History of Apple Inc.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaFor more general information about the company, see Apple Inc.. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2011) This article or section reads like an editorial or opinion piece and may require cleanup. Please improve this article by rewriting this article or section in an encyclopedic style to make it neutral in tone. Please see WP:No original research andWP:NOTOPINION for further details. (September 2011)Apple Inc., formerly Apple Computer, Inc., is a multinational corporation that creates consumerelectronics, computer software, and commercial servers. Apples core product lines arethe iPad, iPhone, iPod music player, and Macintosh computer line-up. Founders SteveJobs and Steve Wozniak effectively created Apple Computer on April 1, 1976, with the release ofthe Apple I, and incorporated the company on January 3, 1977, in Cupertino, California. For morethan two decades, Apple Computer was predominantly a manufacturer of personal computers,including the Apple II, Macintosh, and Power Mac lines, but it faced rocky sales and low marketshare during the 1990s. Jobs, who had been ousted from the company in 1985, returned to becomeApples CEO in 1996 after his company NeXT was bought by Apple Inc., and he brought with him anew corporate philosophy of recognizable products and simple design. With the introduction of thesuccessful iPod music player in 2001, Apple established itself as a leader in the consumerelectronics industry, dropping "Computer" from its name. The latest era of phenomenal success forthe company has been in the iOS range of products that began with the iPhone, iPod Touch andnow iPad. As of 2011, Apple is the largest technology firm in the world, with annual revenues ofmore than $60 billion. Contents [hide]
1 1969-1984: Jobs and Wozniak o 1.1 Pre-foundation o 1.2 Apple II o 1.3 Apple III o 1.4 Apple IPO o 1.5 Xerox PARC and the Lisa o 1.6 Macintosh and the "1984" commercial 1.6.1 1985: Jobs leaves Apple2 1985-1997: Sculley, Spindler, Amelio o 2.1 Corporate performance o 2.2 Apple II family of the 1980s o 2.3 Mac family o 2.4 Early-mid 1990s o 2.5 1996: Return of Steve Jobs 2.5.1 CEO 2.5.2 Microsoft deal3 1998-2001: Apples renaissance o 3.1 iMac, iBook, and Power Mac G4 o 3.2 Mac OS X o 3.3 Retail stores o 3.4 iPod4 2002-Present: iTunes, iOS o 4.1 Intel transition o 4.2 Apple and "i" Web services o 4.3 iPod and iTunes store o 4.4 iOS evolution: iPhone and iPad o 4.5 Resurgence compared to Microsoft5 Financial history o 5.1 Stock6 Timeline of Apple products7 See also8 References
9 Further reading10 External links1969-1984: Jobs and WozniakPre-foundation This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2011)Garage of Steve Jobs parents on Crist Drive in Los Altos, CaliforniaSteve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had withdrawn from Reed College and UC Berkeley, respectively by1975. Wozniak designed a video terminal that he could use to log on to the minicomputers at CallComputer. Alex Kamradt commissioned the design and sold a small number of them through hisfirm. Aside from their interest in up-to-date technology, the impetus for "the two Steves" seems tohave had another source. In his essay From Satori to Silicon Valley (published 1986), culturalhistorian Theodore Roszak made the point that the Apple Computer emerged from within the WestCoast counterculture and the need to produce print-outs, letter labels, and databases. Roszak offersa bit of background on the development of the two Steves’ prototype models.In 1975, Wozniak started attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club. Newmicrocomputers such as the Altair 8800 and the IMSAIinspired him to build a microprocessor into hisvideo terminal and have a complete computer.At the time the only microcomputer CPUs generally available were the $179 Intel 8080, and the$170 Motorola 6800. Wozniak preferred the 6800, but both were out of his price range. So hewatched, and learned, and designed computers on paper, waiting for the day he could afford a CPU.When MOS Technology released its $20 6502 chip in 1976, Wozniak wrote a version of BASIC for it,then began to design a computer for it to run on. The 6502 was designed by the same people whodesigned the 6800, as many in Silicon Valley left employers to form their own companies. Wozniaksearlier 6800 paper-computer needed only minor changes to run on the new chip.
Wozniak completed the machine and took it to Homebrew Computer Club meetings to show it off. Atthe meeting, Wozniak met his old friend Jobs, who was interested in the commercial potential of thesmall hobby machines.The Apple I was sold as an assembled circuit board and lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. Theowner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case.The very first Apple Computer logo, drawn byRonald Wayne, depicts Isaac Newton under an apple tree.The Apple logo in 1977 created by Rob Janoff with the rainbow color theme used until 1998.
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had been friends for some time, having met in 1971, when theirmutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Jobs managed tointerest Wozniak in assembling a machine and selling it.Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who said they would be interested in themachine, but only if it came fully assembled. The owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he wouldorder 50 of the machines and pay US $500 each on delivery. Jobs then took the purchase orderthat he had been given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic partsdistributor, and ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer. The localcredit manager asked Jobs how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, "I have thispurchase order from the Byte Shop chain of computer stores for 50 of my computers and thepayment terms are COD. If you give me the parts on a net 30 day terms I can build and deliver thecomputers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you."With that, the credit manager called Paul Terrell who was attending an IEEE computer conference atAsilomar in Pacific Grove and verified the validity of the purchase order. Amazed at the tenacity ofJobs, Terrell assured the credit manager if the computers showed up in his stores Jobs would bepaid and would have more than enough money to pay for the parts order. The two Steves and theirsmall crew spent day and night building and testing the computers and delivered to Terrell on time topay his suppliers and have a tidy profit left over for their celebration and next order. Steve Jobs hadfound a way to finance his soon-to-be multimillion-dollar company without giving away one share ofstock or ownership.The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the display system,whereas many machines had no display at all. This was not like the displays of later machines,however; text was displayed at a terribly slow 60 characters per second. However, this was stillfaster than the teleprinters used on contemporary machines of that era. The Apple I alsoincluded bootstrap code on ROM, which made it easier to start up. Finally, at the insistence of PaulTerrell, Wozniak also designed a cassette interface for loading and saving programs, at the then-rapid pace of 1200 bit/s. Although the machine was fairly simple, it was nevertheless a masterpieceof design, using far fewer parts than anything in its class, and quickly earning Wozniak a reputationas a master designer.Joined by another friend, Ronald Wayne, the three started to build the machines. Using a variety ofmethods, including borrowing space from friends and family, selling various prized items(like calculators and a VW bus) and scrounging, Jobs managed to secure the parts needed whileWozniak and Wayne assembled them. But the owner of the Byte Shop was expecting complete
computers, not just printed circuit boards. The boards still being a product for the customers Terrellstill paid them. Eventually 200 of the Apple Is were built.Apple IIMain article: Apple II seriesWozniak had already moved on from the Apple I. Many of the design features of the I were due tothe limited amount of money they had to construct the prototype, but with the income from the saleshe was able to start construction of a greatly improved machine, the Apple II; it was presented to thepublic at the first West Coast Computer Faire on April 16 and April 17, 1977. On the first day ofexhibition, Jobs introduced Apple II to a Japanese chemist named Toshio Mizushima who becamethe first authorized Apple dealer in Japan.The main difference internally was a completely redesigned TV interface, which held the display inmemory. Now not only useful for simple text display, the Apple II included graphics, and, eventually,color. Jobs meanwhile pressed for a much improved case and keyboard, with the idea that themachine should be complete and ready to run out of the box. This was almost the case for the AppleI machines sold to The Byte Shop, but one still needed to plug various parts together and type in thecode to run BASIC.Building such a machine was going to be fiscally burdensome. Jobs started looking for cash, butWayne was somewhat gun shy due to a failed venture four years earlier, and eventually dropped outof the company. Banks were reluctant to lend Jobs money; the idea of a computer for ordinarypeople seemed absurd at the time. Jobs eventually met "Mike" Markkula who co-signed a bank loanfor US$250,000, and the three formed Apple Computer on April 1, 1976. The name Apple waschosen because the company to beat in the technology industry at the time was Atari, and AppleComputer came before Atari alphabetically and thus also in the phone book. Another reason wasthat Jobs had happy memories of working on an Oregon apple farm one summer.With both cash,and a new case design in hand thanks to designer Jerry Manock, the Apple II wasreleased in 1977 and became the computer generally credited with creating thehomecomputer market. Millions were sold well into the 1980s. A number of different models ofthe Apple II series were built, including the Apple IIe and Apple IIGS, which could still be found inmany schools as late as 2005.Apple IIIMain article: Apple III
Apple IIIBy the early 1980s, Apple Computer faced increasing competition. While the Apple II was alreadyestablished as a successful business-ready platform because of Visicalc, Apple was not content.The Apple III (Apple 3) was designed to take on the IBM PC in the business environment.The Apple III was a relatively conservative design for computers of the era. However, Steve Jobs didnot want the computer to have a fan; rather, he wanted the heat generated by the electronics to bedissipated through the chassis of the machine, forgoing the cooling fan.Unfortunately, the physical design of the case was not sufficient to cool the components inside it. Byremoving the fan from the design, the Apple III was prone to overheating. This caused the integratedcircuit chips to disconnect from the motherboard. Customers who contacted Apple customer servicewere told to "drop the computer on the desk", which would cause the ICs to fall back in to place.Thousands of Apple III computers were recalled and, although a new model was introduced in 1983to rectify the problems, the damage was already done.Apple IPOOn December 12, 1980, Apple launched the Initial Public Offering of its stock to the investing public.When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. Several venturecapitalists cashed out, reaping billions in long-term capital gains.In January 1981, Apple held its first shareholders meeting as a public company in the Flint Center, alarge auditorium at nearby De Anza College, which is often used for symphony concerts. (Previousmeetings were held quietly in smaller rooms, because there had only been a few shareholders.) Thebusiness of the meeting had been planned (or choreographed) so that the voting could be staged in15 minutes or less. In most cases, voting proxies are collected by mail and counted days or monthsbefore a meeting. In this case, after the IPO, many shares were in new hands.
Steve Jobs started his prepared speech, but after being interrupted by voting several times, hedropped his prepared speech and delivered a long, emotionally charged talk about betrayal, lack ofrespect, and related topics.Xerox PARC and the LisaMain article: Apple LisaLisaWhile Apple Computer’s business division was focused on the Apple III, a separate group wasfocused on a computer that would change the world. While the Apple III was anotheriteration of the text-based computer, this new machine would feature a completely different interfaceand introduce the words mouse, icon, and desktop into the lexicon of the computing public.In return for the right to buy US$1,000,000 of pre-IPO stock, Xerox granted Apple Computer threedays access to the PARC facilities. After visiting PARC, they came away with new ideas that wouldcomplete the foundation for Apple Computers first GUI computer, the Apple Lisa.The first iteration of Apples WIMP interface was a floppy disk where files could be spatially movedaround. After months of usability testing, Apple designed the LISA interface of windows and icons.The Lisa was introduced in 1983 at a cost of US$9,995. Because of the high price, Lisa failed topenetrate the business market.Macintosh and the "1984" commercialMain article: MacintoshThe Macintosh 128k was announced to the press in October 1983, followed by an 18-page brochureincluded with various magazines in December. Its debut, however, was announced by a singlenational broadcast of the now famous US$1.5 million television commercial, "1984". It was directed
by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and isnow considered a "watershed event" and a "masterpiece." 1984 used an unnamed heroine torepresent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by her white tank top with a Picasso-style pictureof Apple’s Macintosh computer on it) as a means of saving humanity from "conformity" (BigBrother). These images were an allusion to George Orwells noted novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four,which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised "Big Brother."For a special post-election edition of Newsweek in November 1984, Apple spent more than US$2.5million to buy all 39 of the advertising pages in the issue. Apple also ran a “Test Drive aMacintosh” promotion, in which potential buyers with a credit card could take home a Macintosh for24 hours and return it to a dealer afterwards. While 200,000 people participated, dealers disliked thepromotion, the supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many were returned in such abad shape that they could no longer be sold. This marketing campaign caused CEO John Sculley toraise the price from US$1,995 to US$2,495 (adjusting for inflation, about US$5,000 in 2007).Two days after the 1984 ad aired, the Macintosh went on sale. It came bundled with two applicationsdesigned to show off its interface: MacWrite and MacPaint. Although the Mac garnered animmediate, enthousiastic following, it was too radical for some, who labeled it a mere "toy". Becausethe machine was entirely designed around the GUI, existing text-mode and command-drivenapplications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten; this was a challengingundertaking that many software developers shied away from, and resulted in an initial lack ofsoftware for the new system. In April 1984 Microsofts MultiPlan migrated over from MS-DOS,followed by Microsoft Word in January 1985. In 1985, Lotus Software introduced Lotus Jazz afterthe success of Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop. Appleintroduced Macintosh Office the same year with the lemmings ad, infamous for insulting potentialcustomers. It was not successful.Macintosh also spawned the concept of Mac evangelism which was pioneered by Apple employee,and later Apple Fellow, Guy Kawasaki.Despite initial marketing difficulties, the Macintosh brand was eventually a success for Apple. Thiswas due to its introduction of desktop publishing (and later computer animation) through Applespartnership with Adobe Systems which introduced the laser printer and Adobe PageMaker. Indeed,the Macintosh would become known as the de-facto platform for many industries including cinema,music, advertising, publishing and the arts.1985: Jobs leaves AppleAfter an internal power struggle, the board of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was asked toresign. In a show of defiance at being booted from Apple Computer, Jobs sold his 6.5
million shares in the company for $70 million. Jobs then acquired the visual effects house, Pixar for$5M. He also went on to found NeXT Inc., a computer company that built machines with futuristicdesigns and ran the UNIX-derived NeXTstep operating system. NeXTSTEP would eventually bedeveloped into Mac OS X. While not a commercial success, due in part to its high price, the NeXTcomputer would introduce important concepts to the history of the personal computer (includingserving as the initial platform for Tim Berners-Lee as he was developing the World Wide Web).1985-1997: Sculley, Spindler, AmelioMacintosh SECorporate performanceSee also: List of mergers and acquisitions by AppleUnder leadership of John Sculley, Apple issued its first corporate stock dividend on May 11, 1987. Amonth later on June 16, Apple stock split for the first time in a 2:1 split. Apple kept a quarterlydividend with about 0.3% yield until November 21, 1995. Between March 1988 andJanuary 1989, Apple undertook five acquisitions, including software companies NetworkInnovations, Styleware,Nashoba Systems, and Coral Software, as well as satellitecommunications company Orion Network Systems.Apple II family of the 1980sSee also: Timeline of Apple II FamilyApple now had two separate, incompatible platforms: the Apple II, an affordable, expandable homecomputer, and the Apple Macintosh, the closed platform for professionals. John Gruber, among
others, has speculated that this platform incompatibility was the main reason the Macintosh did notshare the initial commercial success which was experienced by the Apple II in the late1970s. However, by the mid - 1980s, the Apple II was now competing with the IBM PC and itsclones, and a new energy was focused upon marketing the Macintosh.Thus, Apple continued to sell both lines promoting them to different market segments: the Macintoshto colleges, college students, andknowledge workers, and the Apple II to home users and publicschools. A few months after introducing the Mac, Apple released a compact version of the Apple IIcalled the Apple IIc. And in 1986 Apple introduced the Apple IIgs, an Apple II positioned assomething of a hybrid product with a mouse-driven, Mac-like operating environment. Apple IIcomputers remained an important part of Apples business until they were discontinued in the early1990s.Mac familySee also: Timeline of Macintosh modelsAt the same time, the Mac was becoming a product family of its own. The original model evolved intothe Mac Plus in 1986 and spawned the Mac SE and the Mac II in 1987 and theMac Classic and MacLC in 1990. Meanwhile, Apple attempted its first portable Macs: the failed Macintosh Portable in1989 and then the more popular PowerBook in 1991, a landmark product that established themodern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop. Popular products and increasing revenues madethis a good time for Apple. MacAddictmagazine has called 1989 to 1991 the "first golden age" of theMacintosh.On February 19, 1987, Apple registered the "Apple.com" domain name, making it one of the firsthundred companies to register a .com address on the nascent Internet.Early-mid 1990sIn the late 1980s, Apples fiercest technological rivals were the Amiga and Atari ST platforms. But bythe 1990 s, computers based on the IBM PC had become more popular than all three; they finallyhad a comparable GUI thanks to Windows 3.0, and were out-competing Apple.Apples response to the PC threat was a profusion of new Macintosh lines including Quadra, Centris,and Performa. Unfortunately, these new lines were marketed poorly by what was now "arguably oneof the worst-managed companies in the industry". For one, there were too many models,differentiated by very minor graduations in their tech specs. The excess of arbitrary model numbersconfused many consumers and hurt Apples reputation for simplicity. Apples retail resellerslike Sears and CompUSA often failed to sell or even competently display these Macs. Compoundingmatters was the fact that, although the machines were cheaper than a comparable PC (when taken
into account all the components built-in which had to be added to the bare bones PC), the poormarketing gave the impression that the machines were more expensive. Inventory grewas Apple consistently underestimated demand for popular models and overestimated demand forothers.In 1991, Apple partnered with long-time competitor IBM to form the AIM alliance. The ultimate goalwas to create a revolutionary new computing platform, known as PReP, which would use IBM andMotorola hardware and Apple software. As the first step toward the PReP platform, Apple startedthe Power Macintosh line in 1994, using IBMs PowerPCprocessor. These processors useda RISC architecture, which differed substantially from the Motorola 680X0 series that were used byall previous Macs. Parts of Apples operating system software were rewritten so that most softwarewritten for older Macs could run in emulation on the PowerPC series. Apple also refusedIBMs offer to purchase the company, but later unsuccessfully sought another offer from IBM, andat one point was "hours away" from an acquisition by Sun Microsystems.In addition to computers, Apple has also produced consumer devices. In 1993, Apple releasedthe Newton, an early personal digital assistant (PDA). It defined and launched the PDA category andwas a forerunner and inspiration of devices such as Palm Pilot and Pocket PC.During 1995, a decision was made to (officially) start licensing the Mac OS and Macintosh ROMs to3rd party manufacturers who started producing Macintosh “clones”. This was done in order toachieve deeper market penetration and extra revenue for the company. This decision lead to Applehaving over a 10% market share until 1997 when Steve Jobs was re-hired as interim CEO to replaceGil Amelio. Jobs promptly found a loophole in the licensing contracts Apple had with the clonemanufacturers and terminated the Macintosh OS licensing program ending the Macintosh clone era.The result of this action was that Macintosh computer market share quickly fell from 10% to around3%1996: Return of Steve JobsIn 1996, the struggling NeXT company beat out Be Inc.s BeOS in its bid to sell its operating systemto Apple. Apple purchased Steve Jobs company, NeXT on December 10, 1996, and its NeXTstepoperating system. This would not only bring Steve Jobs back to Apples management, but NeXTtechnology would become the foundation of the Mac OS Xoperating system.On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, an online retail store based uponthe WebObjects application server the company had acquired in its purchase of NeXT. The newdirect sales outlet was also tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy.CEO
On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted as CEO of Apple by the board of directors after turning thecompany around from a multibillion loss to a $25 million dollar profit.Jobs stepped in asthe interim CEO to begin a critical restructuring of the companys product line. He would eventuallybecome CEO and served in that position until August 2011. On August 24, 2011 Steve Jobsresigned his position as Chief Executive Officer of Apple before his long battle with pancreaticcancer took his life on October 5th 2011.Microsoft dealAt the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would be entering into partnershipwith Microsoft. Included in this was a five-year commitment from Microsoft to releaseMicrosoftOffice for Macintosh as well a US$150 million investment in Apple. It was also announcedthat Internet Explorer would be shipped as the default browser on the Macintosh. Microsoftchairman Bill Gates appeared at the expo on-screen, further explaining Microsofts plans for thesoftware they were developing for Mac, and stating that he was very excited to be helping Applereturn to success. After this, Steve Jobs said this to the audience at the expo:If we want to move forward and see Apple healthy and prospering again, we have to let go of a fewthings here. We have to let go of this notion that for Apple to win, Microsoft has to lose. We have toembrace a notion that for Apple to win, Apple has to do a really good job. And if others are going tohelp us thats great, because we need all the help we can get, and if we screw up and we dont do agood job, its not somebody elses fault, its our fault. So I think that is a very important perspective. Ifwe want Microsoft Office on the Mac, we better treat the company that puts it out with a little bit ofgratitude; we like their software. called microsoft office today. So, the era of setting this up as acompetition between Apple and Microsoft is over as far as Im concerned. This is about getting Applehealthy, this is about Apple being able to make incredibly great contributions to the industry and toget healthy and prosper again.1998-2001: Apples renaissance
The original iMaciMac, iBook, and Power Mac G4While discontinuing Apples licensing of its operating system to third-party computer manufacturers,one of Jobss first moves as new acting CEO was to develop the iMac, which bought Apple time torestructure. The original iMac integrated a CRT display and CPU into a streamlined, translucentplastic body. The line became a sales smash, moving about one million units each year. It alsohelped re-introduce Apple to the media and public, and announced the companys new emphasis onthe design and aesthetics of its products.More recent products include the iBook, the Power Mac G4, and the AirPort product series, whichhelped popularize the use of Wireless LAN technology to connect computers to networks.In 1999, Apple introduced the Power Mac G4, which utilized the Motorola-made PowerPC 7400containing a 128-bit instruction unit known as AltiVec, its flagship processor line. Also that year,Apple unveiled the iBook, its first consumer-oriented laptop that was also the first Macintosh tosupport the use of Wireless LAN via the optional AirPort card that was based on the 802.11bstandard.Mac OS XMain article: Mac OS X
Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in CupertinoIn 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X, an operating system based on NeXTs NeXTstep andincorporating parts of the FreeBSD kernel.Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS Xmarried the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of a completely overhauled userinterface. To aid users in transitioning their applications from Mac OS 9, the new operating systemallowed the use of Mac OS 9 applications through the Classic environment. Apples Carbon API alsoallowed developers to adapt their Mac OS 9 software to use Mac OS Xs features.Retail storesMain article: Apple StoreIn May 2001, after much speculation, Apple announced the opening of a line of Apple retail stores, tobe located throughout the major U.S. computer buying markets. The stores were designed for twoprimary purposes: to stem the tide of Apples declining share of the computer market, as well as aresponse to poor marketing of Apple products at third-party retail outlets.iPodMain article: iPodIn October 2001, Apple introduced its first iPod portable digital audio player. The iPod started as a 5gigabyte player capable of storing around 1000 songs. Since then it has evolved into an array ofproducts including the Mini (now discontinued), the iPod Touch, the Shuffle, the iPod Classic,the Nano, the iPhone and the iPad. As of March 2011, the largest storage capacity for an iPod was160 gigabytes.2002-Present: iTunes, iOSIn early 2002, Apple unveiled a redesigned iMac, using the G4 processor. The new design had ahemispherical base and a flat panel all-digital display supported by a swiveling neck. This model wasdiscontinued in the summer of 2004.
In 2002, Apple also released the Xserve 1U rack mounted server. Originally featuring two G4 chips,the Xserve was unusual for Apple in two ways. It represented an earnest effort to enter theenterprise computer market and it was also relatively cheaper than similar machines released by itscompetitors. This was due, in no small part, to Apples use of Fast ATA drives as opposed to theSCSI hard drives used in traditional rack-mounted servers. Apple later released the Xserve RAID, a14 drive RAID which was, again, cheaper than competing systems.In mid-2003, Steve Jobs launched the Power Mac G5, based on IBMs G5 processor. Apple claimsthis was the first 64-bit computer sold to the general public, but in fact that title actually goes tothe AMD Opteron line (Opteron processors were however marketed more directly to the enterprisefor use in rackmount servers and in workstations). Both 64-bit CPUs were pre-dated by the 64-bit Alpha architecture, although the Alpha was aimed more at servers and workstations and not atthe "general public." The Power Mac G5 was also used by Virginia Tech to build itsprototype System X supercomputing cluster, which at the time garnered the prestigious recognitionof the third fastest supercomputer in the world. It cost only US$5.2 million to build, far less than theprevious #3 and other ranking supercomputers. Apples Xserves were soon updated to use the G5as well. They replaced the Power Mac G5 machines as the main building block of VirginiaTechs System X, which was ranked in November 2004 as the worlds seventhfastest supercomputer.A new iMac based on the G5 processor was unveiled August 31, 2004 and was made available inmid-September. This model dispensed with the base altogether, placing the CPU and the rest of thecomputing hardware behind the flat-panel screen, which is suspended from a streamlined aluminiumfoot. This new iMac, dubbed the iMac G5, was the worlds thinnest desktop computer, measuring inat around two inches (around 5 centimeters).2004, however, was a turning point for Apple. After creating a sizable financial base to work with, thecompany began experimenting with new parts from new suppliers. As a result Apple was able toproduce new designs so quickly over a short amount of time, with the release of the iPod Video, thenthe iPod Classic, and eventually the iPod touch and iPhone. Each Apple product thus far has beenunder equally high demand.Through the 1990s, personal computers based on Microsofts Windows operating system began togain a much larger percentage of new computer users than Apple. As a result, Apple fell fromcontrolling 20% of the total personal computer market to 5% by the end of the decade. The companywas struggling financially under then-CEO Gil Amelio when on August 6, 1997 Microsoft bought aUS$150 million non-voting share of the company as a result of a court settlement with Apple.Perhaps more significantly, Microsoft simultaneously announced its continued support for Mac
versions of its office suite, Microsoft Office, and soon created a Macintosh Business Unit. Thisreversed the earlier trend within Microsoft that resulted in poor Mac versions of their software andhas resulted in several award-winning releases. However, Apples market share continued todecline, reaching 3% by 2004.Initially, the Apple Stores were only opened in the United States, but in late 2003, Apple opened itsfirst Apple Store abroad, in Tokyos Ginza district. Ginza was followed by a store inOsaka, Japan inAugust 2004. In 2005, Apple opened stores in Nagoya, the Shibuya district of Tokyo, Fukuoka,and Sendai. Another store was opened in Sapporo in 2006. Apples first European store openedin London in November 2004, and is currently the largest store. A store in the Bullring shoppingcentre in Birmingham opened in April 2005, and theBluewater shopping centrein Dartford, Kent opened in July 2005. Apple opened its first store in Canada in the middle of 2005 atthe Yorkdale Shopping Centre in North York,Toronto. Later on in 2005 Apple openedthe Meadowhall Store in Sheffield and the Trafford Centre Store in Manchester (UK). Recentadditions in the London area include the Brent Cross Apple Store (January 2006) and the AppleStore in Westfield in Shepherds Bush (September 2008).Also, in an effort to court a broader market, Apple opened several "mini" stores in October 2004 inattempt to capture markets where demand does not necessarily dictate a full scale store. The first ofthese stores was opened at Stanford Shopping Center in Palo Alto, California. These stores follow inthe footsteps of the successful Apple products: iPod mini and Mac mini. These stores are only onehalf the square footage of the smallest "normal" store and thus can be placed in several smallermarkets.On April 29, 2005, Apple released Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger" to the general public.Apples wildly successful PowerBook and iBook products relied on Apples previous generation G4architecture which were produced by Freescale Semiconductor, a spin off from Motorola. Engineersat IBM had minimal success in making their PowerPC G5 processor consume less power and runcooler but not enough to run in iBook or PowerBook formats. As of the week of October 24, 2005.Apple released the Power Mac G5 Dual that features a Dual-Core processor. This processorcontains two cores in one rather than have two separate processors. Apple has also developed thePower Mac G5 Quad that uses two of the Dual-Core processors for enhanced workstation powerand performance. The new Power Mac G5 Dual cores run individually at 2.0 GHz or 2.3 GHz. ThePower Mac G5 Quad cores run individually at 2.5 GHz and all variations have a graphics processorthat has 256-bit memory bandwidth.Intel transitionMain article: Apple–Intel transition
This articles factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (January 2009)In a keynote address on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs officially announced that Apple will beginproducing Intel-based Macintosh computers beginning in 2006. Jobs confirmedrumors that thecompany had secretly been producing versions of its current operating system Mac OS X for bothPowerPC and Intel processors over the past 5 years, and that the transition to Intel processorsystems would last until the end of 2007. Rumors of cross-platform compatibility had been spurredby the fact that Mac OS X is based on OpenStep, an operating system that was available for manyplatforms. In fact, Apples own Darwin, the open source underpinnings of Mac OS X, was alsoavailable for Intels x86 architecture.On January 10, 2006, the first Intel-based machines, the iMac and MacBook Pro, wereintroduced. They were based on the Intel Core Duo platform. This introduction came with thenews that Apple would complete the transition to Intel processors on all hardware by the end of2006, a year ahead of the originally quoted schedule.In January 2007, Apple Computer, Inc. shortened its name to simply Apple Inc. In his keynoteaddress, Jobs explained that with their current product mix consisting of the iPod and Apple TV aswell as their Macintosh brand, Apple really wasnt just a computer company anymore. At the sameaddress, Jobs revealed a product that would revolutionize an industry in which Apple had neverpreviously competed: the Apple iPhone. The iPhone combined Apples first widescreen iPod with theworlds first mobile device boasting visual voicemail, and an internet communicator able to run a fullyfunctional version of Apples web browser, Safari, on the then-named iPhone OS.Apple and "i" Web servicesIn 2000, Apple introduced its iTools service, a set of free web-based tools that included an emailaccount, internet greeting cards called iCards, a service called iReview that gave internet users aplace to read and write reviews of Web sites, and a tool called KidSafe which promised to preventchildren from browsing inappropriate portions of the web. The latter two services were eventuallycanceled because of lack of success, while iCards and email became integrated intoApples .Mac subscription based service introduced in 2002 and discontinued in mid-2008 to makeway for the release of the new MobileMe service, coinciding with the iPhone 3G release. MobileMe,which carried the same US$99.00 annual subscription price as its .Mac predecessor, featured theaddition of "push" services to instantly and automatically send emails, contacts and calendarupdates directly to users iPhone devices. Some controversy surrounded the release of MobileMeservices to users resulting in expected downtime and a significantly longer release window. As a
result of this, Apple extended the subscriptions existing MobileMe subscribers by an additional 30days free-of-charge. At the WWDC event in June of 2011, Apple announced its most up to datecloud service, iCloud, replacing MobileMe. This service kept most of the core services that MobileMeoffered, however dropping iDisk, Gallery, and iWeb. Additionally, it added a number of other featuresto the group, including Find my Mac, iTunes Match, Photo Stream, Documents & Data Backup, andiCloud backup for iOS devices. The service requires users to be running iOS 5 and OS X 10.7 Lion.iPod and iTunes storeMain articles: iPod and iTunes StoreA 2nd generation iPod
iPod mini with the user interface set to GermanOn October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod, a portable digital music player. Its signaturefeatures included an LED, easy to use interface, and a large capacity drive (initially 5 GB) which wasenough to hold approximately 1,000 songs. It was quite large when compared to the 20-30 songsof Flash-based players of the time. Apple has since revised its iPod line several times, introducing aslimmer, more compact design, Windows compatibility (previous iPods only interacted withMacintosh computers), AAC compatibility, storage sizes of up to 160 GB, and easier connectivitywith car or home stereo systems. On October 26, 2004, Apple released a color version of theiraward winning iPod which can not only play music but also show photos. In early 2005, Appleunveiled a smaller iPod : theiPod Shuffle, which is about the size of a pack of gum. Speaking tosoftware developers on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs said the companys share of the entire portablemusic device market stood at 76%.Apple has revolutionized the computer and music industry by signing the five major recordcompanies to join its new music download service, the successful iTunes Music Store, now knownas iTunes Store. Unlike other fee-based music services, the iTunes Store charges a flat US$0.99 persong (or US$9.99 per album). Users have more flexibility than on previous on-line music services.For example, they can burn CDs including the purchased songs (although a particular playlist
containing purchased music may only be burned seven times), share and play the songs on up tofive computers, and, of course, download songs onto an iPod.The iTunes Music Store commercial model is one-time purchase, which contrasts with othercommercial subscription music services where users are required to pay a regular fee to be able toaccess musical content (but are able to access a larger volume of music during the subscription).The iTunes Music Store was launched in 2003 with 2 million downloads in only 16 days; all of whichwere purchased only on Macintosh computers. Apple has since released a versionof iTunes for Windows, allowing Windows users the ability to access the store as well. Initially, themusic store was only available in the United States due to licensing restrictions, but there were plansto release the store to many other countries in the future.In January 2004 Apple released a more compact version of their iPod player, the 4 GB iPod Mini.Although the Mini held fewer songs than the other iPod models at that time, its smaller size andmultiple colours made it popular with consumers on debut with many stores having "sold out" theirinitial inventories of the devices.In June 2004 Apple opened their iTunes Music Store in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.A European Union version opened October 2004 (actually, a Eurozone version; not initially availablein the Republic of Ireland due to the intransigence of the Irish Recorded Music Association (IRMA)but eventually opened Thursday January 6, 2005.) A version for Canada opened in December 2004.On May 10, 2005, the iTunes Music Store was expanded to Denmark, Norway, Sweden,and Switzerland.On December 16, 2004, Apple sold its 200 millionth song on the iTunes Music Store to RyanAlekman from Belchertown, Massachusetts. The download was The Complete U2, by U2. Justunder three months later Apple sold its 300 millionth song on March 2, 2005. On July 17, 2005,the iTunes Music Store sold its 500 millionth song. At that point, songs were selling at anaccelerating annualized rate of more than 500 million.On January 11, 2005, an even smaller version of the iPod was announced, this one based on flashmemory instead of using a miniaturized hard drive. The iPod Shuffle, like its predecessors, provedso popular that it sold out almost immediately, causing delays of up to four weeks in obtaining onewithin a single week of its debut. This is despite the fact that critics had gawked at thelack of LCD screen in the Shuffle, a norm in almost all current flash memory based mp3 players.The iPod is giving an enormous lift to Apples financial results. In the quarter ending March 26,2005, Apple earned US$290 million, or 34¢ a share, on sales of US$3.24 billion. The year before inthe same quarter, Apple earned just US$46 million, or 6¢ a share, on revenue of US$1.91 billion.
In July 2005, the iPod was given a color screen, merging the iPod and iPod Photo.On September 7, 2005, Apple replaced the iPod Mini line with the new iPod Nano. While someconsumers were put off by the high price tag (US$199 for 2 GB), and easily scratchable surface, theNano had sold 1 million units in the first 17 days.A month later, on October 12, 2005 Apple introduced the new 5th generation iPod with videoplayback abilities. The device is also 40% thinner than a 4th generation iPod and has a largerscreen.On October 25, 2005, the iTunes Store went live in Australia, with songs selling for A$1.69 each,albums at (generally) A$16.99 and music videos and Pixar short films at A$3.39. Briefly, peoplein New Zealand were able to buy music off the Australian store. However, that loophole was quicklyclosed.On February 23, 2006, the iTunes Music Store sold its 1 billionth song.The iTunes Music Store changed its name to iTunes Store on September 12, 2006 when it beganoffering video content (TV shows and movies) for sale. Since iTunes inception it has sold over 2billion songs, 1.2 billion of which were sold in 2006. Since downloadable TV and movie content wasadded 50 million TV episodes and 1.3 million movies have been downloaded.In early 2010, Apple celebrated the 10 billionth song downloaded from the iTunes Music Store.iOS evolution: iPhone and iPadMain articles: iOS, iPhone, and iPadFirst announced on January 9, 2007, Apple introduced the first version of the iPhone being publiclyavailable on June 29 that same year in selected countries/markets. It was another 12 months beforethe iPhone 3G became available on July 11, 2008. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8,2009, along with plans to release it later in June, July, and August, starting with the U.S., Canadaand major European countries on June 19. This 12-month iteration cycle has continued with theiPhone 4 model arriving in similar fashion in 2010, A Verizon model was released in February 2011,and a Sprint model in October 2011, shortly after Jobs death.The Macs that are available as of February 2011 are the iMac, Mac Pro, MacBook, MacBook Pro,MacBook Air, and Mac mini. The latest version of Mac OS X is Lion (10.7). On February 10, 2011,the iPhone 4 was made available on both Verizon Wireless and AT&T. Now two iPod types aremulti-touch: the iPod nano and the iPod touch, a big advance in technology. Apple TV currently hasa 2nd generation model, which is 4 times smaller than the original Apple TV. Apple has also gone
wireless, selling a wireless trackpad, keyboard, mouse, and external hard drive. Wired accessoriesare, however, still available.The Apple iPad was announced on January 27, 2010 with retail availability commencing in April andsystematically growing in markets throughout 2010. The iPad fits into Apple iOS product line, beingtwice the screen size of an iPhone without the phone abilities. While there were initial fears ofproduct cannibalisation the FY2010 financial results released in Jan 2011 included commentary of areverse halo effect, where iPad sales were leading to increased sales of iMacs andMacBooks. On March 2, 2011, Apple unveiled the iPads second generation model, the iPad 2.Like the 4th generation iPod Touch and iPhone, the iPad 2 comes with a front-facing camera as wellas a rear-facing camera, along with three new apps that utilize these new features: Camera,FaceTime, and Photobooth (only on iPad2).Resurgence compared to MicrosoftSince 2005, Apples revenues, profits, and stock price have grown significantly. On May 26, 2010Apples stock market value overtook Microsofts, and Apples revenues surpassed those ofMicrosoft in the third quarter of 2010. After giving their results for the first quarter of 2011Microsofts net profits of $5.2 billion were lower for the quarter than those of Apple Inc., which earned$6 billion in net profit for the quarter. The late April announcement of profits by the twocompanies marks the first time in twenty years that Microsofts profits have been lower thanApples., and according to Arstechnica "this would have been unimaginable 10 years before."The Guardian reported that one of the reasons for the change is because PC software, whereMicrosoft dominates, has become less important compared to the tablet PC and smartphonemarkets, where Apple has a strong presence. One reason for this was a surprise drop in PC salesin the quarter. Another issue for Microsoft is that their online search business has lost a lot ofmoney, with a loss of $700 million in the first quarter of 2010. Although Microsofts online divisionlosses were high, even if they had made no loss Apples profits would have been slightly higher.Financial historyAs cash reserves increased significantly in 2006, Apple created Braeburn Capital on April 6, 2006 tomanage its assets.Financial period Net sales (Mil USD) Net profits (Mil USD) Revenue growth Return on net salesFY 1981 335 unknown --- ---
FY 1997 7,081 -1,045 -28% -15%FY 1998 5,941 309 -16% 5%FY 1999 6,134 601 3% 10%FY 2000 7,983 786 30% 10%FY 2001 5,363 -25 -33% 0%FY 2002 5,247 65 -2% 1%FY 2003 6,207 57 18% 1%FY 2004 8,279 266 33% 3%FY 2005 13,931 1,328 68% 10%FY 2006 19,315 1,989 39% 10%FY 2007 24,578 3,495 27% 14%FY 2008 37,491 6,119 53% 16%FY 2009 42,905 8,235 14% 19%FY 2010 65,225 14,013 52% 21%StockAAPL is the stock symbol under which Apple Inc. trades on the NASDAQ stock market. Appleoriginally went public on December 12, 1980, with an initial public offering at US$22.00 per share.
The stock has split 2 for 1 three different times on June 15, 1987, June 21, 2000 and February 28,2005. Apple initially paid dividends from June 15, 1987 to December 15, 1995. On March 19, 2012,Apple announced that it would again start paying a dividend of $2.65 per quarter (beginning in thequarter that starts in July 2012) along a $10 billion share buyback which would commenceSeptember 30, 2012, the start of its fiscal 2013 year.Gene Munster and Michael Olson of Piper Jaffray are the main analysts who track Apple stock.Piper Jaffray estimate future stock and revenue of Apple annually, and have been doing so forseveral years.Timeline of Apple productsSee also: Timeline of Apple Inc. products, Timeline of Apple II family, and Timeline of Macintoshmodels Products on this timeline indicate introduction dates only and not necessarily discontinued dates, as new products begin on a contiguous product line. This timeline may not be accurate.
See also Apple Industrial Design Group Apple media events History of computing hardware (1960s–present) History of personal computers Pirates of Silicon Valley - 1999 docudrama about the rise of Apple Computer and Microsoft Triumph of the Nerds - 1996 documentary about the rise of the personal computer.References 1. ^ "Revised Quarterly Balance Sheet Information" . Apple Inc.. January 25, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010. 2. ^ Young, Jeffrey; William L. Simon (2005). iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 35. ISBN 978-0471720836. 3. ^ iWoz, Steve Wozniak, ISBN=978-0-7553-1408-9, page 189 4. ^ Young, Jeffrey; William L. Simon (2005). iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 36. ISBN 978-0471720836. 5. ^ Linzmayer, Owen. Apple Confidential. 6. ^ Steve Wozniak interview with Founders at Work: Stories of Startups Early Days 7. ^ Rich Neighbor with Open Doors – Apple and Xerox PARC 8. ^ Apple Lore: The creation of the Macintosh 9. ^ The Xerox PARC Visit 10. ^ How Xerox Forfeited the PC War 11. ^ "Apple Macintosh 18 Page Brochure" . DigiBarn Computer Museum. Retrieved 2006-04-24. 12. ^ Apples 1984: The Introduction of the Macintosh in the Cultural History of Personal Computers 13. ^ Apples 1984 Super Bowl commercial still stands as watershed event
14. ^ Leopold, Todd (February 3, 2006). "Why 2006 isnt like 1984" . CNN. Retrieved 2008-05-10.15. ^ Cellini, Adelia (January 2004). "The Story Behind Apples 1984 TV commercial: Big Brother at 20" . MacWorld 21.1, page 18. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-05-09.16. ^ "1984 Newsweek Macintosh ads" . GUIdebook, Newsweek. Retrieved 2006-04-24. a b17. ^ Hormby, Thomas (2006-10-02). "Apples Worst Business Decisions" . OS News. Retrieved 2007-12-24.18. ^ "Inflation Calculator" . Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2007-12- 18.19. ^ Polsson, Ken. "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers" . Retrieved 2007-11-18.20. ^ Dvorak, John (2006-11-26). "Whatever Happened to Lotus Jazz?" . Dvorak Uncensored. Retrieved 2007-01-21.21. ^ "Tim Berners-Lee: client" . W3.org. Retrieved July 27, 2009.22. ^http://www.alacrastore.com/storecontent/Thomson_M&A/Apple_Compu ter_Inc_acquires_Network_Innovations_Corp-2177802023. ^http://www.alacrastore.com/storecontent/Thomson_M&A/Claris_Corp_ Apple_Computer_acquires_Styleware_Inc-2540502024. ^http://www.alacrastore.com/storecontent/Thomson_M&A/Claris_Corp_ Apple_Computer_acquires_Nashoba_Systems_Inc-10200502025. ^http://www.alacrastore.com/storecontent/Thomson_M&A/Apple_Compu ter_Inc_acquires_Coral_Software_Corp-11026002026. ^http://www.alacrastore.com/storecontent/Thomson_M&A/Apple_Compu ter_Inc_acquires_Orion_Network_Systems_Inc-2411102027. ^ Gruber, John (August 7, 2004). "The Art of the Parlay, Or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying About Platform Licensing and Market Share" . Daring Fireball.28. ^ First dot com .com ever in the world. symbolics.com cmu.edu purdue.edu rice.edu ucla.edu think.com css.gov mitre.org a b c29. ^ Alsop, Stewart (1996-02-05). "Apple of Suns Eye" . Time. Retrieved 2011-02-23.
30. ^ Markoff, John (1997-09-01). "An Unknown Co-Founder Leaves After 20 Years of Glory and Turmoil" . The New York Times. Retrieved 2011- 02-04.31. ^ Preimesberger, Chris (2011-02-25). "How Apple Dodged a Sun Buyout: Former CEOs McNealy, Zander Tell All" . eWeek. Retrieved February 27, 2011.32. ^ Harreld, Heather. "Apple gains tech, agency customers in Next deal" , Federal Computer Week, January 5, 1997. Retrieved August 15, 2008.33. ^ "Apple unveils new marketing strategy. | Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service (November, 1997)" . Retrieved August 15, 200834. ^ Primack, Doug. "Fallen Apple: Steve Jobs resigns" . CNN. Retrieved August 24, 2011.35. ^ "Macworld 1997: The Microsoft Deal" . Google Video. February 7, [dead link] 1997. Retrieved 2007-01-04.36. ^ Amit Singh. "What is Mac OS X?" . kernelthread.com. Retrieved 2007- 11-23.37. ^ Apple, Inc.. "iPod Classic" . apple.com. Retrieved 2010-11-23.38. ^ "TOP500 List for November 2004" . top500.org. Retrieved 2006-05-04.39. ^ Gibson, Brad (September 1, 2004). "Apple Expo - Apple Exec: No G5 Laptop "Anytime Soon"" . macobserver.com. Retrieved May 4, 2006.40. ^ "Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006" (Press release). Apple Inc.. June 6, 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-04.41. ^ "Apple shakes hands with Intel" . CNET. CBS Interactive. June 6, 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-04.42. ^ "Apple confirms switch to Intel" . AppleInsider. June 6, 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-04.43. ^ Markoff, John; Lohr, Steve (June 6, 2005). "Apple Plans to Switch From I.B.M. to Intel Chips" . The New York Times. Retrieved 2006-05- 04.44. ^ "Apple Unveils New iMac with Intel Core Duo Processor" (Press release). Apple Inc.. 2006-01-10. Retrieved 2006-09-06.45. ^ "Apple Introduces MacBook Pro" (Press release). Apple Inc.. 2006-01- 10. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
46. ^ Apple Sends Apology Letter, 30-Day Extension to MobileMe Customers47. ^ "iTunes Music Store Downloads Top 200 Million Songs" (Press release). Apple Inc.. December 16, 2004. Retrieved 2006-05-04.48. ^ "iTunes Music Store Downloads Surpass 300 Million" (Press release). Apple Inc.. March 2, 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-04.49. ^ "Apple Reports Second Quarter Results" (Press release). Apple Inc.. April 13, 2005. Retrieved 2006-05-04.50. ^ "iTunes Music Store Downloads Top One Billion Songs" (Press release). Apple Inc.. February 23, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-04.51. ^ "iTunes celebrates 10 billion songs downloaded." . apple.com. Retrieved 7 March 2010.52. ^ "Apple Reports First Quarter Results" . Apple Inc.. January 18, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011.53. ^ Helft, Miguel; Vance, Ashlee (May 26, 2010). "Apple Passes Microsoft as No. 1 in Tech" . New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2011.54. ^ Sutherland, Ed (October 29, 2010). "Apple Tops Microsoft Revenue in Third Quarter" . Cult of Mac. Retrieved May 2, 2011. a b c55. ^ "Microsoft beats estimates, but not Apple in third quarter earnings" .Arstechnica. April 28, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. a b c d e56. ^ Arthur, Charles (April 28, 2011). "Microsoft falls behind Apple for first time in 20 years" . London: The Guardian. Retrieved April 29, 2011.57. ^ Kopytoff, Verne G. (April 28, 2011). "PC Sales Off, Games Buoy Microsoft" . New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2011.58. ^ "The Final Shoe Drops: Apple Now More Profitable Than Microsoft Too" . Tech Crunch. April 28, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2011.59. ^ Hesseldahl, Arik (2006-04-05). "Apple Takes Its Bankroll to Reno" . BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2006-09-06.60. ^ "Apple Reports Fourth Quarter Results" . Apple Inc.. 2010-10-18. Retrieved 2011-01-22.61. ^ "Apple Investor Relations" . Apple. December 12, 1979. Retrieved 2010-10-23.62. ^ "Analyst: Apple Likely To Outperform Competition For Years" . MacMinute. January 13, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-04.
Further reading Gruman, Galen; Jim Heid (Feb 1994). "Macintosh Innovation". MacWorld: 86–98. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Apple Inc. Apple-History.com Apple Computer History Weblog Apple Computer quotes and history on Google Finance Transcripts of Apple Computers Quarterly Conference Calls Apple History Timeline Welcome to Macintosh - 2008 documentary film about Apple history and innovation. 25 Years of Mac: From Boxy Beige to Silver Sleek - 2008 Wired on the 25th anniversary of the Macintosh.www.colby.com Microsft own Apple Inc. [hide] V T E Apple Inc. History Steve Jobs Founders Steve Wozniak Ronald Wayne Board of directors Bill Campbell
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