Emotional behavioral Disorder


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Emotional behavioral Disorder

  1. 1. PSYCHONEUROLOGICAL THEORY <ul><li>Biological factors of emotional & behavior disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into three categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired Theory </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Congenital Theory <ul><li>Prenatal and perinatal event. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic disorders, exposure to toxins, & inflection. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to explain schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Example : Smoking during pregnancy or expose to metal caused baby with ADHD </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biochemical Theory <ul><li>Biochemistry effects the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Feingold Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Benjamin F. Feingold(1899~1982) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment on children with ADHD and autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates three groups of synthetic food additives and one class of synthetic sweeteners: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic colors (FD&C and D&C colors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic flavors (several thousand different chemicals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic preservatives (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial sweeteners (Aspartame, Neotame, and Alitame) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Acquired Theory <ul><li>Physical damage especially on brain increase the risk of developing ADHD, depression, conduct disorder. </li></ul>
  5. 5. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY <ul><li>The systematized study and theory of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation and the functional significance of emotion. (Stedman’s Medical Dictionary 28th Edition,2006 ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frued’s (1856 ~ 1939) Theory <ul><li>Frued studied on </li></ul><ul><li>psychoanalytic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Two important theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id, ego & superego </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five Psychosexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stages </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Id, Ego & Superego
  8. 8. Id, Ego & Superego <ul><li>ID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek for immediate satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on self-pleasured principle, not considerate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed started from oral stage or birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play important role in fullfill basic need of new born child </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Id, Ego & Superego (Cont.) <ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed from ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started to develop during anal stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that ID need can be express in an acceptable way in real world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on reality principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy personality results in a well balance between ID & Superego. (good ego strength). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Id, Ego & Superego (Cont.) <ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started to develop at the end of phallic stage (at the age of 5~6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on idealistic standards, aims for perfection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All about moral values, guidelines, right or wrong, standard… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Frued’s Psychosexual Stage <ul><li>5 stages in his theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral stage (Birth ~ 1yr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal stage (1 ~ 3 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic stage (3 ~ 6 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency stage (6 ~ 11 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital stage ( adolescence) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Frued’s Psychosexual Stage (Cont.) <ul><li>Oral stage (birth ~ 1 yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on oral pleasure (sucking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much or too little gratification can results in oral fixation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior : smoking, drinking alcohol, bite nails, over eat, dependent, pessimism </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Frued’s Psychosexual Stage (Cont.) <ul><li>Anal stage ( 1 ~ 3 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure focusing on eliminating and retaining feces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to society’s pressure, children have to learn controlling anal stimulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal fixation behavior : messy & disorganized (anal expulsive); obsession in cleanliness, perfection & control (anal retentive) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Frued’s Psychosexual Stage (Cont.) <ul><li>Phallic stage (3 ~ 6 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure in genital stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic fixation behavior : Oedipus complex (male), Electra complex (female) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Frued’s Psychosexual Stage (Cont.) <ul><li>Latency stage (6 ~ 11 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual urges is in depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like to play with same sex peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genital stage (adolescence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still sexual urges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows interesting to opposite sex peers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Erikson (1902 ~ 1992) Psychosocial Theory <ul><li>Epigenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Frued’s Psychosexual Stages but added 4 adult stages </li></ul><ul><li>Included influence of social and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Have eight stages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic trust vs Mistrust (Birth ~ 1 yr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1 ~ 3 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative vs Guilt (3 ~ 6 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry vs inferiority diffusion (6 ~ 11 yrs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity vs Identity Confusion (adolescence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs Isolation (young adult) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity vs Stagnation (middle adulthood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego Integrity vs Despair (old age) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Erikson Psychosocial Theory (Cont.) <ul><li>Basic trust vs Mistrust (birth ~ 1 yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important role play by caregivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful results in confident, feels secured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure results in anxiety, heighteness insecurities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1 ~ 3 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn self-control and independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego start to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative results such as guilty and dependent if being criticized, over controlled. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Erikson Psychosocial Theory (Cont.) <ul><li>Initiative vs Guilt (3 ~ 6 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambition and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to assert their power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learns about their sexual being. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of superego and adopts characteristic or values from same-sex parent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industry vs Inferiority Diffusion (6 ~ 11 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested in rules and routines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to coorperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers play important roles </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Erikson Psychosocial Theory (Cont.) <ul><li>Identity vs Identity Confusion (adolescence) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual interest reappear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a sense of self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerning about how others view them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs Isolation (young adult) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish intimate relationship with others </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Erikson Psychosocial Theory (Cont.) <ul><li>Generativity vs Stagnation (middle adulthood) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on career and family, build our lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be productive and contribute to society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ego Integrity vs Despair (old age) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflecting back on their life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life wasted or integrity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Behavioral Theory <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Physiologist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John B. Watson ( first Behaviorist) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>B.F. Skinner pioneered </li></ul><ul><li>operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>4 consequeces : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punishment </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Championed by Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Blends of social interaction and </li></ul><ul><li>operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Learned by watching </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural expectation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ecology System Theory <ul><li>Urie Bronfenbrenner one of pioneered </li></ul><ul><li>The Microsystem </li></ul><ul><li>The Mesosystem </li></ul><ul><li>The Exosystem </li></ul><ul><li>The Marcrosystem </li></ul><ul><li>The Chronosystem </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Developed by Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li> (1896 –1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that development </li></ul><ul><li>precedes learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Schema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organizational structure of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge which we use it to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>categorize things. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when children gain new knowledge and incorporate into existing schema. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A process where children change their schema. </li></ul></ul></ul>Cognitive Theory (Con’t)
  27. 27. Cognitive Theory (Con’t) <ul><li>4 stages of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor stage (Birth- 2 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses senses and motor skills to gain knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object permanent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoperational stage (2-7 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic and linguistic learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to conserve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to classify object </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Cognitive Theory (Con’t) <ul><ul><li>Concrete operational stage (7-11 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More logical in thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schema are limited to concrete objects or events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand conservation and reversibility problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to classify concrete object </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal operational stage (11-adolescent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to think logically to abstract issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making assumption without having any real evidence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Sociological Theories <ul><li>Developed by Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>(1896-1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>precedes development; </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness and cognition </li></ul><ul><li>are the end product of </li></ul><ul><li>socialization and social </li></ul><ul><li>behavior. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>He states: </li></ul><ul><li> “ Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (inter psychological) and then inside the child (intra psychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978). </li></ul>Sociological Theories(con’t)
  31. 31. <ul><li>More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning occurred in this zone. </li></ul></ul></ul>Sociological Theories(con’t)
  32. 32. Moral Development <ul><li>Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Development Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Giligan’s Theory of Moral Development </li></ul>
  33. 33. Moral Development (con’t) <ul><li>Piaget’s Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 2 stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heteronomous morality (5-10 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules are unchangeable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on amount of damage done, not on accidental or intentional purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous morality (9-12 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentions and outcomes of the acts are taken into consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules can be revised depend on circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 3 stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre conventional Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment and Obedience Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental Relativist Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good Boy-Good Girl Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Order Maintaining Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post conventional Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Contract Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Ethical Principal Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul>Moral Development (con’t)
  35. 35. <ul><li>Heinz dilemma: Heinz Steals the Drug In Europe . </li></ul><ul><li>A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist refused to do so. So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife. </li></ul>Moral Development (con’t)
  36. 36. <ul><li>Should Heinz have broken into the laboratory to steal the drug for his wife? </li></ul><ul><li> Why or why not? </li></ul>Moral Development (con’t)
  37. 37. <ul><li>Carol Giligan’s Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that men’s morality is </li></ul><ul><li>based on rules and justice and </li></ul><ul><li>women are more on caring and </li></ul><ul><li>relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>3 sequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation toward self-interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goodness as self sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality of nonviolence </li></ul></ul>Moral Development (con’t)
  38. 38. Dynamic system perspective