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Us constitution -_all_articles

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  2. 2. We the People of the United States, in Order to form a within three Years after the first Me more perfect Union, establish Justice, eting of the Congress insure domestic of the United States, and within ever Tranquility, provide for the commo y subsequent Term of n defence, promote ten Years, in such Manner as they the general Welfare, and secure the shall by Law direct. The Blessings of Liberty to Number of Representatives shall not ourselves and our Posterity, do ord exceed one for every ain and establish this thirty Thousand, but each State Constitution for the United State shall have at Least one s of America. Representative; and until such enu meration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode- Island and Providence I Plantations one, Connecticut five, Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Dela New-York six, New ware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolin a five, South Carolina five, SECTION. 1. and Georgia three. All legislative Powers herein granted When vacancies happen in tise Rep shall be vested in a resentation from any Congress of the United States, whic State, the Executive Authority ther h shall consist of a Sen eof shall issue Writs of ate and House of Representatives. Election to fill such Vacancies. SECTION. 2. The House of Representatives shall ehuse their Speaker and other Officers; and The House of Representatives shall shall have the sole be composed of Mem Power of Impeachment. bers chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State SECTION. 3. shall have the Qualifi cations requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch The Senate of the United States of the State Legislature. shall be composed of two Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature there No Person shall be a Representative 4 of,] for six Years; and each Senator who shall not have shall have one Vote. attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Immediately after they shall be assem Years a Citizen of the United State bled in Consequence s, and who shall not, of the first Election, they shall be when elected, be an Inhabitant of divided as equally as may that State in which he be into three Classes. The Seats shall be chosen. of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expi ration of the second Year, [Representatives and direct Taxes of the second Class at the Expiratio shall be apportioned n of the fourth Year, and among the several States which may of the third Class at the Expiratio be included within n of the sixth Year, so that this Union, according to their respe one third may be chosen every seco ctive Numbers, which nd Year; [and if Vacanshall be determined by adding to cies happen by Resignation, or othe the whole Number of rwise, during the Recessfree Persons, including those bou of the Legislature of any State, nd ro Service for a Term the Executive thereof mayof Years, and excluding Indians not make temporary Appointments taxed, three fifths of until the next Meeting ofall other Persons.] The actual Enu 4 the Legislature, which shall then meration shall be made fill such Vacancies.] 4CONSTITUTION OF TIlE UNITED STATES
  3. 3. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained Each House shall keep a Journal of to the Age of thirty Years, and been its Proceedings, and nine Years a Citizen of from time to time publish the same the United States, and who shall not, , excepting such Parts when elected, be an as may in their Judgment require Inhabitant of that State for which he Secrecy; and the Yeas shall be chosen. and Nays of the Members of either The Vice President of the United State House on any question s shall be shall, at the Desire of one fifth of thos President of the Senate, hut shall have e Present, be entered no Vote, unless on the Journal. they be equally divided. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, with The Senate shall chute their other Offic out the Consent of the other, adjo ers, and also a urn for more than three President pro tempore, in the Absence days, nor to any other Place than that of the Vice in which the two President, or when he shall exercise Houses shall be sitting. the Office of President of the United States. The Senate shall have the sole Power SECTION. 6. to try all Impeach ments. When sitting for that Purpose, The Senators and Representatives shall they shall be on receive a Compen Oath or Affirmation. When the Pres sation for their Services, to be ascertain ident of the United ed by Law, and paid States is tried, the Chief Justice shall out of the Treasury of the United State preside: And no s. They shall in all Person shall be convicted withou the Cases, except Treason, Felony and t Concurrence of two Breach 0 the Peace, be f thirds of the Members present. privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Ses Judgment in Cases of Impeachment sion of their respective Houses, and shall not extend in going to and return further than to removal from Office, ing from the same; and for any Spee and disqualification to ch or Debate in either hold and enjoy any Office of honor, House, they shall not be questioned Trust or Profit under in any other Place. the United States: hut the Party conv No Senator or Representative shall, icted shall nevettheless during the Time for be liable and subject to Indictment, which he was elected, be appointed Trial, Judgment and to any civil Office Punishment, according to Law. under the Authority of the United State s, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments wher SECTION. 4. eof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any The Times, Places and Manner of hold Office under the United States, shall ing Elections for be a Member of either Senators and Representatives, shall House during his Continuance in Offic be prescribed in each e. State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be [on the first Monday in December,]* unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. SECTION. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Mem bers, and a Majorityof each shall Constitute a Quorum to do Business; but asmaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may beauthorized to compel the Attendan ce of absent Members,in such Manner, and under such Pena lties as each Housemay provide.Each House may determine the Rule s of its Proceedings,punish its Members for disorderly Beha viour, and, with theConcurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.CONSTITUTION OF TilE UNITED STATES
  4. 4. SECTION. 7. SECTION. 8. All Bills for raising Revenue shall origi nate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may prop Thc Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, ose or concur with Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay Amendments as on other Bills. the Debts and provide for the common Defence and gene ral ‘Q’elfarc of the United Every Bill which shall have passed the States; but all Duties, Imposts anti Exci House of Represen ses shall be uniform tatives and the Senate, shall, before it throughout the United States; become a Law, be presented to the President of the Unit ed States; If he ap To borrow Money on the credit of the prove he shall sign it, but if not he shall United States; return it, with his Objections to that House in which it To regulate Commerce with foreign shall have originated, Nations, and among who shall enter the Objections at large the several States, and with the Indian on their Journal, Tribes; and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration To establish an uniform Rule of Natu two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall ralization, and uni form Laws on the subject of Bankruptc be sent, together with the Objections, ies throughout the to the other House, United States; by which it shall likewise be reconsidered , and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall beco To coin Money, regulate the Value me a Law. But in thereof, and of foreign all such Cases the Votes of both Houses Coin, and fix the Standard of Weig shall be determined hts and Measures; by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for To provide for the Punishment of coun and against the Bill shall be entered on terfeiting the Securi the Journal of each ties and current Coin of the United House respectively, If any Bill shall not States; be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays exce To establish Post Offices and post Road pted) after it shall s; have been presented to him, the Sam To promote the Progress of Science and e shall be a Law, in useful Arts, by like Manner as if he had signed it, unle securing for limited Times to Authors ss the Congress by and Inventors the their Adjournament prevent its Return, exclusive Right to their respective Writ in which Case it ings and Discoveries; shall not be a Law. To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to whic To define and punish Piracies and Felo h the Concur nies committed on rence of the Senate and House of Repr the high Seas, and Offenses against the esentatives maybe Law of Nations; necessary (except on a question of Adjo urnment) shall be To declare War, grant Letters of Marq presented to the President of the Unit ue and Reprisal, and ed States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be appr make Rules concerning Captures on oved by him, or be Land and Water; ing disapproved by him, shall be repa To raise and support Armies, but no ssed by two thirds of Appropriation of the Senate and House of Representativ Money to that Use shall be for a long es, according to the er Term than two Rules and Limitations prescribed Years; in the Case of a Bill. To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; To provide for calling forth the Mili tia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the Unit ed States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Mili tia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;CONSTITUTION OF TUE UNITED STATES
  5. 5. To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases what soever, SECTION. 10. over such District (not exceeding ten Mile squa s re) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acce No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, ptance or Confedera of Congress, become the Seat of the Governm tion; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; ent of the coin Money; United States, and to exercise like Authority over emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold all Places and silver purchased by the Consent of the Legislatu Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any re of the State in Bill of At which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Fort tainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing s, Maga the Obligatio n zines, Arsenals, dock-Yards and of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility. other needful Buildings; -And No State shall, without the Consent of the Con gress, lay To make all Laws which shall be necessary and any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Expo proper for rts, except what carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, may be absolutely necessary for executing and all other it’s inspection Powers vested by this Constitution in the Gov Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and ernment of Imposts, laid the United States, or in any Department or by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be Officer thereof. for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such SECTION. 9. Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress. The Migration or Importation of such Persons No State shall, without the Consent of Congress as any of the , lay any States now existing shall think proper to adm Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War it, shall not be in time of prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact one thousand with another eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War be imposed , unless on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars actually invaded, or in such imminent Dang for each er as will not Person. admit of delay. The Privilege of the Writ 0 Habeas Corpus shall f not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. [No Capitarion, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration here in before directed to be taken.J* No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles expo rted from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regulatio n of Com merce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from , one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in anot her.No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury , but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law ; and a regularStatement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures ofall public Money shall be published from time to time.No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States:And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust underthem, shall, without the Consent of the Con gress, acceptof any present, Emolurnent, Office, or Title , of any kindwhatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.CONSTITUTION Ot Ti-IS UNITED STATES 4-
  6. 6. Ii SECTION. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the The Congress may determine the l’iine United States of America. He shall hold of chusing the his Office during Electors, and the Day on which they shall the Term 0 four Years, and, together with f give their Votes; the Vice Presi which Day shall he the same throughou dent, chosen fot the same Term, be elect t the United States. ed, as follows: No Person except a natural born Citizen, Each State shall appoint, in such Manner or a Citizen as the Legislature of the United States, at the time of the thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, Adoption 0 this f equal to the Constitution, shall be eligible to the Offic whole Number of Senators and Represen e of President; tatives to which neither shall any person be eligible to the State may be entitled in the Congress that Office who shall : but no Senator or not have attained to Representative, or Person holding an Offic the Age of thirty five Years, and been e of Trust or Prof fourteen Years a Resident within the Unit it under the United States, shall be appo ed States. inted an Elector. [In Case of the Removal of the President IThe Electors shall meet in their respective State from Office, or of s, and vote his Death, Resignation, or Inability to disch by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at arge the Powers least shall not and Duties of the said Office, the Same bean Inhabitant of the same State with shall devolve on the themselves. And Vice President, and the Congress may they shall make a List of all the Persons vote by Law provide for d for, and 0f the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation the Number of Votes for each; which List or Inability, both they shall sign of the President and Vice President, decla and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat ring what Officer of the Govern shall then act as President, and such Offic ment of the United States, directed to the er shall act ac President of the cordingly, until the Disability be removed, Senate. The President of the Senate shall, or a President in the Presence shall be electecl.]* of the Senate and House of Representativ es, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be The President shall, at stated Times, recei counted. The ve for his Services, Person having the greatest Number of Vote a Compensation, which shall neither be s shall be the increased nor President, if such Number be a Majority diminished during the Period for whic of the whole h he shall have been Number 0 Electors appointed; and if there f elected, and he shall not receive within be more than that Period any one who have such Majority, and have an other Emolument from the United State equal Number of s, or any of them. Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately Before he enter on the Execution of his chuse by Ballot one of them for Presiden Office, he shall t; and if no Person take the following Oath or Affirmation:- have a Majority, then from the five high “I do solemnly est on the List swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully the said House shall in like Manner chus execute the Office of e the President. President of the United States, and will But in chusing the President, the Votes to the best of my shall be talcen by Ability, preserve, protect and defend the States, the Representation from each State Constitution of having one Vote; the United States.” A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Cho ice. In every Case, after the Choice 0 the President, the f Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Elec tors shall be the VicePresident. But if there should remain two or more whohave equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.]*CONSTITUTION 01’ TUE UNITED STATES
  7. 7. SECTION. 2. SECTION. 3. The President shall be Commander irs Chief of the Army He shall from time so time give to and Navy of the United States, and she Congress Informa of the Militia of the tion of the State of the Union, and reco several States, when called into the actua mmend to their l Service of the Consideration such Measures as he United States; he may require the Opin shall judge neces ion, in writing, of sary and expedient; he may, on extra the principal Officer in each of the exec ordinary Occasions, utive Departments, convene both Houses, or either of them upon any Subject relating to the Duties , and in Case of of their respective Disagreement between them, with Resp Offices, and he shall have Power to ect to the Time of grant Reprieves and Adjournment, he may adjourn them Pardons for Offenses against the United to such Time as he States, except in shall think proper; he shall receive Amb Cases of Impeachment. assadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faith He shall have Power, by and with the fully executed, and shall Commission Advice and Consent all the Officers of the of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided United States. two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nom inate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the SECTION. 4. Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges The President, Vice President and all of the supreme Court, and all other civil Officers of the Officers of the United United States, shall be removed from States, whose Appointments are not Office on Impeach herein otherwise ment for, and Conviction of, Treason, provided for, and which shall be establishe Bribery, or other d by Law: but high Crimes and Misdemeanors. the Congress may by Law vest the App ointment of such in ferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expi re at the End of their next Session.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
  8. 8. ‘Ii SECTION. 1. SECTION. 3. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested Treason against the United States, shall consist only in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the in levy ing War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. giv The ing them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted Judges, both 0 the supreme and inferior Courts, shall f hold of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall at stated to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment Office. of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corr up SECTION. 2. tion of]3lood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law Person attainrcd. and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassa - dors, other public Ministers and Consuls; to all Cases - f 0 admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; to Controversies - to which the United States shall be a Party; to Controversies - between two or more Stares; [between a Srate and Citizen - s of another State;]* between Citizens of different States, - between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, [and between a State, or the Citi zens thereof;- and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.j* In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Con gress shall make. The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment ; shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directe d.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITE D STATES 7
  9. 9. /dlC IY SECTION. 1. The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Con public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every stitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures oth of two er State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for pro the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings posing Amendments, which in either Case, shall be valid to shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the severa l SECTION. 2. States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges one or the other Mode of Ratification may he proposed by and Immunities of Citizens in the several States. the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found eight shall in any Mariner affect the first and fourth in Clauses another State, shall on Demand of the executive Auth in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and tlsat iso State, or without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrag ity of the Stare from which he fled, be delivered e up, to be in the Senate. removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. [No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Conse quence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.]’ SECI’ION. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States con cerned as well as of the Congress.The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make allneedful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territo ry orother Property belonging to the United States; and nothingin this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejud iceany Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.SECTION. 4.The United States shall guarantee to every State in thisUnion a Republican Form of Government, and shallprotect each of them against Invasion; and on Applic ationof the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legisla turecannot be convened) against domestic Violence.CONSTITUTION OF TilE UNITED STATES
  10. 10. All Debts contracted and Engagements enter ed into, before The Ratification of the Conventions of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall nine States, shall be as valid against be sufficient for the Establishment of this the United States under this Constitution, Constitution as under the between the States so ratifying the Sam Confederation. e. Done in Convention by the Unanimous This Constitution, and the Laws of the Unit Consenr of the ed States States present the Seventeenth Day of which shall be made in Pursuance there September in the of; and all Treaties Year of our Lord one thousand seven made, or which shall be made, under the hundred and Eighty Authority of the seven and of the Independence of the Unit United States, shall be the supreme Law ed States of of the Land; and America the Twelfth In Witness whereof the Judges in every State shall be bound We have hereunto thereby, any Thing subscribed our Names, in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. Go. Washington--Presidt: The Senators and Representatives before and deputy from Virginia mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatu NEW HAMPSHIRE res, and all execu tive and judicial Officers, both of the Unit ed States and of John Langdon the several States, shall he hound by Oath or Affirmation, Nicholas Gilman to support this Constitution; hut no relig ious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Offic MASSACHUSETTS e or public Trust under the United States. Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King CONNECTICUT Wm. Saml. Johnson Roger Sherman NEW YORK Alexander Hamilton NEW JERSEY Wil: Livingston David Brearley Wm. Paterson Jona: Dayton PENNSYLVANIA B Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robt Morris Ceo. Clymer Thos. FitzSimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouv MorrisCONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES -9
  11. 11. DELAWARE In Convention Monday Geo: Read September 17th, 1787. Gunning Bedford un Present John Dickinson The States of Richard Bassett New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Mr. Ham- . -‘ Jaco: Broom ilton from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and . MARYLAND Georgia. James McHenry Resolved, Dan of St. Thos. Jenifer That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the Unired Dais! Carroll States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion VIRGINIA of this Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of Delegates, chosen in each State by the John Blair- People thereof, under the Recommendation of its Legisla James Madison Jr. ture, for their Assent and Ratification; and that each Con- NORTH CAROLINA vention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. Wm. Blount Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that Richd. Dobbs Spaight as soon as the Conventions of nine States shall have ratified Hu Williamson this Constitution, the United States in Congress assembled SOUTH CAROLINA should fix a Day on which Electors should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, and a Day on J. Rutledge which the Electors should assemble to vote for the Presi Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney dent, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this Constitution. Pierce Butler GEORGIA That after such Publication the Electors should be ap pointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That William Few the Electors should meet on the Day fixed for the Election Abr Baldwin of the President, and should transmit their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the Constitution requires, to Attest William Jackson Secretary the Secretary of the United States in Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene at the Time and Place assigned; that the Senators should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole Purpose of receiving, opening and counting the Votes for President; and, that after he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, without Delay, proceed to execute this Constitution. By the unanimous Order of the Convention Go. Washington-Presidt: W. JACKSON Secretary. * Language in brackets has been changed by amendment.CONSTITUTION OF TuE UNITED STATES Jo
  12. 12. THE AMENDMENTS TO THE CONS TITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES AS RATIFIED BY THE STATES e9 JFJ6i 1 B Congress shall make no law respecting an estab religion, or prohibiting the free exercise there lishment of of; or abridg ing the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to BEGUN AND HELD AT THE Cny OF NEW-YORK, ON petition the WEDNESDAY THE FOURTH OF Government for a redress of grievances. MARCH, ONE THOUSAND SEVEN HUND RED AND EIGHTY NINE THE Conventions of a number of the States, havi _Ii ng at A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the the time of their adopting the Constitution, expr security of essed a free State, the right of the a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abus people to keep and bear Arms, e shall riot be infringed. of its powers, that further declaratory and restr ictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best 6_lIZ ensure the beneficent ends of its institution. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, RESOLVED by the Senate and House of nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by Representatives of the United States of Ame law. rica, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Hou concurring, that the following Articles be ses dde 6IT4 proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendme The right of the people to be secure in their nts persons, hous to the Constitution of the United States, all, or es, papers, and effects, against unreasonable any of searches and which Articles, when ratified by three fourt seizures, shall nor be violated, and no “arra hs of the said nrs shall issue, Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purp but upon probable cause, supported by Oath oses, as or affirma part of the said Constitu tion, and particularly describing the place to tion; viz. be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatu proposed res of the V several States, pursuant to the fifth Article No person shall be held to answer for a capit of the al, or othersvise original Constitution. infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service(Note: Thefirst 10 amendments to the constituti in time of on were War or public danger; nor shall any persoratified December 15, 1791, andform what n he subject for is known as the same offence to he twice put in jeopardythe “Bill ofRights.’) of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall priva te property be taken for public use, without just compens ation.CONSTITUTION OF Ti-it UNITED STATES ii
  13. 13. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804. right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been (Note: A portion ofArticle Ii, Section 1 ofthe constitution was committed, which district shall have been previously changed by the 12th Amendment.) ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining wit at least, shall not he an inhabitant of the same state with nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for his defence. for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of e all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, In suits at common law, where the value in controversy which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be to the seat of the government of the United States, directed preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall he otherwise re to the President 0 the Senate;-the President 0 the Senate f f examined in any Court of the United States, than according shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Represen to the rules of the common law. tatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;-The person having the greatest number of votes JZ for President, shall be the President, if such number be a Excessive bail shall nor be required, nor excessive fines majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall Ix choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choos The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, ing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained representation from each state having one vote; a quorum by the pCOie. for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall éX be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representa tives shall not choose a President whenever the right ofThe powers nor delegated to the United States by the Con choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day ofstitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to March next following, then the Vice-President shall act asthe States respectively, or to the people. President, as in ease of the death or other constitutional disability of the President._]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-PresiAMENDMENTS 11-27 dent, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purposePassed by Congress Match 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795. shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to(Note: A portion ofArticle III, Section 2 ofthe Constitution wasmodified by the 11” Amendment.) a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-PresidentThe Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed of the United extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or pros *Superseded by Section 3 of the 20th Amendment.ecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of anotherState, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
  14. 14. -49 &9 e SECTION 2. Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 6, 1865. States according to their respective numbers, counting the (Note: A portion ofArticle IV Section 2 ofthe constitution whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indian s was changed by the 13th Amendment.) not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of SECTION 1. the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Execu tive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabit punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been ants of such State, [being twenty-one years 0 age,) duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any f 4 and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridg place subject to their jurisdiction. ed, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the propor SECTION 2. tion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in appropriate legislation. such State. SECTION 3. 6XIY Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Con gress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold (Note: Article I, Section 2 ofthe Constitution was modifi any office, civil or military, under the United States, or ed by Section 2 ofthe 14th Amendment.) under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, SECTION 1. or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution All persons born or naturalized in the United States and of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges of each House, remove such disability. or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, SECTION 4. without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The validity of the public debt of the United States, au thorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurre c tion or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or eman cipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. SECTION 5. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appr opri ate legislation, the provisions of this article. “Changed by Section 1 of the 26th Amendment.CONSTITUTION 01’ TIlE UNITE D STATES Jj
  15. 15. zi T C9 t t V. 9 &9 Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870. Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratifie d January 16, 1919. Repealed by the 21”Amcndmenr, December SECTION 1. 5, 1933. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall SECTION 1. not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on After one year from the ratification of this article account of race, color, or previous condition of servitu the de. manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the export SECTION 2. ation thereof from the United States and all territory subjec t to The Congress shall have the power to enforce this the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby article by appropriate legislation. prohibited. xi SECTION 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concur Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February rent 3, 1913. power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. (Note: Article I Section 9 ofthe Constitution was modifi ed by the 16” Amendment.) SECTION 3. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been on incomes, from whatever source derived, without appo ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the rtion legisla ment among the several States, and without regard to tures of the several States, as provided in the Consti any tution, census or enumeration. within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. X il Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913. X/X (Note: Article I, Section 3 ofthe Constitution was ;nodfie Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, d by 1920. the 17th Ameudmeni.) The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall nor The Senate of the United States shall be composed of be denied or abridged by the United States or by any two State Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof on account of sex. , for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by electors appro in each State shall have the qualifications requisite priate legislation. for elec tors of the inosr numerous branch of the State legisla tures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shallissue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, Thatthe legislature of any State may empower the execut ivethereof to make temporary appointments until the peoplefill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect theelection or term of any Senator chosen before it becom esvalid as part of the Constitution.CONSTITUTION OF TIlE UNITE D STATES ii-
  16. 16. /1 TZ TZ zL .rn en Zlzi el) (,- ./k _/L -- SECTION 4. Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death 1933. (Note: Article I, Section 4 ofthe constitution was modifi of any 0 the persons from whom the House of Repres f ed enta by Section 2 ofthis Amendment. In addition, a portion ofthe tives may choose a President whenever the right of choice 12th Amendment was superseded by Section 3.) shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of rhe death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may SECTION 1. choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end have devolved upon them. at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Sena tors and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of Januar SECTION 5. y, of the years in which such terms would have ended 1 this f Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of Octo article had not been ratified; and the terms of their succes ber following the ratification of this article. sors shall then begin. SECTION 2. SECTION 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of Januar leg y, islatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven unless they shall by law appoint a different day. years from the date of its submission. SECTION 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Rarified December Presi- 5, dent elect shall become President. If a President shall not 1)3. have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify SECTION 1. , then the Vice President elect shall act as President until The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may of the United States is hereby repealed. by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect not a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall SECTION 2. then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act The transportation or importation into any State, Territo shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly ry, until or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein a President or Vice President shall have qualified. of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof , is hereby prohibited. SECTION 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conven tions in the several States, as provided in the Consti tution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.CONSTITUTION OF Ti-iC UNITE D STATES 15