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  1. 1. Motivation and Gender in the Taiwanese EFL Classroom Advisor: Dr. Pi-Ying Hsu Presenter: Ying-Jhen Lin January 13, 2014 1
  2. 2. Content s Introduction Background Statement of the Problem Purpose Research Gap Research Questions Significance Literature Review Methodology 2
  3. 3. Introductio n Background ‘social psychological model’ that he emphasized cognitive factors such as language aptitudes and intelligence also affective factors such as attitudes and motivation. (Lambert, 1963) 3
  4. 4. Introductio n Background The study showed the results that there is a direct relationship between language learner’s amount and quality of communication, their self-confidence, motivation and achievement. (Clément & Kruidenier’s, 1983) 4
  5. 5. Introductio n Background The researchers mentioned that student’s motivation and achievement influenced by self-efficacy beliefs. (DuBois & Cooper, 2004) The study shows a positive correlation between motivation and achievement. (Mordell & Stoltzfus , 2001) 5
  6. 6. Introductio n Statement of the Problem Previous studies showed the relationship amount motivation, attitude and achievement, and also showed the importance of these factors towards language learning. However, we don’t understand fully how we can motivate language learners’ learning motivation and attitude. 6
  7. 7. Introductio n Purpose The purpose of the study investigate language learners’ motivation and attitude whether or not influence their achievement, and figure out the relationship amount learning motivation, attitudes and achievement. 7
  8. 8. Introductio n Research Gap Previous studies had different viewpoints about motivation, some researchers emphasized integrative motivation was important than instrumental, some were opposite, so the researcher try to verify it. 8
  9. 9. Introductio n Research Questions Q1 • How well do language learners’ motivation, attitudes, predict their language achievement? Q2 • Is there any difference between male and female learners in their motivation and attitudes to learn English? 9
  10. 10. Introductio n Significance If the researcher could understand and explain learner’s motivation and their attitudes towards language learning, then not only a contribution to the field, but also could give the right direction to the language learners, they could focus on the main points to improve themselves. 10
  11. 11. Content s Introduction Literature Review Motivation Attitude Gender Achievement Methodology 11
  12. 12. Literature Review Motivation Second language motivation as “referring to the extent to which an individual works or strives to learn the language because of desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity” (Gardner, 1985) 12
  13. 13. Literature Review Motivation Integrative a desire to learn the target language and an attitude toward the learning situation, and the target language community. Instrument is characterized by a desire to gain social recognition or economic advantages through knowing a second language. Ex: to get a good job Ex: to develop better skills (Gardner, 1982) (Gardner & Lambert, 1972) 13
  14. 14. Literature Review Motivation Gardner and Lambert that integrative motivation was viewed more importance in a learning environment than instrumental motivation . (Ellies, 1997) 14
  15. 15. Literature Review Motivation an instrumental motivation was more important than an integrative motivation in non-westernized female learners of second language in Bombay. (Lukmani, 1972) 15
  16. 16. Literature Review Attitude The researchers stated that attitude is approved as an important concept to understand human behavior and is defined as a mental state that includes beliefs and feelings (Latchanna & Dagnew, 2009) 17
  17. 17. Literature Review Attitude Positive it is taking decision of acceptance or reaction that agrees the attitude we met or it is the attitude that reveals the advantages of the subject to take up its value. (Hogg & Vaughan, 2005) Negative is the attitude that reveals the disadvantages of the subject to dismiss it and to weaken its strong attitude. (Hogg & Vaughan, 2005) 18
  18. 18. Literature Review Gender Fourth grade girls were more motivated to learn foreign languages than fourth grade boys. The results showed a significant effect for gender and grade on one factor (Carreira, 2006) 19
  19. 19. Literature Review Achievement Achievement goal theory posits that the purposes that students hold for interesting in a specific academic task are an important precedent to their achievement-related processes and outcomes. (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1990) 20
  20. 20. Content s Introduction Literature Review Methodology Participants Instruments Procedures Statistical Analysis Questionnaire 21
  21. 21. Methodology Participants All English major students from freshman to sophomore Chaoyang University of Technology Taichung city 22
  22. 22. Methodology Instruments MSLQ AMTB • Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire • Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (Feiz, P, Hooman, H.A & Kooshki, sh, 2013) (Gardner, 2005) 23
  23. 23. Methodology Instruments MSLQ adapted from Feiz, P, Hooman, H.A & Kooshki, sh. (2013) 81 items, 7 Likert-scale Cronbach’s Alphq=.958, p< .05 31 Questions 24
  24. 24. Methodology Instruments-MSLQ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at all true of me 1. In a class like this, I prefer course material that really challenges me so I can learn new things. 2. If I study in appropriate ways, then I will be able to learn the material in this course. 3. When I take a test I think about how poorly I am doing compared with other students. Very true of me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25
  25. 25. Methodology Instruments AMTB adapted from Gardner (2005) 116 items, 6 Likert-scale Cronbach’s Alpha=.87, p< .05 12 Questions 26
  26. 26. Methodology Instruments-AMTB 1. My motivation to learn English in order to communicate with English speaking people is: WEAK ___1:___2:___3:___4:___5:___6:___7 STRONG 2. My attitude toward English speaking people is: UNFAVOURABLE___1:___2:___3:___4:___5:___6:___7FAVOURABLE 27
  27. 27. Methodology Procedures 2014 Data collection Feb 30 participants Pilot Study March Conducting the study April Data analysis May Jun Proposal Defense 28
  28. 28. Methodology Statistical Analysis Q1 How well do language learners’ motivation, attitudes, predict their language achievement? Pearson correlation 29
  29. 29. Methodology Statistical Analysis Q2 Is there any difference between male and female learners in their motivation and attitudes to learn English? T-test 30
  30. 30. Methodology Questionnaire 31
  31. 31. Thank you for listening 32