faith-based organizations, </li></ul><ul><li>State police stations, </li></ul><ul><li>The National Guard, </li></ul><ul><li>Mental developmental disability centers, </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health authorities, and </li></ul><ul><li>Other mental health advocates </li></ul><ul><li>(NCCBH, 2009) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Certified MHFA Training Site in the U.S. <ul><li>Kitsap Mental Health Services (KMHS) - Bremerton, WA http://www.kitsapmentalhealth.org </li></ul><ul><li>The Workforce Diversity Network (WDN) http://www.workforcediversitynetwork.com/docs/Article_IntroducingMentalHealthFirstAid.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health Association of Frederick County, Maryland http://www.fcmha.org/publiceducationandadvocacy/index.php? p=MentalHealthFirstAidTraining </li></ul><ul><li>Gateway Healthcare (GHI) - Pawtucket, RI http://www.gatewayhealth.org/MentalHealthFirstAid.asp </li></ul><ul><li>NAMI Minnesota http://www.namihelps.org/blogs/mental-health-first-aid-training-for-crisis-providers.html </li></ul><ul><li>Bert Nash Center - Lawrence, KA http://www.bertnash.org/services/MentalHealthFirstAid.html </li></ul><ul><li>Community Counseling Centers of Chicago http://www.c4chicago.org/node/255 </li></ul><ul><li>Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO http://www.wiche.edu/mentalhealth/grand_rounds/MHFirstAid.asp </li></ul>
  19. 19. 6 Criteria to be a MHFA Instructor <ul><li>Good knowledge of mental disorders and their treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal or professional experience with people with mental health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable attitudes towards people with mental health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching and communication skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Good background knowledge of mental health and community services. </li></ul><ul><li>Good interpersonal skills. </li></ul><ul><li>(MHFA, 2007) </li></ul>MHFA program wants instructors who have/are:
  20. 20. Teaching MHFA by Electronic Means: <ul><li>More efficient </li></ul><ul><li>More convenient </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effective </li></ul><ul><li>Reach a wider audience </li></ul><ul><li>Examples how... </li></ul><ul><li>CD </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Webinar </li></ul><ul><li>Webcast </li></ul><ul><li>Videocast </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast </li></ul>
  21. 21. Who to Market MHFA to: <ul><li>Law enforcement and other emergency response; </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and public education administration; </li></ul><ul><li>Homeless shelters; </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges and universities; </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations and local businesses; </li></ul><ul><li>Community service groups; </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and occupational health care providers; and </li></ul><ul><li>The general public </li></ul><ul><li>(NCCBH, 2009) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Key Coalition Partners <ul><li>National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAMI California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAMI Sacramento </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Council of Community Mental Health Agencies (CCCMHA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>California Dept of Education (CDE) </li></ul><ul><li>State/County/City Corrections Departments </li></ul><ul><li>State/County/City Police Departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Service Centers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>California Department of Mental Health (DMH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacramento County Division of Mental Health (SacDHHS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention Institute (Oakland CA) </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health America (of No Cal, Sacramento CA) </li></ul><ul><li>California Institute for Mental Health (CiMH) </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Mental Health & Wellness Education (IMHWE) at the California State University, Hayward </li></ul>
  23. 23. Key Coalition Partners: National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare (NCCBH) <ul><li>Offers the largest MHFA certification program in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Certifies community providers to implement MHFA in communities throughout the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with MHFA site development & plans to reach communities. </li></ul><ul><li>All participating sites deliver the core 12-hour program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tight credentialing to guarantee fidelity to the original, tested model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains the flexibility necessary to reach its unique population needs & demographics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Envisions that MHFA will become as common as CPR and First Aid training during the next decade! </li></ul><ul><li>(NCCBH, 2009) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Key Coalition Partners National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) <ul><li>Largest MH grassroots organization in USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAMI California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAMI Sacramento (California) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key concepts are essential to improving the wellness and quality of life of all persons affected by mental illness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resiliency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their action areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Education and Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising Awareness and Fighting Stigma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State and Federal Advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(NAMI, 2009) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Key Coalition Partners The California Department of Mental Health (CaDMH) <ul><li>Oversees the statewide delivery of mental health services at county level. </li></ul><ul><li>Assures compliance with state and federal laws and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a direct services agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Is an agency of: </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy Education </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation Outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Oversight Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring Quality improvement </li></ul><ul><li>(CaDMH, 2009) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Key Coalition Partners Mental Health America (aka National Mental Health Association) <ul><li>Country’s leading nonprofit dedicated to helping ALL live mentally healthier lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Have more than 320 affiliates nationwide. </li></ul><ul><li>One of their program goals is to educate the public about mental health. </li></ul><ul><li>Mission is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote mental health, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent mental disorders, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve victory over mental illness by: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(MHA, 2009) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Key Coalition Partners California Institute for Mental Health (CiMH) <ul><li>Establishes regional partnerships per Department of Mental Health’s “Five-Year Workforce Education & Training Plan” </li></ul><ul><li>Provide technical assistance and support in planning, development & ongoing implementation for each of the regional partnerships throughout California. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as an employment and educational resource for the public mental health system. </li></ul><ul><li>(CiMH, 2009) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Why Have Coalition Partners? <ul><li>To conserve resources. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve a much more widespread audience. </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish objectives beyond scope of any one group/organization. </li></ul><ul><li>For greater credibility. </li></ul><ul><li>For more range of advice. </li></ul><ul><li>For more perspectives to the lead agency. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a forum of shared information. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a vital tool when planning, implementing, and administering a proposed health education program! </li></ul><ul><li>(Cohen, 2003) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Potential MHFA Training Barriers <ul><li>Cost to the consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Time it takes to get trained </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of certified trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Low or lack of funding </li></ul><ul><li>Age and gender (Kitchener, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Denial for need of MHFA (Kitchener, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation issues </li></ul><ul><li>Personal beliefs (Jorm, 2005) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ways to Evaluate the MHFA Program <ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre- and post- training knowledge checks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys – telephone, internet, mail </li></ul><ul><li>Program documentation reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>(Washington, 1999) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Why Evaluate the MHFA Program? <ul><li>Provide accountability to your funders, stakeholders and the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve program quality </li></ul><ul><li>Provides feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence that the program is doing what it claims to do </li></ul><ul><li>Help allocate resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources are needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are resources being used effectively? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Washington, 1999) </li></ul>
  32. 32. What Aspects to Evaluate & Why <ul><li>Implementation: Were MHFA program activities put into place as originally intended? </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Is the MHFA program achieving the goals and objectives it was intended to accomplish? </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency: Are the MHFA program’s activities being produced with appropriate use of resources such as budget and staff time? </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-Effectiveness: Does the value or benefit of achieving the MHFA program’s goals & objectives exceed the cost of producing them? </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution: Can progress on goals and objectives be shown to be related to the MHFA program,as opposed to other things that are going on at the same time? </li></ul><ul><li>(CDC, 2005) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Four Levels of Evaluation Information... <ul><li>...that can be gathered from clients: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reactions and feelings (feelings are often poor indicators that your service made lasting impact) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Learning (enhanced attitudes, perceptions or knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Changes in skills (applied the learning to enhance behaviors) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Effectiveness (improved performance because of enhanced behaviors) </li></ul><ul><li>(McNamara, 1997) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Types of Program Evaluation <ul><li>Process evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures and documents all program activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the impact the program had on participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures changes in knowledge, attitude, skills, behavior, policies, or the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the outcome of the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asks did the program have an effect on individual or community health? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the long term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Washington, 1999) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Types of Evaluation Design <ul><li>1 Experimental design - use random assignment to compare the outcome of an intervention on one or more groups with an equivalent group or groups that did not receive the intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Quasi-experimental design – make comparisons between nonequivalent groups and do not involve random assignment to intervention and control groups (in community settings it is hard, or sometimes even unethical, to have a true control) </li></ul><ul><li>3 Observational design - time–series analysis, cross-sectional surveys, and case studies. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Goal-based evaluation - uses predetermined program goals and the underlying program theory as the standards for evaluation, thus holding the program accountable to prior expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>(CDC, 2005) </li></ul>
  36. 36. References <ul><li>Beilharz, L. (2009). NAMI Sacramento, Board of Directors Meeting. NAMI Sacramento. March 16, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009 from http://www.namisacramento.org/about/docs/2009/NAMI%20Board%20Mtg%202009-03-16.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Bergman, R. (2004). Anatomy of First Aid: A Case Study Approach. Anatomy Atlases: A digital library of anatomy information. Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.anatomyatlases.org/firstaid/index.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study). (2005). The Science of Mental Illness. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Science Education, NIH Publication Number 05-5482. National Institute of Mental Health, Center for Curriculum Development. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://science-education.nih.gov/supplements/nih5/Mental/guide/nih_mental_curr-supp.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Brailer, M. (2009). Workforce Development - Regional Partnerships. California Institute for Mental Health (CiMH). CiMH Bulletin. April 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009 from http://www.cimh.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=glB1O%2ffYsqQ%3d&tabid=273&mid=1263 </li></ul><ul><li>Browning-McNee, L. (2009). Mental Health First Aid: A Collaborative Partnership of National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare, Maryland State Department of Mental Hygiene and Missouri Department of Mental Health. National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare (NCCBH). Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://learn.aero.und.edu/pages.asp?PageID=135674 </li></ul><ul><li>California Department of Mental Health (CaDMH). (2003). Mental Health Services Act (Proposition 63). State of California. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.dmh.cahwnet.gov/Prop_63/MHSA/docs/Mental_Health_Services_Act_Full_Text.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Introduction to program evaluation for public health programs: A self-study guide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Office of the Director, Office of Strategy and Innovation. Atlanta, GA; 2005. June 13, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/eval/evalguide.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen, L., Baer, N., and Satterwhite, P. (2003). Developing Effective Coalitions: An Eight Step Guide. Prevention Institute, Oakland California. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from http://www.preventioninstitute.org/pdf/eightstep.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Farell, K. et al. (2002). EVAL: Evaluation made very easy, accessible, and logical. Atlantic Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health. July 2002. Retrieved June 13, 2009 from http://www.acewh.dal.ca/eng/reports/EVAL.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jorm, A.F. et al (2005). Experiences in applying skills learned in a mental health first aid training course: a qualitative study of participants' stories. BMC Psychiatry , November 9, 2005, 5(43). Retrieved June 13, 2009 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-244X-5-43.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jorm, A.F. et al (2005). Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey. BMC Psychiatry , February 6, 2005, 5(9). Retrieved June 13, 2009 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-244X-5-9.pdf </li></ul>
  37. 37. References <ul><li>Jorm, A.F., Kitchener, B.A., and Mugord, S.K. (2005). Experiences in applying skills learned in a mental health first aid training course: a qualitative study of participants' stories. BMC Psychiatry , November 9, 2005, 5(43). Retrieved June 6, 2009 from http://www. pubmedcentral . nih . gov / picrender . fcgi ? artid =1308824& blobtype = pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jorm, A.F. et al (2007). Mental health first aid training for members of the public. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology , July 2007, 7(1). Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.mhfa.com.au/documents/IJCHP%20published%20article%20Jan%2007.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jorm, A.F. (2008). Mental Health First Aid Training and Research Program: </li></ul><ul><li>Depression first aid guidelines, </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders: first aid guidelines for assisting adults, </li></ul><ul><li>Helping someone with problem drinking: mental health first aid guidelines, </li></ul><ul><li>Non-suicidal self-injury: first aid guidelines, </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosis: first aid guidelines, </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal thoughts and behaviours: first aid guidelines, </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic events: first aid guidelines for assisting adults, </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic events: first aid guidelines for assisting children, Melbourne: Orygen. Health Research Centre, University of Melbourne; 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from </li></ul><ul><li>Kanowski, L.G. et al. (2009). A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, June 3, 2009, 3(10). Retrieved June 14, 2009 from http://www.ijmhs.com/content/pdf/1752-4458-3-10.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. and Jorm, A.F. (2002). Mental Health First Aid Manual . ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne. Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.mhfa.com.au/mhfa_manual.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. and Jorm, A.F. (2002). Mental health first aid training for the public: evaluation of effects on knowledge, attitudes and helping behavior. BMC Psychiatry , October 1, 2002, 2(10). Retrieved June 13, 2009 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-244X-2-10.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. and Jorm, A.F. (2004). Mental health first aid training in a workplace setting: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry , August 15, 2004, 4(23). Retrieved June 13, 2009 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-244X-4-23.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. and Jorm, A.F. (2006). Mental health first aid training: review of evaluation studies. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. January 2006, 40(1). Retrieved June 7, 2009 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16403032 </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. and Jorm, A.F. (2008). Mental Health First Aid Manual . ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne. Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved June 14, 2009 from http://www.mhfa.com.au/mhfa_manual.pdf </li></ul>
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. and Jorm, A.F. (2008). Mental Health First Aid: an international programme for early intervention. Early Intervention in the Psychiatry , February 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2009 from http://www.mhfa.com.au/documents/article_mental-health-first-aid-iep-2008.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kitchener, B.A. (2009). The Mental Health First Aid Training and Research Program Program Summary, May 31, 2009. Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, University of Melbourne. Retrieved June 14, 2009 from http://www.mhfa.com.au/documents/Summary_%20MHFA_31_May_09.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>KU Work Group for Community Health and Development. (2007). Chapter 5, Section 5. Coalition Building I: Starting a Coalition. The Community Toolbox . Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas. Retrieved May 24, 2009, from http://ctb.ku.edu/tools/sub_section_main_1057.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Levin, A. (2005). People with mental illness more often crime victims. Psychiatry News. September 2, 2005, 40(17). Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/17/16 </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health America (MHA). (2009). We are Mental Health America! Mental Health America: About us: Who we are. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/go/about-us </li></ul><ul><li>MHFA Administration. (2007). Instructor training course . ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne. Melbourne, Australia. Retrieved May 25, 2009 from http://www.mhfa.com.au/documents/brochures/3877_Adult_Instructorbrochure_Nov07.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) (2009). What is NAMI Fact Sheet . January 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=About_NAMI&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=58580 </li></ul><ul><li>National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare (NCCBH). (2009). About the Program: MHFA Course Description. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.thenationalcouncil.org/cs/press_public/mental_health_first_aid_2/about_the_program/mhfa_course_description </li></ul><ul><li>National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare (NCCBH). (2009). In Your Community: Become an Instructor. Mental Health First Aid USA: Become an instructor. Retrieved May 30, 2009 from http://www. thenationalcouncil .org/ cs /press_public/mental_health_first_aid_2/in_your_community/become_an_instructor </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2008). The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America. National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved April 19, 2009 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-numbers-count-mental-disorders-in-america/index.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>Sestoft. D. (2006). Crime and mental illness: it is time to take action. World Psychiatry . June 2006; 5(2). Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1525117 </li></ul><ul><li>Washington State Department of Health. (1999). Evaluation: Are we making a difference? H.E.R.E. (Health Education Resource Exchange). Health Educator's Toolbox, Program Development and Evaluation . February 1999. Retrieved June 13, 2009 from https://fortress.wa.gov/doh/here/howto/images/eval.html </li></ul>

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