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Behavior, part 1


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Slides for discussion of The Living World, 7th edition chapter 37, adapted from a compilation by Amy.

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Behavior, part 1

  1. 1. Behavior
  2. 2. What organisms do
  3. 3. 39.1-8, 10-1237.1-8, 10-12
  4. 4. Behavior is shapedby evolution,like physical traits
  5. 5. Behavior is alsoflexible enoughto change withthe environment
  6. 6. Behavior iswidespread
  7. 7. Proximate Cause
  8. 8. Genetic orphysiologicalmechanismfor a behavior
  9. 9. Ultimate Cause
  10. 10. Evolutionary, adaptivecause for a behavior
  11. 11. Human tasteand food choice
  12. 12. Proximate causesWhat regulates hunger cravings?
  13. 13. Ghrelin
  14. 14. a hormone that stimulates hungerproduced by cells in the stomachand pancreas
  15. 15. Ghrelin levelincreases before mealsand decreases after meals Time of day
  16. 16. Dopamine Pleasure
  17. 17. Ultimate causes:Why did we evolve to like certain foods?
  18. 18. Amount of Sodium in Diet Late Paleolithic Contemporary AmericanSodium (mg) 700 2300-6900
  19. 19. Proximate causeHormones trigger pleasure in our brainwhen eating certain foodsUltimate causeHumans evolved to prefer salty foodin a low sodium environment
  20. 20. Nature vs Nurture
  21. 21. Nature:- Instinctive/Innate Behaviors- Behavioral Genetics
  22. 22. Fixed Action Patternfixed response to a stimulus
  23. 23. KonradLorenz
  24. 24. Stimulus:egg outsideof nestFixed ActionPattern:roll into nest
  25. 25. Stimulus:egg objectoutside ofnestFixed ActionPattern:roll into nest
  26. 26. Most behavioris not fixed, butcan still have agenetic basis
  27. 27. fosB gene controlsmaternal care in mice Mutant fosB allelle Normal fosB allele
  28. 28. 38
  29. 29. Twin Studies
  30. 30. Studies of identical twins show strangebehavioral coincidences:“Springer and Lewis found they had eachmarried and divorced a woman named Lindaand remarried a Betty. They shared interestsin mechanical drawing and carpentry; theirfavorite school subject had been math, theirleast favorite, spelling. They both had sonswhom one named James Alan and the othernamed James Allan. And they both owneddogs which they named Toy.” University of Minnesota twin study, Bouchard et al
  31. 31. Studies of identical twins show strangebehavioral coincidences:“Oskar was brought up Catholic in Germanyand joined the Hitler Youth. Jack was raised aJew and lived for a time in Israel. Yet they hadsimilar speech and thought patterns, similargaits, a taste for spicy foods and commonpeculiarities such as flushing the toilet beforethey used it.”
  32. 32. MAOA “warrior” gene
  33. 33. MonoamineOxidase A
  34. 34. Enzyme breaks down neurotransmittersin the brain (including adrenaline)People with an allele for low MAOA activitytend to respond more aggressively when provoked
  35. 35. Nurture:Learning
  36. 36. Learning:from simple to complex
  37. 37. Habituationrepeated stimuliproduce weaker responses
  38. 38. Sensitizationrepeated stimuliproduce stronger responses
  39. 39. Classical Conditioning
  40. 40. associating behaviorwith a new stimuli
  41. 41. Operant Conditioning
  42. 42. Associating behaviorwith a reward or punishment
  43. 43. Imprinting
  44. 44. Filial Imprinting:offspring form innate social attachments
  45. 45. Cognition
  46. 46. Can non-human animals think?
  47. 47. NaturevsNurture
  48. 48. Naturevs andNurture
  49. 49. White-crownedsparrow (WCS)
  50. 50. In lab experiments,newly hatched WCS maleswere played: • Normal song • No song • Wrong song Song sparrow songPeter Marler’s research
  51. 51. In lab experiments,newly hatched WCS maleswere played:• Normal song: sang correct song• No song: sang poorly developed version of WCS song• Wrong song: sang poorly developed version of WCS song
  52. 52. MAOA “warrior” genePeople with low MAOA activitywho experienced a traumatic event as a childwere more likely to exhibit antisocial, violentbehavior as adultsPeople with low MAOA activitywho did not experience a traumatic eventwere not any more likely to be violent thancontrol groups